NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 21 Concerns and Issue in Human Development

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NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 21 Concerns and Issue in Human Development

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Concerns and Issue in Human Development

Chapter: 21




Q. 1. Give three indicators which show discrimination against girls.

Ans: 1. Negative cultural attitudes and practices against girls.

2. Discrimination against girls in education, skill, development and training. 

3. Discrimination against girls in health and nutrition.

Q. 2. The girls are discriminated against because they 

Ans: Discrimination is treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice. As in many other countries, there is a preference in India for the birth of sons rather than daughters. A primary way that parents discriminate against their girl children is through neglect during illness and bringing up. One of the main reasons for this is that girls leave the family home on marriage, and families are often required to provide a dowry. The word gender refers to the socio-cultural definition of man and woman; the way societies distinguish men and women and assign them social roles. As soon as a child is born families and society begin the process of gendering. The birth of the son is celebrated, the birth of a daughter filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care. Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing; girls are encouraged to be homebound and shy. Parents feel that girls are a liability and would be of no help once they go away after marriage. All these differences are gender differences and they are created by society. Women occupy a low status and are neglected as women are considered a burden. Many developing countries including India show gender inequality in education, employment and health.

Q. 3. State three ways in which education helps a girl child.

Ans: (i) Education enlightens and an enlightened woman only can stand up for protection of her human rights and for those of her fellow sisters who may be being deprived and discriminated against due to various religious and socio-economic factors.

(ii) By educating girl child we set in a process of empowering women, who will be able not only to defend their rights and live with dignity but also contribute to the development of entire society.

(iii) Educating a girl is educating the whole family. Education was of essential importance. It allows for the harmonious and informed development of a girl child, and gives them the necessary confidence and skills to make free choices in their lives and to act in a context of gender partnership both at the professional and at the family level.


Answer the following questions in two lines:

Q. 1. Who are juvenile delinquents?

Ans: A minor who cannot be controlled by parental authority and commits antisocial or criminal acts, such as vandalism, violence, or robbery. 

Q. 2. What kind of behaviour is delinquent? 

Ans: (i) smoking.

(ii) drinking.

(iii) run away.

(iv) truancy.

(v) curfews.

(vi) sexual activities.

(vii) disobey parents or teachers.

Theft is the most common offense by children; more serious property crimes and rape are most frequently committed in later youth. 

Q. 3. Which factors lead to delinquency? 

Ans: The causes of such behaviour, like those of crime in general, are found in a complex of psychological, social and economic factors.


1. Disorganisation of the family-such as family breaks up by divorce and parental separation, conflict, neglect, and deviance that are anti social behavior. General bad feeling within a family may also contribute-where mother and father quarrel a lot between. themselves, where there is constant argument and shouting, and hostile and negative attitudes are expressed-this is probably one of the reasons why children from broken homes show a greater tendency to commit deviant acts.

2. Lack of warmth.

3. Missing respect for the integrity of each member.

4. Missing affectionate attachment.

5. Non-acceptance of the father as a role model.

Peers and Gangs

Gangs develop from spontaneous play groups when threats from youthful enemies lead them to protect their territory through mutual support. 

Gangs develop in a lower class

Lower class youth have failed to gain status through achieving goals set by the middle class and turn to delinquent behavior to achieve these goals. Problems of adjustment is strongly related to the social class of juveniles gang steal: delinquents express definance toward the society. Stealing tends to go hand-in-hand with other property offenses, malicious mischief, vandalism, trespass, and truancy.

Delinquents just hung around the street corner without long-run goals about their activities and followed the impulsive desire to have fun.

Drug use and Distribution

The drug abuse-crime connection is so powerful because many delinquents are in fact substance abusers.

Q. 4. If delinquency is due to poverty what kind of input should be provided to the delinquent?

Ans: The counselling process. The care of dependent poor and neglected children is very important, but the juvenile courts are established to handle delinquent juveniles.

The relationship is as follows; – large family- early childhood more likely to be spent in poverty – there is not a very significant relationship between large family size and delinquency in middle class families.

Family size → Poverty → Delinquency. 

A counselor should contact student, build up good relationship with them, understand their general background and find out their problems. When students get to know the counselor, the counselor should try his best to understand their characteristics especially those of peer groups.

Q. 5. How do the play facilities enable the young people?

Ans: Recreational activities: To improve students’ thought and behaviour takes time and patience. Various activities are organised for them in order to develop their physical and mental health, release their excessive energy, and occupy their leisure time. While participating, they have opportunities to understand, respect, and think for others. The effect is much better than punishment. As a means of counseling, recreational activities help by giving:

(a) Pure fun and relaxation, the sense of freedom and joy, the release of physical and emotional energy.

(b) Giving the element of sociability-the opportunity to meet new people and make new friends.

(c) Develop a sense of power through control of the whole body and the sense of power over materials. and

(d) It gives the opportunity to find adventure and security.


Q. 1. Give three reasons why parents send their children to work.

Ans: (a) Because of poverty, many parents send child to work.

(b) Unemployment.

(c) Excess population.

Rural poverty, lack of employment or partial employment and illiteracy has given birth to majority of child labour problems.

Q. 2. List three conditions under which children are made to work. 

Ans: Work ranges from taking care of animals and planting and harvesting food, to many kinds of small manufacturing (e.g. of bricks and cement), auto-repair, and making of footwear and textiles. Many children in hazardous and dangerous jobs are in danger of injury, even death.

(i) Hand-crafted carpet industry in India, employ children as small as seven-year-old, working for as-long-as 12 hours a day. Even as you purchase, a leather bag, a shirt, a pair of jeans or produce from the local grocery store it could be the product of a bonded labour, which is the most common form of child labours. One way that many families in traditional societies attempt to cope with the pressure of over-population and the resulting unemployment is to send children to urban areas find cash employment.

(ii) Parents often pledge children under the of physical maturity (which is 15) to factory age or mine owners in exchange for small loans or to repay the debts of the parents or grandparents.

(iii) Children under the age of 14 are forced to work in glass-blowing, fireworks, and most commonly, carpet-making factories in inhuman conditions and for long hours.

Q. 3. List three methods by which the problem of child labour can be dealt with.

Ans: (a) The elimination of child labour is inter-linked with the provision of full-time, formal and quality education provide free to all.

(b) As long as the community is accepting that children work instead of going to school, child labour and low school participation will not be eradicated. Community education for change is important. Parents hardly understand or wait for the greater good, but instead feel that work develops skills that can be used to earn an income, while education does not help in this matter.

(c) Child labour cannot be eliminated by focusing on one determinant, for example education, or by mere enforcement of child labour laws. The Government of India must ensure that the needs of the poor are filled before waging a war against child labour.


I. A children’s club held a meeting to discuss how they could help socio-economically weaker children of their area. They made mistakes while writing the suggestions. Unscramble the words to find out what you can do to help such children of your area.

(i) HTCAE such children.

Ans: Teach.

(ii) TODNAE old games and OYST.

Ans: Donate, toys.

(iii) Donate old OOKBS and comics.

Ans: books.

(iv) Teach some SKLIL.

Ans: skill.

(v) Teach personal GYNHEEI.

Ans: hygiene.

(vi) Organise LEADNUOCIAT games.

Ans: education.

(vii) Provide SNUOITIRTU snacks. 

Ans: nutritious.

(viii) Organise FRCAT activities.

Ans: craft.

(ix) Teach them SAOMRL through story telling. 

Ans: morals.

(x) Encourage them to attend LOCSHO.

Ans: school.


Q. 1. Orthopaedically disabled children are those who have a problem in:

(a) speaking.

(b) seeing.

(c) listening.

(d) use of body parts.

Ans: (d) use of body parts.

Q. 2. The best way to teach a blind child to recognize various shapes is by:

(a) drawing pictures.

(b) oral descriptions.

(c) feeling the shape.

(d) oral description and touch.

Ans: (c) feeling the shape.

Q. 3. The children born deaf have difficulty in learning to speak because they

(a) get started by the voices of their parents.

(b) cannot hear their own babbling.

(c) prefer to listen than to talk.

(d) cannot hear any sound.

Ans: (b) cannot hear their own babbling.

Q. 4. A child who has hearing problem should:

(a) get the ears cleaned.

(b) use hearing aids.

(c) get practice in listening.

(d) concentrate on listening.

Ans: (b) use hearing aids.

Q. 5. To help rehabilitate disabled children it is important to: 

(a) deal with them with love and care.

(b) provide medical help as early as possible.

(c) spend time with them.

(d) do all the above.

Ans: (b) provide medical help as early as possible.


Choose the answers that are not correct 

1. Mental retardation is delay in:

(a) walking.

(b) talking.

(c) mental development.

(d) development of eating habits.

Ans: (d) development of eating habits. 

2. Mental retardation is caused by

(a) injury to the brain.

(b) disease which affects the growth of spinal cord.

(c) long illness.

(d) chronic cold and cough.

(e) lack of oxygen to the heart.

Ans: (d) chronic cold and cough.

3. Mentally retarded children can be taught 

(a) to look after themselves.

(b) to help in the house.

(c) to cook.

(d) some professional skill.

Ans: (c) to cook.


Q. 1. From the following cross out all those which do not help in transmission of HIV infection.

(i) blood, semen and vaginal fluid.

(ii) shaking hands with infected person.

(iii) needles and blades used for piercing or inscisions.

(iv) mother to child before or at the time of birth.

(v) sleeping in the room where infected person sleeps.

(vi) kissing or hugging the infected person.

(vii) transfusion of blood from infected person.

(viii) having unprotected sex with infected partner.

(ix) sharing clothes of an infected person.

(x) playing with an infected person.

Ans: (i) shaking hands with infected person.

(v) sleeping in the room where infected person sleeps. 

(vi) kissing or hugging the infected person.

(ix) sharing of clothes of an infected person.

(x) playing with an infected person.

Q. 2. Select the most suitable answer to complete the following statements, from the four given.

(i) The antibodies for HIV infection develop in the blood of an infected person in 

(a) 3 months.

(b) 2 weeks.

(c) 2 weeks to 3 months.

(d) 3 weeks to 10 years.

Ans: (a) 3 months.

(ii) The symptoms of AIDS may appear in a HIV positive person in

(a) 2 weeks.

(b) 3 months.

(c) 3-4 months.

(d) 10 years.

Ans: (d) 10 years.

(iii) A sure way to say that a person is HIV positive is when he/she

(a) shows severe weight loss.

(b) suffers from fever for several weeks.

(c) has persistent diarrhoea.

(d) shows antibodies in blood.

Ans: (d) shows antibodies in blood. 

(iv) AIDS is caused by HIV which damages the

(a) immune system of the body.

(b) circulatory system of the body.

(c) capacity of individual to make blood.

(d) capacity of individual to make antibodies in the blood.

Ans: (a) immune system of the body.

(v) Safe motherhood means

(a) to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.

(b) to deliver a baby alive.

(c) to raise healthy children.

(d) to look after the mother’s health.

Ans: (a) to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.

(vi) Which of the following is not a precaution for safe motherhood?

(a) consultation with a trained nurse/doctor during pregnancy.

(b) presence of a skilled person during delivery.

(c) testing the sex of the unborn child.

(d) safe cutting and tying of umbilical cord.

Ans: (c) testing the sex of the unborn child. 

Q. 3. Write the full form for AIDS and HIV.

Ans: AIDS stands for the Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.

HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.


Q. 1. List various discriminations against the girl child and discuss any one of them in detail.

Ans: In most developing countries, gender inequalities between girls and boys exist. Although attendance at school is affected significantly by poverty, the attendance of girls is hampered by poverty and social values more than that of boys. For example, if a family is poor and cannot afford to send all children to school, sons are sent instead of daughters. The girl child faces discriminations for survival, health care and nutrition, education, social opportunities.

Discrimination at Birth

There is a preference in India for the birth of sons rather than daughters. One of the main reasons for this is that girls have to leave the family home on marriage, and families are often required to provide a dowry. Sons are welcomed with the distribution of expensive sweets and celebrations include a band and fireworks. By contrast, at the birth of the girl (first born) only sugar and sugar lumps are distributed. Culturally oriented festivals are all done with pomp and show for boys, but not for girls. The mother is treated with respect after the birth of a son and a pooja (thanks giving prayer) is said because the woman is shuddh (pure). Her rest period is also extended and she is given more attention by her family members.

Q. 2. Discuss the role of education in enhancing the status of the girl child. 

Ans: Looking at the education front at least 22% of the girls has not been to school at all. More than 50% of the girls enrolled in primary schools drop out before the age of 12. Girls are pulled out of school for looking after their siblings, helping in domestic work, minding livestock and for other chores. Girls are thus part of the invisible labour force at home.

Role of education: Women who are educated marry later, have fewer children and so provide better care for themselves and their children. Educated women also seek medical attention for themselves and their children sooner, which lead to a higher survival rate for women and children. The education will empower woman, and will ensure women’s ability to control her own fertility, are cornerstones of population and development programmes. It will help the full and equal participation of women in civil, cultural, economic, political and social life, at the national, regional and international levels, and the eradication of all forms of discrimination on grounds of sex.

Q. 3. Define juvenile delinquency and enumerate its causes.

Ans: The term juvenile delinquency’ has been differently interpreted but, generally speaking, it refers to a large variety of behaviour of and adolescents which the society. does not approve and for which some kind of punishment or preventive and corrective measures are justified in public interest. The word ‘juvenile’ has been derived from a Latin term ‘Juvenis’, meaning thereby young. Juvenile delinquency is antisocial or criminal behaviour by children or adolescents. 

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

(i) Children engage in criminal behaviour because they were not sufficiently penalised for previous delinquent acts or that they have learned criminal behaviour through interaction with others.

(ii) Rising unemployment make gainful employment increasingly difficult for young people. The resulting discontent may in turn lead more youths into criminal behaviour.

(iii) Families are one-parent households or have two working parents; consequently, children are likely to have less supervision at home than was common in the traditional family structure. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates.

(iv) Other identifiable causes of delinquent acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased availability of drugs, alcohol, and guns, poverty and bad brought up; like close association with criminals, ill treatment by relatives and denial of basic comforts. No discipline, too much freedom.

Q. 4. What preventive measures can be taken for dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency? 

Ans: A. Methods which can be adopted by parents:

1. Proper atmosphere at the home. 

2. Adopting right attitude towards children: The parents should neither be too harsh nor too lenient. They should provide guidance when consulted by children.

3. Adopting right attitude towards the bad habits of the children: Disobedience, obstinacy, quarrelsome behaviour, etc. are learnt. The child learns these things in bad company; the child’s future, his interests, habits, etc. are dependent on the treatment which he gets from his parents.

4. Parents should have knowledge of child guidance. 

5. A large amount of pocket money should not be given to the children. 

6. Parents should keep a watch on the friends of their children.

7. Parents must find time to talk and listen to the problems of their children.

B. Remedies adopted by schools:

1. School should have trained teachers with high moral character.

2. Each child should be treated as an individual. This is possible when the size of the class is not too big for teacher to handle.

3. Teaching methodology should make the class room lessons interesting.

4. Reading of good books in free-time should be encouraged. 

5. School should have recreational facilities.

6. There must be coordination between school and home.

7. Proper arrangement should be there for guidance of students who take the wrong path of life. 

C. Remedies adopted by state and social agencies:

1. The state should sterilise such couples who are suffering from some mental disorders because the offspring of such parents may be at a lower mental level. Such children in their childhood can easily be led away towards delinquent behaviour. 

2. The state and social agencies should establish good schools where the children can get proper education. In our country there is a great need for the provision of such a facility for each child. 

3. The children of poor parents should be given free education and the state should own the responsibility for the fulfilment of their needs.

4. There should be strict censor on the films and control on the picture-houses so that such films which depict low sexuality cannot be visited by children. Good children’s films should be produced and for this the state and other social agencies should own the responsibility.

5. Those who are responsible for teaching beggary to children should be punished severely. The children who are orphans should be cared for by the state.

6. Illegitimate children should be provided with homely environment. They should not feel that they are unwanted in the world. They should not be punished for the fault of their parents.

7. The state and social agencies should arrange for recreational facilities for children. They should construct beautiful children’s gardens, etc. Societies or clubs like ‘Bal Niketan’, ‘Bal Wadi’, ‘Bal Sadan’, etc., should be given every encouragement. 

Q. 5. Define ‘Child Labour’ and list its causes.

Ans: “Child Labour” is generally speaking, work for children that harms or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally or by blocking access to education). Poverty is widely considered the top reason why children work at inappropriate jobs for their ages. But there are other reasons as well:

1. Family expectations and traditions.

2. Abuse of the child.

3. Lack of good schools and day care.

4. Lack of other services, such as health care. 

5. Public opinion that downplays the risk of early work for children.

6. Uncaring attitudes of employers. 

7. limited choices for women.

The parents of child labourers are often unemployed or underemployed, deseperate for secure employment and income. Yet it is their children-more powerless and paid less-who are offered the jobs.

Q. 6. Throw some light on the consequences of child labour.

Ans: Employment of children is a widespread phenomenon, especially in a developing country like India. They engage in diverse activities in family labour or as apprentices, paid workers, or self-employed children. Most of the children falling in the last category have to live prematurely adult lives. They work for low wages and longer hours in the most precarious conditions, damaging their physical and mental growth. Many of them do not get even the protection of their parents or other close relatives, and they have to stay away from the filial atmosphere of families.

Q. 7. Suggest methods of dealing with the problems of child labour.

Ans: 1. Increased family incomes.

2. Education that helps children learn skills that will help them earn a living. 

3. Social services that help children and families survive crises, such as disease, or loss of home and shelter.

4. Family control of fertility so that families are not burdened by children.

Q. 8. Define ‘socio – economically disadvantaged children’ and suggest some ways of reducing their problems.

Ans: These are children with social/economic problems. Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias because of their identity as a member of a group without regard to their individual qualities. Economically disadvantaged in common usage is “the disadvantaged” is a term for those from lower-income backgrounds. 

Disadvantaged Children – children from 0-6 years old who are:

(i) Malnourished.

(ii) Orphaned.

(iii) Street children.

(iv) Victims of armed conflicts. and 

(v) Children of poor families.

The term disadvantage, refers to economic disadvantage or poverty, deprived of some of the basic necessities or advantages of life, such as adequate housing, medical care, or educational facilities.

Disadvantaged children are clearly at increased risk for a wide range of health and psycho-social morbidities. A poor child may have difficulties in any of the physical, emotional, social or educational domains. Having any single deficit increases the likelihood of having other difficulties, so poor children tend to have multiple morbidities. High quality out-of-hours activities in neighbourhood by NGOs or schools can help improve well-being, raise standards of achievement and make a real contribution to reducing attainment gaps.

Special Social Services-social welfare services extended to children, youth and adults with special needs, such as the orphaned, neglected, abandoned, disabled, etc. Such services include family life education and counselling, adoption, guardianship, foster family care, rehabilitation services, etc.

Q. 9. List some major physical disabilities in children and describe the problems faced by them.

Ans: A physical disability is any condition that permanently prevents normal body movement and/or control. There are many different types of physical disabilities. Physical disabilities are physical limitations or health problems that interfere with school attendance or learning to such an extent that special services, training, equipment, materials, or facilities are required. Major classifications include:

• Neurological conditions; damage to the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord). 

Disabilities associated with neurological conditions vary from very mild to severe and may involve physical, cognitive, speech-language, or sensory abilities, or a combination thereof.

• Musculo-skeletal conditions; limb or amputations, and a wide variety of other deformities of muscles or bones affecting the ability to move, walk, stand, sit, or use the hands or feet normally.

• Other health impairments;multiple disabilities some children with physical disabilities will have other disabilities, such as intellectual, visual or hearing impairments.

For students with physical handicaps, self- image is extremely important. Physically handicapped students are aware of the fact that they are physically different that most others and that there are certain things they cannot do. Peers can be cruel to other children with physical handicaps and become involved in teasing, casting insulting remarks and excluding physically handicapped children from games and group type activities. Physically handicapped children want to succeed and participate as much as they can and this needs to be encouraged and fostered by the teacher. The focus needs to be on what the child can do – not can’t do.

Q. 10. Suggest some ways in which you can help disabled children.

Ans: 1. Accept the harsh fact that the child is not ordinary. Never force her/him to do things that he/she cannot do. Rather boost their confidence with things that they can do with little effort. For instance, if the child is blind but is a wonderful singer, help in joining singing classes. You never know he/she may be the future voice of the biggest stars.

2. Don’t make the child sit and brood in a corner. Give responsibilities. This will help them be independent and survive the toughest wind.

3. Set realistic, positive expectations in accordance with a child’s age, development and functional abilities. Let them be independent, when they do minute things like personal hygiene, dressing, etc.

4. Celebrate child’s strength. Gift them a piece of applause amidst a group for all their well furnished qualities.

Q. 11. Define mental retardation and suggest ways of helping mentally retarded children. 

Ans: This is a condition in which there is delay or deficiency in all aspects of development, i.e. there is global and noticeable deficiency in the development of motor, cognitive, social and language functions. This is the commonest form of developmental disability. In many ways, mental retardation is also representative of developmental disabilities in general, in its causation, nature, and care.

Children with intellectual impairment are different from their peers in that they need more individual attention than other children. However, they need as much love and support as other children do. With early intervention, most children are able to live efficient and satisfactory lives. Encourage independence in the child. For example, help child learn daily care skills, such as dressing, feeding him or herself, using the bathroom, and grooming. Give child chores. Keep her age, attention span and abilities in mind. Break down jobs into smaller steps. For example, if child’s job is to set the table, first ask her to get the right number of napkins.

Q. 12. Define ‘AIDS’ and ‘HIV’.

Ans: AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a serious condition that weakens the body’s immune system, leaving it unable to fight off illness. AIDS is the last stage in a progression of diseases resulting from a viral the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV or AIDS virus).

Q. 13. What are the ‘Myths’ and ‘Misconceptions’ regarding ‘AIDS’?

Ans: HIV is the same as AIDS. This is false. HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is the collection of symptoms, diseases, and infections associated with an acquired deficiency of the immune system. While HIV is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years.

Some common myths regarding how a person can get HIV are by:

• sharing food with an infected person.

• hugging an infected person.

• insect bites. or

• only from gays or drug users.

Science has provided us with answers to these myths. HIV is not transmitted through casual contact. A person cannot get HIV by sharing food with an infected person or hugging an infected person. An insect bite will not transmit HIV. The evidence shows that HIV is not spread through touch, tears, sweat, or saliva. You cannot catch HIV by:

(i) Breathing the same air as someone who is HIV positive.

(ii) Touching a toilet seat or doorknob handle after an HIV-positive person.

(iii) Drinking from a water fountain.

(iv) Hugging, kissing, or shaking hands with someone who is HIV positive.

(v) Sharing eating utensils with an HIV- positive person.

(vi) Using exercise equipment at a gym.

You can get it from infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or mother’s milk.

Q. 14. Write a note on safe motherhood.

Ans: Some 1,400 women die every day from problems related to pregnancy and childbirth. Tens of thousands more experience complications during pregnancy, many of which are life-threatening for the women and their children-or leave them with severe disabilities. The dangers of child bearing can be greatly reduced if a woman is healthy and well nourished before becoming pregnant, if she has a health check-up by a trained health worker at least four times during every pregnancy, and if the birth is assisted by a skilled birth attendant such as a doctor, nurse or midwife. The woman should also be checked during the 12 hours after delivery and six weeks after giving birth. Government’s have a particular responsibility to make prenatal and postnatal services available, to train health workers to assist at child-birth, and to provide special care and referral services for women, who have serious problems during pregnancy and child-birth.

Methods: Many women die every day from problems related to pregnancy and child-birth. Many more experience complications during pregnancy, many of which are life-threatening for the women and their children-or leave them with severe disabilities. The dangers of childbearing can be greatly reduced if a woman is healthy and well nourished before becoming pregnant, if she has a health check-up by a trained health worker at least four times during every pregnancy, and if the birth is assisted by a skilled birth attendant such as a doctor, nurse or midwife. The woman should also be checked during the 12 hours after delivery and six weeks after giving birth.

Investments in safe motherhood not only improve women’s health and the health of her family, but also increase the labor supply, productive capacity and economic well-being of communities, ultimately having a positive impact on the economy. Children whose mothers die or are disabled in childbearing have drastically diminished prospects of leading a productive life. The burden on women associated with frequent pregnancies, poor maternal health, pregnancy complications and caring for sick children drains their productive energy, jeopardises their income-earning capacity, and contributes to their poverty. Investments in safe motherhood not only improve women’s health and the health of her family, but increase the capacity and economic well-being of communities, ultimately having a positive impact on the economy.

Pillars of Safe Motherhood

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