NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 12 Space Management, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Space Management

Chapter: 12




Q. 1. List two important aspects of space organisation.

Ans: Indoor space connects with limitless outdoor space by means of glass walls, porches, etc. A sense of the beauty of space makes us want large undecorated walls and floors which connect space without disturbing its effect.

Q. 2. Give any two examples other than discussed in the lesson, where two activities can be dovetailed.

Ans: – Washing clothes + baking cake

– Knitting + watching TV.

– Cutting vegetables + watching TV.

– Cooking vegetables + washing utensils. 

Q. 3. List the provisions needed for a study area.

Ans: The study table should be placed where there is a provision for good natural and artificial lighting with least disturbance. It can be in the bedroom or it can be clubbed with the dining room using the dining table for writing. A bookshelf or cabinet can be accommodated on or along the wall to keep books and stationery.


Q. 1. Make a critical analysis of the following statements:

(i) One area should be allotted for performing activity only.

Ans: No, more than one activity can also be performed one area for effective utilisation of space e.g. – living room can be used for sleeping at night.

(ii) Materials and equipment required frequently should be stored at a convenient height.

Ans: Yes, this reduces work thus saving time and energy.

(iii) A folding dining table fixed in the wall is recommended for meeting space constraints.

Ans: Yes, when not in use it can be folded away giving ample space for movement. 

(iv) Arrangement of areas for pre-preparation cooking and washing should be as near each other as possible.

Ans: Yes, these are related activities and can be easily dovetailed. This will save both time and energy. 

(v) The bathroom floor should be highly polished to look clean.

Ans: No, that might result in a slippery floor, which can cause accidents.

(vi) Electric points can be placed anywhere in the bathroom.

Ans: No, electric points in the bathroom should be kept away from water sources.

Q. 2. (a) Draw a diagram of your kitchen to indicate storage of various items. Suggest two changes to have more efficient storing.

Ans: The Straight Kitchen: The Straight Kitchen is a design that places all work centers on one wall. It is difficult to provide ample countertop and storage space with all work centers against one wall. Small cabinets can be hung on a height for storage. Space below the counters can be divided into many shelves.


(b) Draw any two kitchen layouts.

Ans: 1. L-shaped kitchen: The L-shaped Kitchen is a good option for a two cook kitchen. It is a very good design, providing ample counter space, and good access to work centers, and a much better traffic flow than some designs. This layout unused corner to be utilised as a dining area. This is a wonderful choice for medium sized kitchens.


2. The U-Shaped Kitchen: The U-Shaped Kitchen is also a great design. This design is a great option for a larger kitchen. It has lots of counter space, good access to work centers and plenty of room for two cooks. This layout gets rid of household traffic through the kitchen giving the cook plenty of room to work.



Q. 1. Suggest four space saving furniture items for sleeping purposes.

Ans: Folding bed, trunk beds, diwan, sofa-cum-bed, pull-out beds.

Q. 2. Give suitable ideas for managing the following activity areas:

(i) studying.

Ans: Studying: The study table should be placed where there is a provision for good natural and artificial lighting with least disturbance. It can be in the bedroom as discussed earlier or it can be clubbed with the dining room using the dining table for writing. A bookshelf or cabinet can be accommodated on or along the wall to keep books and stationery.

(ii) entertainment.

Ans: Entertainment and Recreation Area: Entertainment area is where all members of the family get together, chat, watch TV, or do any similar work. This can either be in the drawing room or there can be a separate living room or a living-cum-bedroom. Formal entertainment should be in the drawing room. If this room is large enough, it can be divided into two parts-one for sitting purpose where sofa sets, chairs, tables, etc. can be arranged and the other for dining. The divider between the two areas can have shelves which can be used for displaying or storing various things.

(iii) bathing.

Ans: Bathing: Bathroom should have shelves for storage, mirror and some flowers for beauty. Provide enough counter and shelf space around the lavatory for toiletries, shampoo, etc., as well as towel hanging space. Also, soap and towels should be within easy reach of a person seated on the bidet. The ideal place for a paper holder is slightly in front of the toilet bowl edge, 26″ up from the finished floor.

Q. 3. Save work area can be used to perform different kinds of activities. Explain giving two examples.

Ans: Economy of space is an important factor. One can be flexible over the use of room to solve problem. Dining can take place in kitchen and if there is a separate dinning room it may be used as a study or living room also.


Q. 1. List the things that add to the efficiency of the worker.

Ans: Listening to instructions: Misunderstandings and miscommunications can be avoided by listening to what is being said. It is human nature to speak and react first, then listen later.

Taking responsibility: Pay attention to detail; the more you know what to do and when to do it. When things go wrong, most people will follow their human nature and shift the blame to others. Yet, valuable workers are not afraid to take responsibility for their actions.

Taking initiative: Generally, there are two types of workers:

• those who wait to be told what to do, and 

• those who think things through and keep busy by constantly finding tasks that need performing.

There is a saying that goes like this: “Give a busy man more work, as it is likely to be done efficiently.”

Being responsive: Let that person know that you heard him. This is common courtesy. Responding to people is just another way of showing them that they matter.

Perform duties cheerfully: Positive, cheerful attitudes can be “contagious.” 

Being dependable: By your actions, show people that they can depend on you, and that you keep your commitments. Arrive to work on time, return phone calls, and perform tasks on time, remember that simple commitments are important too.

Staying healthy: You can avoid falling sick by simply eating healthy, staying away from junk food, getting plenty of rest, exercising, etc. In other words, by doing all that you can to prevent sickness.

Becoming self-disciplined: Good worker is one who stays on track. He doesn’t allow things outside the job to creep in and steal his time, attention and energy from doing what he has been hired to do. He remains focused.

Exceeding expectations: Too many workers do only what they are required to do, and nothing more. You can instantly increase your value by willing to take on duties that others refuse to do.

Q. 2. ‘Size of the rooms has no bearing on the size of the furniture and other things.’ Comment.

Ans: Decorating Ideas for Small Rooms Select fewer, larger pieces of furniture to make a room appear more open and less cluttered opposed to putting lots of small pieces of furniture in the room. Taller furniture should be placed along a far wall while shorter furniture may be placed away from the wall giving a sense of spaciousness. Even in the case of two rooms of the same floor plan a difference in the character of the rooms will necessitate differences in the proportions of many of the decorative units and in their relation to the whole. A drawing room is to express the ideas of happiness, as opposed to those of peace; it must be filled with relatively small and light pieces of furniture and decorative objects, even when the room itself is large. Thus many women feel that a living room to be comfortably furnished, must be regardless of its size, have a big diwan and two or more big chairs. The furniture of most rooms is of many kinds and sizes. In the living room, for example, some pieces, like bookcases, are immovable and semi structural in character; others, like the davenport and reading table, are closely related by their size and importance to the structure of the room and by their use to the changing moods and needs of the household.

Q. 3. Why should all the equipments and fixtures required for a job be placed in the work centre?

Ans: All equipments and fixtures required for a job should be placed at the work centre for easy reach and good visibility.

Q. 4. What is the role of colour in decorating a room?

Ans: Colour can make or spoil the appearance of a room. Colour selection is also dependant on the place. Colour also reflects moods. Red is a colour indicative of excitement, anger and passion. Blue especially sky blue denotes patience and calm. Choose the right colour scheme. Colour must be the first choice of the decorator as it is easier to mix and match furniture when your basic wall colours are in place. Colour brightens up a room .It is the colour choice which either makes the room look big or small. Colour choice has to be balanced with draperies natural and artificial light.


Q. 1. What do you understand by space organisation? Explain its significance. 

Ans: Space organisation means being able to find your stuff when you need it, not after an hour or more of searching. But it doesn’t necessarily mean you’re neat or clean. Space organisation just means everything has a place and you know where that place is in your home. Good design is as much about organisation and making life less complicated as it is about whether something is pretty.

Significance: The significance lies in the principle of minimal and clean; getting rid of unused, unnecessary thing is the primary purpose which helps make a space useful. One elegant way to create a very clean look while adding large amounts of accessible storage is a wall-to-wall, floor-to-ceiling closet; when the closet is open you see everything and when it is closed you see nothing.

Multi-purpose is also related to the concept of useful. Sometimes particular items of furniture, such as a wall-bed, can allow a small space to serve two purposes. Another space. planning example is an aptly placed walkway that provides direct access to multiple areas rather than to just one.

Relevant being relevant is closely related to being useful. It suggests that the contents of a space should be just what you need, when and where you need them. “Just in time” and “just in place” are similar ideas.

Another one is accessibility. Having near at hand what you need when you need it speeds up any job and minimises frustration. Well organised space should help create flow- smooth, steady, easy, enjoyable progress. 

Irrelevant items need to be out of the way both physically and visually. “Clearing the decks” aids in making a space relevant by removing physical and mental distractions. 

A distinct having sharp visual or physical separation helps identify exactly what things are and where they belong. Separating items into groups, or even just piles like when you are sorting the laundry, is an example of creating distinctions.

If possible make each area completely self- contained, containing every item and only those items you actually need.

Using appropriate containers helps to keep items both distinct (e.g., all the 1/4″ screws in one all phone books together on one shelf) and accessible. Selecting the right containers to fit the job is part of organising space.

Obvious: Making it obvious what a space is for and how to find items in it is a valuable time and mind saver. Simplicity is a virtue. Visual dividers or clear signs might help accomplish this. An example would be storing tools stored within their coloured outlines on a well ordered work bench. Other aspects of obvious are order and hierarchy, Having a “place for everything and everything in its place” makes it quick to find and store things. Of course order and hierarchy are the underlying concepts behind the way books are organised in a public library.

Elegant: The inner beauty of a well organised space could also be described as elegant. This term suggests such thing as using space in ways that are especially apt, appropriate, comfortable, and beautiful. It includes knowing just where to spread and where to be concise. It includes everything working out in a beautiful, integrated fashion.

Q. 2. Differentiate between functional and dead storage.

Ans: Storage space is an important part of planning in a home. Functional storage is one which serves a purpose and is constantly in use like the drawer in your room or your clothing cupboard. All these are at easy hand reach. Things used occasionally may be stored at a height above normal reach. This is called dead storage.

Q. 3. All major family activities can be divided into sub-activities.’ Explain with the help of an example. 

Ans: Functions grouped into the following four core areas: 

1. Financial Management: Primary responsibility for writing checks, balancing checkbook, developing and maintaining a budget, banking, record keeping and paying bills. 

2. Meal Management: Primary responsibility for planning and preparing meals for self or self and others.

3. Home Management: Primary responsibility for cleaning and maintaining the household including but not limited to: minor household repairs, interior home cleaning, exterior home maintenance, cleaning and mending clothing, preparation of shopping lists, medication identification and organisation.

4. Family Care: Primary responsibility for a dependent child (ren) or incapacitated adult living in close enough proximity to allow for daily care. The consumer must be involved in providing regular physical care to the family member however; the family member can live in a separate setting nearby.

Steps in cooking activities: purchasing, storing, pre-preparation, cooking, serving and handling left-over.

Q. 4. What do you understand by the term ‘work centre’?

Ans: Work centre is a main area for an activity with a number of connected functions. 

Q. 5. Mention the specific requirements of the sub-centers for the following:

(i) – cooking area.

Ans: Cooking area: The principa activities in the kitchen are, generally recognized as being:

• Food preparation.

• Cooking.

• Serving. and

 • Washing up.

Each activity zone needs to include the work- top(s) and appliances required for that activity also the zone will require the storage space for utensils, ingredients, etc. required for it.

(ii) – bathing area.

Ans: Bathing area: It has the bathing space with taps and shower at the correct height. A corner is specially used for geyser. Then there is a cabinet for medicine chest, a hammer for dirty linen, shelves to hold toilet accessories, phone, radio, magazine, etc.

Laundry centre may also be provided in the bathroom with enough space to store equipment and supplies.

The movement around the different sub- areas should be without slipping or hitting the head against any fittings on the wall. The slope of the floor should be towards the drain.

(iii) – play area for children. 

Ans: Play area for children: Small children need indoor play space in unpleasant weather; a room or a part of a room or a room corner can be used as a recreational centre. Furniture should be sturdy accident proof, easy to keep clean and above all the size of the child. Walls should preferably be of washable paints. Hang everything at eye level. Provide space for storage and display of books magazine, music play-items, etc. Good lighting is essential.

Q. 6. List the guidelines for making a work centre more effective.

Ans: The clutter sorting work can be very tough going through supplies.

The process requires a five step process:

1. Grouping.

2. Assigning.

3. Purging.

4. Containing.

5. Keeping it up.

First, take the time to group projects or like items together, to actually see what is available. Now, make 3 piles: keepers, givers and tosses.

Go ahead and keep what will be used in the near future. Give away the items that a fellow crafter might use and then throw the unused unwanted left over. Then, put the remaining supplies neatly away, and keep it organised.

Be creative: To keep leisure areas neat and contained often takes some creativity. For instance, a child might collect stuffed animals. However, in no time at all, the bed is covered and the child has no room to sleep at night. So buy some netting and hang it from the ceiling on corner walls. The hammock-like result is an excellent place to store furry friends.

Optimise storage: Similarly; craft areas or home libraries require space that simply may not be available. Therefore, it will take some creativity to utilise storage areas with stackable containers or shelving, making the most of lira ited space. Magazines and online searches will give ideas for personal organisation

Q. 7. What can be the other uses of the bedroom besides sleeping and what provisions need to be made for these activities?

Ans: Bedroom can be used for entertainment say for watching TV. In such a situation the distance between the TV. and the bed/chair should not strain the eye. Bedroom can also be used as a study room. Then in the same room a study table and a cabinet for books will have to be arranged.

Q. 8. What are the various changes in furniture and fixtures that can be made in a one room house to make provision for all the work areas of the house?

Ans: Consider space-efficient furniture that can be built-in, stacked, knocked down, folded, deflated or rolled up. Also, consider mobile furniture, carts and storage pieces having parts that move, pull out, or fold down (for example, a slant top desk, a mobile work and serving cart, a breakfront that opens up for serving food, tables that not only open up, but also raise and lower from dining level to coffee table height). Consider some storage pieces that can be moved from place to place – a light fixture that can be clamped onto any protruding surface like a bookshelf, or slipped into brackets on the wall. Often safety factors and efficiency make furniture on wheels or casters desirable, such as a cutting block, a television or even a piano. Select tables, desks, and chests with many drawers and shelves, if possible, instead of open bottom furniture with long legs and one thin drawer. Choose a chair with an ironing board on the back, a bed with drawers or with a trundle beneath it. An inflatable air mattress requires very little space to store and can provide a comfortable bed for guests.

Built-Ins: Built-ins include bookshelves, closets, cabinets and chests, seating and beds (platform or bunk). Popular built-in furniture looks trim, saves space. Built-ins often provide customised storage for specific items. A seat with drawers, chest or container storage beneath it, can serve as a reading nook, offer extra sleeping space and supply storage space for hobbies, bedding, out-of-season clothes, shoes and boots, or even as a visitor’s chest of drawers. A similar built-in for the kitchen can provide bench seating around a table, with storage space beneath for bulky or seasonal items, such as a turkey roaster, punch bowl or picnic basket.

Q. 9. Enumerate the benefits of aesthetics in work area. Suggest various ways in which the work area can be made attractive.

Ans: Interior designing, interior decoration or décor is a practice concerned with anything that is found inside a space – walls, windows, doors, finishes, textures, light, furnishings and furniture. All of these elements are used by interior designers to develop a functional, safe and aesthetically pleasing space for a building’s user. Take steps today toward organisation bliss! Take for example the kitchen

Functional Cabinet:

Install a wall-mounted shelf to keep baking supplies off the counter but within easy reach.

Double the shelf’s utility by adding hooks to hang towels, pot holders, and tools. Pin up items to be kept out of sight, such as rubber gloves, sponges, and plastic bags, on the inside of a cabinet door. Using hot glue, affix magnets to the back of plain clothespins, and glue the other magnets directly to the door.

In the bedroom:

Utilise the space under your bed for organised storage – not just kicking it under the bed. If your bed is higher off the ground, building drawers or storage units can provide a wonderful out-of-the-way retreat for lesser used items such as out of season shoes, or clothing. It can also be a great place for extra bedroom linens.

In a small home:

Arrange your furniture in a way that will expose areas of the floor. You can use low counters or armless chairs to prevent covering your windows or doors’ view. Making use of any piece of multifunctional furniture can save space. Bring in Additional Light to your small space. Eliminate gloomy shadows by revealing windows and supplementing with light fixtures.

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