NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 29 Major Social Problems Of India, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Major Social Problems Of India

Chapter: 29



Choose correct one from following: 

(i) As per 2001 preliminary census report,literacy rate in our country is:

(a) 62%.

(b) 64%.

(c) 66%.

(d) 65%.

Ans. (d) 65%.

(ii) Female literacy rate in our country as per 2001 census report, is:

(a) 50%.

(b) 52%.

(c) 56%.

(d) 54%.

Ans. (d) 54%.

(iii) Which state of our country has highest literacy?

(a) Tamil Nudu.

(b) Karnataka.

(c) Andhra Pradesh 

(d) Kerala.

Ans. (d) Kerala.

(iv) Which state of our country has lowest literacy?

(a) Uttar Pradesh.

(b) Madhya Pradesh.

(c) Rajasthan.

(d) Bihar.

Ans. (c) Rajasthan.

(v) The number of illiterate children in the age group of 6-14 years in our country is:

(a) 3 crores.

(b) 4 crores.

(c) 5 crores.

(d) 6 crores.

Ans. (b) 4 crores.


Tick True or False for following statements: 

(i) Population explosion is increase in population at alarming rate (True/False).

Ans. True.

(ii) In population explosion, there is rapid fall of birth rate and death rate (True/False).

Ans. False.

(iii) Population explosion is transitory. phenomenon (True / False).

Ans. True.

(iv) The growth rate of population of our country is 2.0 percent (True/False).

Ans. True.

(v) India is second most populous country of the world (True/False).

Ans. True.


Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the brackets:

(i) Corruption is making wealth through ……………… Acts (legal/illegal).

Ans. illegal.

(ii) Corruption is prevalent in …………… corners of our country (few/every).

Ans. every.

 (ii) In our country corruption ……………… prevalent at high places (is/is not) 

Ans. is.

(iv) In our country educational institutions are ……………. from corruption (free/not free).

Ans. not free.


Q.1. Match the column ‘A’ with ‘B’

(i) From the view point of income, poverty is(a) poverty has political cause, too.
(ii) From human point of view poverty is(b) is 43.5 percent.
(iii) Percentage of people below poverty line is in our country(c) in sufficient income to meet both ends meals of a day.
(iv) Adult illiteracy rate in our country(d) denial of longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living.
(v) Besides social, economic  religious, natural and physical causes(e) is 43.0.


(i) From the view point of income, poverty is(c) in sufficient income to meet both ends meals of a day.
(ii) From human point of view poverty is(d) denial of longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living.
(iii) Percentage of people below poverty line is in our country(e) is 43.0.
(iv) Adult illiteracy rate in our country(b) is 43.5 percent.
(v) Besides social, economic  religious, natural and physical causes(a) poverty has political cause, too.


Q.1. What is literacy? Literacy rate of which state is the highest? 

Ans. Ability to read and write is called literacy.

Literacy rate of Kerala state is the highest. 

Q.2. What is meant by population explosion?

Ans. Rapid increase in population is called population explosion.

Q.3. Name five socio-economic problems related to population explosion.

Ans. (i) Unemployment.

(ii) Lack of shelter.

(iii) Poverty.

(iv) Landlesnes.

(v) Low standard of living.

Q.4. What do you mean by corruption? Name its five types.

Ans. Corruption is making and raising position through illegal and immoral acts. It is individual behaviour related to gain in cash and kind. Corruption is prevalent in every part of our country. It exists in social, economic, political, religious, administrative, commercial, and professional fields.

Types of Corruption: 

(a) Practice of nepotism.

(b) Favouritism.

(c) Dowry.

(d) Dishonesty.

(e) Immorality.

(f) Foeticide.

(g) Payment of illegal gratification for getting work done in office. 

(h) Making money from misuse of office and power to contest election. 

(i) Giving tickets to criminals.

(j) Taking bribe and commission for getting the fund sanctioned.

(k) Looting public money with the trader.

Q.5. What is poverty? How it is different from human poverty?

Ans. (a) Poverty: From the economic point of view, poverty is inability to have such income from which expenditure on both meals of a day is not met.

(b) Human Poverty: From the human point of view, poverty is denial of longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living; Poverty has social, economic, political, religious, natural, physical and educational causes.



Q.1. How many people of an country are illiterate?

Ans. Nearly 35 percent people of our country are illiterate.

Q.2. Write one benefit of literacy.

Ans. Literacy enables an individual to differentiate between right and wrong. 

Q.3. Write can names of major social problems of India.

Ans. (i) Illiteracy.

(ii) Population exploitation.

(iii) Corruption. 

(iv) Poverty. 

Q.4. Write the meaning of literacy and differentiate it from illiteracy in one sentence.

Ans. Literacy is ability to read write and understand any language and illiteracy is inability to do so.

Q.5. Mention the names of causes responsible for poverty in India.

Ans. (i) Social expenses.

(ii) Unemployment.

(iii) Unequal distribution of land.

(iv) Slums of urban areas. 

(v) Religious, natural and physical causes. 

(vi) Illiteracy.


Q.1. Discuss benefits of in a paragraph.

Ans. Literacy, on the other hand, makes one to road and write and even a blind can read and understand. It leads to proper thoughts and action.

Literacy takes everyone on the road of education and development, acquire superior skill on for a better life. The pre-literate or non-literate people suffer from lack of awareness of rights and duties, ignorance of healthy practices and benefit of sanitation and they cling to superstition. Such a person is unable to grasp be skills for development or act as model and guide to younger generation. There better many avenues which literacy and education open in one’s life. One can learn more about scientific skills and perform his job in a better way. He can also opt for new jobs and enhance the quality of life of his family. 

Q.2. Discuss briefly Socio-Economic problems of Population Explosion. 

Ans. Socio-Economic Problems of Population Explosion:

(i) Population explosion gives birth to a number of socio-economic problems such as lack of shelter, landlessness, poverty, illiteracy, low standard of living, unemployment, malnutrition, under nourishment, ill health insufficient infrastructure over growing migration and crimes.

(ii) Large families have created problems of housing and home-stead land. It creates the situation of landlessness due to division of land in each generation among brothers. Landlessness results in poverty. Poverty increases illiteracy because poor families send their children to work instead of sending them to schools. It comes in the way of proper nutrition and nourishment of family members.

(iii) In fact, quality of life is adversely affected by population explosion. It also brings health problems. Frequent births affect the health of mother and children. It also affects feeding and nourishment processes. Rapid increase in population creates situation of unemployment and low wages. It also leads to crimes.

Q.3. Discuss meaning and definition of corruption.

Ans. (i) Meaning of Corruption: Simple meaning of corruption is an act of characterless-ness, moral degradation and unlawful practices. In other words, it means earning money and positions by hook or crook, without earing for duties and responsibilities towards people, society and nation.

(ii) Definition of Corruption: Corruption is an act by someone who is ready to do dishonest and illegal things in return of money or for something else they want, or behave in a way what is considered morally wrong.

Q.4. Discuss position of corruption in India.

Ans. Corruption, in our country is all pervasive and omnipresent. India is largest democracy of the world. It is the second populous country of the world. India had cherished honesty, morality and also high values from time immemorial. With passage of time and fast socio- economic changes in the country, corruption has effected all walks of life.

All of us have often observed directly or indirectly that a number of public servants, politician’s government servants, bureaucrats, industrialists, traders, etc. have been sent to jail on corruption charges. But these punitive steps have not been able to put a check to this social evil. People still compromise with principles. It has taken away our social virtues and has means us selfish and inhuman. It has, almost, become a way of life.

Q.5. Briefly describe causes of corruption.

Ans. Causes of Corruption: A number of causes are associated with the prevalence of corruption in our society. Some of them are-to make illegal things legal on the basis of bribe or commission, to acquire more and more wealth and consumer goods, high aspirations from jobs, to enhance status in the society, to pay dowry, to meet expenditure on technical and higher education of children, to erect modern and beautiful house, to get required number for constituting and running the government, to collect money for fighting election, etc. 

Q.6. Write some of characteristics to explain the of “Poverty”.

Ans. Major Characteristics of Poverty:

(i) Poverty is an universal problem. It is a condition of an individual in which his income is so low that he is unable to feed or provide shelter for himself and his family members. Those who do not have such income are called poor.

(ii) Poverty is also an inability to earn sufficient income to arrange two square meals a day for himself as well as family members. A sizable section of the population of our country fails to earn such income. So, they are considered to live below poverty line.

(iii) Urban poverty is the result of migration of rural people to urban areas for work and wages. They live in slum areas in unhygienic condition. Rampant unemployment is also responsible for urban poverty.

(iv) On the basis of human factor, poverty can not be measured only on economic terms. It should also be measured terms of deprivation. So, human poverty can be measured on the basis of three elements of human life-longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living. In this sense, human poverty is denial of tolerable life.


Q.1. Write an essay on the Literacy situation in India.

Ans. Literacy Situation in India: 

(i) As per report of 2001, 65 percent persons of our country are literate. It means that 35 percent citizens are still illiterate. The male literacy is 76 percent against 54 percent famous literacy.

(ii) The present literacy situation in our country as under:


(iii) As per 1991 census report among States and Union Territories, Kerala occupies top position with more than 90% literates, while the State of Bihar occupies lowest position in literacy with only 38% literates. Literacy among STs is 29% (4% males and 18% females).

(iv) Nearly one-third of world’s illiterates reside in our country. Altogether, there are 19 crores of children in the age group 6-14 years in which 4 crore (25%) have not seen the face of school. Nearly 50% children leave school after enrolment. Child of STs and SCs are worst victims in this regard. Only 29% children of SCs and STs are enrolled in school.

Q.2. Mention some causes of illiteracy, discuss the educational policies and programmes adopted from the government from time to time.

Ans. 1. Poverty, high population growth, lack of awareness and improper implementation of educational development programme are responsible for illiteracy.

2. First education policy in our country was formulated in 1960 and second in 1986, and the third in 1991. In 1992, a new National Education Policy was formulated and introduced for all children upto 14 years of age. Besides, non-formal education programme was also initiated in 1979-80. In 1994, District Primary Education programme was implemented.

3. In 1995, Mid-day Meal programme was introduced to check incidence of dropouts. In 2001, Education has been brought under fundamental right of children as per 93nd constitution amendment. 

4. The central government has launched Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan with the help of parents, social workers, administrators and parents.

5. The role of NIOS (National Institute of Open Schooling) in spreading education and reaching the unreached, have received massive support from the deprived sections of the population.

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