NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 29 Cleaning and Cleaning Materials, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Cleaning and Cleaning Materials

Chapter: 29




Q. 1. Match the methods of cleaning given in Column A with the procedure given in Column B.

Column AColumn B
(i) Mopping(a) beat an article to remove dust
(ii) Sweeping(b) wipe with dry cloth 
(iii) Dusting(c) scrub with broom and water
(iv) Polishing(d) dust carried with broom
(v) Shaking(e) wipe with wet cloth
(vi) Washing(f) rub to bring shine
(g) scrub with a broom


Column AColumn B
(i) Mopping(e) wipe with wet cloth
(ii) Sweeping(d) dust carried with broom 
(iii) Dusting(b) wipe with dry cloth
(iv) Polishing(f) rub to bring shine
(v) Shaking(a) beat an article to remove dust
(vi) Washing(c) scrub with broom and water

Q. 2. Differentiate between the following: 

(a) washing and mopping.

Ans: Washing: It refers to cleaning with lots of free water. 

Mopping: The surface is wiped with a tightly squeezed wet mop.

(b) polishing and sweeping.

Ans: Polishing: The article is rubbed with a polish and rubbed with a soft cloth, until it shines.

Sweeping: The dust of floor is cleaned with help of a broom.

(c) dirt and dust.

Ans: Dirt: The loose particles easily moved by air and settle on any surface is called dirt. 

Dust: Particles stick to any surface is called dust.


Q. Given below is a list of reagents. Specify their role in cleaning.

ReagentsRole in cleaning
(i) Lemon
(i) Jewellery rouge
(iii) Sand
(iv) Ammonia
(v) Methylated spirit


ReagentsRole in cleaning
(i) LemonClean stains from metals.
(i) Jewellery rougeClean jewellery.
(iii) SandClean hard surface.
(iv) AmmoniaGrease emulsifier, stain removing spirit.
(v) Methylated spiritGrease solvent, removes grease stains.


Q. 1. Prepare a schedule of daily cleaning for your kitchen. Also list two activities you would perform on a monthly and yearly basis in the kitchen.


Ans: I. Daily activities:

(i) Open windows and lights.

(ii) Remove unwanted dirty utensils. 

(iii) Clean work surface and gas stove.

(iv) Wash utensils. 

(v) Wash/mop florr.

(vi) Arrange utensils in respective place.

(vii) Switch off lights.

II. Monthly activities:

(i) Clean tiles.

(ii) Change newspapers in cupboards.

(iii) Arrange cupboards.

(iv) Clean drawers. 

(v) Remove cowebs.

III. Yearly activities:

(i) White wash/paint walls. 

(ii) Polish marble floors/counters.


Q. 1. What do you understand by ‘cleaning’? Why is it important?

Ans: Cleaning means making something free from dirt, stain or impurities, it is an act of cleaning dirt especially from the surface of something.

Q. 2. Explain how you will clean your bedroom and bathroom. 

Ans: BEDROOM: It is very disturbing to look at a giant mess and wonder where to start,so focus on one thing at a time such a garbage or dirty dishes or hair accessories or reading material or focus on one area/surface at a time- when the dresser is done, move on to the night table, then the desk, then the closet, then the floor-in no particular order here. There could be shoes, books and other items that have long since been forgotten. You might want to consider getting storage containers for use under there for your off-season clothing.

• Tackle first by making the bed. This provides with a surface to sort or fold or temporarily place things. 

• Tackle the clothes: dirty ones to the hamper, clean ones away in the closet or drawer.

• Clear off those stacks and piles on and around your dresser/chest of drawers. Now, dump cach drawer, one at a time, or all at the same time into a central location. Vacuum the drawers if necessary.

• Time to dust and clean off all the furniture with your favourite product. Don’t forget the TV screen and any mirrors you may have. 

• Now determine the purpose of the bedroom and evaluate what is remaining and start assigning homes for these items, be it in the bedroom or elsewhere in the house.

BATHROOM: Clean, hygienic and perfect bathroom is essential for every house. Although,everyone desires a clean bathroom but cleaning bathroom is not a favourite task. 

The first thing to do is to gather the entire appliance from bathroom such as the:

(a) toothbrush.

(b) shaving kits. and 

(c) shampoos etc.

And remove them from the bathroom. Spray the

• Bath-tub.

• Bath-room.

• Sink.

• Shower. and

• The toilet commode.

With bleach or other cleaning chemicals and let it works for sometimes.

Scrub the toilet commode inside and outside also scrub the toilet seat. Similar, use dis-infectant and then flush it down.

Next move on to the sink. Remove all the items from the sink and spray with beaches. Use the bleach both inside and and after sometimes, scrub it of to have a clean sink. Again use the dis-infectant to stay safe from the germs. Use similar method to clean the bathroom floor.

I may find spots on shower doors, which is created by the alkaline in the water. I will wipe the shower doors after each time I use the shower to prevent build up. I will remove the soap scum by using liquid soap.

The easy way to clean the bathroom is after a steamy bath or shower. Because, the steam will loosen the dirt and it will be easy to clean the bathroom walls, tiles etc.

Q. 3. You have to clean your kitchen tiles, marble wall surface and cement floor. List the cleaning agents and equipment will you use. Describe the cleaning procedure for the same. 

Ans: Natural Cleaning Products:

• Vinegar: Vinegar naturally cleans like an all-purpose cleaner. While there is option of using typical yellow vinegar as well, white vinegar cleans without the possibility of staining. White vinegar’s is best used to cut grease, clean wood floors and multiple other surfaces, remove mildew, deodorise, and clean certain stains and wax build-up.

Why does it Work?: Vinegar is actually weakly acidic, making it a powerful cleaning agent. The acid in vinegar cuts through grease and germs found on counter tops while also inhibiting bacteria and mold.

Mix a solution of 1 part water to 1 part vinegar in a spray bottle and you have a solution that will clean most areas of your home. Vinegar is a great natural cleaning product as well as a dis-infectant and deodorizer. Always test on an inconspicuous area. It is safe to use on most surfaces and has the added bonus of being incredibly cheap. Improperly diluted vinegar is acidic and can eat away at tile grout. Never use vinegar on marble surfaces. Don’t worry about your home smelling like vinegar. The smell disappears when it dries. In Kitchen clean the stovetop, appliances, countertops and floor.

• Lemon Juice: Lemon juice is another natural substance that can be used to clean your home. Lemon juice can be used to dissolve soap scum and hard water deposits. Lemon is a great substance to clean and shine brass and copper. Lemon juice can be mixed with vinegar and or baking soda to make cleaning pastes. Cut a lemon in half and sprinkle baking soda on the cut section. Use the lemon to scrub dishes, surfaces and stains.

Why does it Work?: Lemon Juice is one of the strongest food acids, marked by its sour taste. Because the pH is so low, lemon juice can kill most household bacteria, while also leaving your home smelling fresh.

Baking Soda: Baking soda can be used to scrub surfaces in much the same way as commercial abrasive cleansers: Baking soda is great as a deodorizer. Place a box in the refrigerator and freezer to absorb odors. Put it anywhere you need deodorising action.

Why does it Work?: Baking soda is a naturally occurring, but often artificially produced, substance that is slightly alkaline. Because of its basic nature, baking soda works well as a water softener and can easily break down proteins. Baking soda also works well as a deodorizer because as a basic compound, it easily neutralises acidic scent molecules.

• Borax or Boric Acid: Borax is best known as an alternative to bleach. However, this natural cleaning product also cleans, deodorises, disinfects, softens water, and effectively renews painted and wallpapered walls.

• Why does it Work?: Borax has many defining properties that make it an excellent cleaning agent. When mixed with water, borax reacts to make a hydrogen peroxide/water solution. It also can act as a chemical buffer when cleaning, so the pH is what it needs to be to make something effectively clean.

• Washing Soda: Washing soda is scientifically known as sodium carbonate decahydrate, a naturally occurring mineral. Washing soda cuts grease, removes stains, softens water, cleans walls, tiles, sinks and tubs.

How does it clean?: When it comes to chemical properties, washing soda is a close relative to baking soda, with a slightly lower pH level. As a stronger base, washing soda easily breaks down proteins and neutralises odors.

Floor Tiles tile care:

• I will clean tiles regularly.

• To remove stubborn spots. I will scrub with a paste of bicarbonate of soda and water. 

• I will use just a few drops of soap-less detergent and not abrasive cleaners

• Vinegar mixed with warm water is a proven and natural cleaning agent.

• Mop with clear water (or add just a dab of liquid dish detergent) and change the water as soon as it gets cloudy. Too much soap or dirty water will leave a dulling or sticky film.

• For soiled areas, I will use an all-purpose household cleaner or a cleaner made specifically for ceramic tiles.

• I will remove soot from kitchen tiles with a mixture of lemon juice and salt, then wash. Cleaning tools are hard brush, cleaning solution and a damp white cloth for wiping the tiles.


Cleaning equipment:

(a) Brooms Soft broom.

(b) Dust pan.

(c) Dust bin, Brushes, vacuum cleaners and dusters.

For mopping:

(a) Buckets.

(b) Water.

(c) Disinfectant.

(d) Mop.

Mopping should be done from left to right using the mop to form an ‘S’. After mopping each small portion, the mop should again be rinsed in clean water, and the process repeated. 

If the water becomes dirty, replace it with clean water.

For Scrubbing:

(a) Buckets.

(b) Mops-Brush with a long handle.

(c) Cleaning agent.

Sprinkle/spray the cleaning agent on the damp area.

• Start scrubbing, using the long handled brush. If the whole room needs to be scrubbed, start from a corner and move towards the door. If a small area is to be scrubbed, scrub from the outer area towards the center, to avoid the dirt from spreading. If the stain is stubborn, use steel wool.

• Remove the dirty solution using a mop. 

• Dip the second mop in clean water and mop the floor. 

• Repeat this process of scrubbing and mopping till all the dirt is removed.

• Inspect the area. A well-scrubbed area should look clean and dry. 

• Clean all the equipment and put them in their place. 


Sweeping Apparatus:

(a) Long-handled soft hair broom for large surfaces.

(b) Short-handled hair brush for small smooth surfaces.

(c) Long-handled fibre broom for carpets.

(d) Short-handled fibre broom for rugs, stairs, etc.

(e) Cornice brush and wall broom for walls. A long-handled hair broom covered with a clean duster can be used as a substitute for a wall broom.

(f) Carpet sweeper for carpets and rugs. 

(g) Bass broom for yards and out-of-door surfaces.

• The brush of the broom should be long and dense.

• Do not use a broken dust bin or a broken dust pan, as the dust will fall down and dirty the swept area.

Method of Sweeping

(a) Work methodically.

(b) Keep the head of the brush down and work smoothly.

(c) Do not allow the dust to blow about.

(d) Keep windows and doors shut.

(e) Cover up furniture.

(f) Work towards the fire-place, as the chimney may cause a draught and help to suck up the dust. 

(g) Brush forward or across from side to side.Never brush on to the ankles. 

(h) Collect the dust with a banister brush or dustpan brush into a dustpan.

(i) Empty the dust on to a piece of newspaper, brush out the pan, remove fluff, threads, etc., from the brush, wrap up the dust and burn it.

To avoid damaging the head of a broom when it is not in use, stand it up carefully and correctly on the floor.

Cover with a duster or piece of newspaper if standing against, a wall. In cupboards the brushes should be hung from: proper supports; small brushes can be hung with loops of string, small rings or hooks.

Sweeping Walls:

(a) Cover the hair and wear an overall.

(b) Remove pictures.

(c) Begin at the top and work downwards; work evenly and gently. 

(d) Remove the dust from the broom carefully.

Sweeping with a Carpet Sweeper: A carpet sweeper removes surface dust and collects it in two dustpans placed on either side of a central revolving brush.

B. Dusting 

Method of dusting:

• Collect all items required for dusting.

• Fold the duster so as to be able to dust a number of surfaces.

• Commence work from the entrance of the room and proceed in a clockwise direction. 

• Prevent overlapping and skipping edges. Hold the cloth loosely so that it can absorb dust easily.

• Do not shake the dust off the cloth.

• Start with the highest point to be dusted and work down towards the floor.

• Inspect the work after it is done. A well dusted area will be bright and free of dust.

• After the work is complete, clean the duster thoroughly and put it back in its place.

1. Dusters: These should be made of cotton material and must not be fluffy, as they would not be easy to keep clean. They must always be hemmed; otherwise the raw edges may catch and break ornaments, etc. Silk is the best substance, but is unpractical and expensive, except if made from old garments.

2. Dusting mops are made from cotton and are used for floors and skirting-boards.

When using Dusters:

(a) Fold in the corners until a pad is formed. 

(b) Work methodically. 

(c) Use two dusters and use them evenly. 

(d) Remember all ledges and skirting-boards.

(e) Begin from the top and work downwards.

Disposal of dust after dusting. Dispersal is the only method, but care must be taken to remember: 

(a) other windows, i.e. larder.

(b) Other people passing below.

Special Dusting: 

A. Damp dusting used:

(a) In invalids’ rooms.

(b) On tops of wardrobes, pictures, etc. Use one damp duster only and polish with the other duster.

B. Oiled duster for polished wood. Use oil, on one duster only and polish with the other. Both are very hygienic methods.

C. Dusting with a cotton floor mop.

(a) Mopping.

(b) Washing.

(c) Polishing.

Q. 4. Sheila is cleaning her room. Describe six methods of cleaning she may adopt. List the materials and equipments she may use.

Ans: In different areas of the home in rooms, on doors, windows, tables, chairs, cupboards, fans, lights and beds, dust settles down. Dusting is the process of removing this dust. Care should be taken not to allow the dust to spread through the air.

Dust is airborne and therefore during the cleaning procedure it is important that dust is completely removed and not just shifted from one place to another. Dust can be removed by:

• Dusting.

• Sweeping.

• Mopping.

• Scrubbing.

• Suction.

Dusting: When a surface is dusted by rubbing it hard, the electro-static charge created attracts dust faster than before. Hence, as soon the dusting is over, dust rapidly settles on the surface again. IIence this method, though frequently used, is not satisfactory.

Sweeping: This method is unsatisfactory too, as the fine particles of dust are merely circulated in the air.

Scrubbing: Scrubbing is done on surfaces that are extremely dirty. More water is needed for mopping.

Mopping: This is a fairly efficient method provided the mop is clean and the water is regularly changed during the cleaning process. However, most times the cleaner continues to use the same water, which is dirty and does not care to wash the mop after the cleaning process. Thus the mopping is done with dirty water and a greasy mop, making the whole exercise futile. 

Washing: Washing is done to remove the soil with the use of water. Sometimes, scouring powder is also used. Washing is done as often as is necessary to maintain a desired standard of cleanliness and hygiene.

Method for washing:

• Fill one container with a cleaning agent and the second container with water. Place them on a mat to prevent soiling.

• Wipe away lose earth from the area to be cleaned. 

• Dip the sponge in the cleaning solution. Squeeze out the excess water to prevent dripping.

• Apply the solution on a small area, using circular motion.

• Dip a cloth in the clean water and wash the area using an up-down motion.

• Dry the area with a dry cloth.

• Repeat this process until the entire area has been cleaned.

• Change the water and the solution frequently. 

• Inspect the work. A well-washed area will have no scratches or patches. 

• Clean the equipment and put them in their place.
Suction: This is probably the most efficient method of dust removal, as the dust is collected in a bag placed inside the vacuum cleaner. Once the bag is full, it can be disposed off.

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