NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 10 Family Resources Management, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Family Resources Management

Chapter: 10




Q. 1. Your friend wants to become a doctor. She is living with her parents and a brother, who wants to become an engineer. Both of them, your friend and her brother, are studying in classes VIII and XII respectively. Now state:

(a) resources they will need to reach their goals.

Ans: Resources needed to become doctor and engineer: 

(i) Ability and skills.

(ii) Secure good marks in class XII examinations.

(iii) Clear entrance examination. 

(iv) Good health.

(v) Reference books.

(vi) Furniture and place to sit and study.

(vii) Money.

(b) categories to which these resources belong. 

Ans: Human resources:

(i) Ability and skills.

(ii) Secure good marks in class XII examinations.

(iii) Clear entrance examination. 

(iv) Good health.

Non-human resources:

(v) Reference books.

(vi) Furniture and place to sit and study.

(vii) Money.

Q. 2. Separate and prepare a list of the following resources as individual and family resources:

(a) House.

(b) Baking skill of your mother.

(c) Your ability to ride a bicycle.

(d) Your father’s capability of driving a car.

(e) Car.

(f) Inherited land in your village. 

(g) Equipments in your house.

(h) Monthly salary of your father.

Ans: (a) Individual resources: 

(b) Baking skill of your mother.

(c) Your ability to ride a bicycle.

(d) Your father’s capability of driving a car. 

(b) Family resources: 

(a) House.

(e) Car.

(f) Inherited land in your village. 

(g) Equipments in your house.

(h) Monthly salary of your father.

Q. 3. List the kind of resources you will need for the following:

(a) Reaching your office on time everyday.

 Ans: Reaching office: Time, money, energy, vehicle.

(b) Giving a party to your friends after passing your NIOS examination.

 Ans: Giving party: Money, ingredients needed for dishes, crockery, cutlery, furniture, space, table linen, etc.


Q. 1. List any four ways of maximising satisfaction from resources.

Ans: In order to achieve maximum satisfaction out of whatever resources are available we have to learn to manage them well.

(i) Increasing supply of resources. 

(ii) Knowing alternate uses.

(iii) Increasing utility and expanding appreciation.

(iv) Balancing choices.

Q. 2. Give an example of a resource that you can create or cultivate in yourself.

Ans: Learn stitching and stitch clothes of the family members; can also earn money by stitching clothes for others.

Q. 3. What are the three ‘Rs’ that you should adopt to get maximum satisfaction from the use of resources?

Ans: Reduce, Re-use, Re-cycle.


Q. 1. Define management.

Ans: Management is generally defined as the art and science of getting things done through others. This definition emphasises that a manager plans and guides the work of other people. Some individuals think that this means managers don’t have any work to do themselves. Managers have a lot of work to do.

Q. 2. List two advantages of management. Explain with an example each.

Ans: When you’re organised, you’re on time (not late), well-fed (never out of food), comfortably 1 clothed (not out of clean laundry), and under budget (no more debt collectors). There is less stress, the important tasks get accomplished, and you find yourself living in a comfortable environment free from visual clutter.

Q. 3. List three important things involved in planning. 

Ans: Listing activities, sequencing activities and flexibility.

Q. 4. Re-arrange the following stages of the management process in the correct order.

(i) Organising.

(ii) Evaluating.

(iii) Planning.

(iv) Controlling.

Ans: Planning, organising, controlling, evaluating.

Q. 5. State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.

(i) Planning does not need controlling. 

Ans: F.

(ii) Evaluation is often not required while controlling.

Ans: F.

(iii) Plans are fixed in nature.

Ans: F.

(iv) Everyone in the family should consult others while preparing their own plans.

Ans: T.

(v) While organising, you need to fix responsibilities to carry out the plan.

Ans: T.

(vi) Anyone can do any activity to accomplish a plan. 

Ans: F.

Q. 6. List with an example the activities involved in:

(i) Organizing.

(ii) Controlling.

Ans: Planning and organising are essential to the success of any manager. Controlling is when the plan is put into action. It has three steps. It is a joint action of the family members.

• Energising

• Checking or directing or giving instructions.

• Adjusting or flexibility.

With today’s busy lifestyles, it’s easy to become disorganised and harder to be anything but disorganised.

Making Bathrooms work for your family:

• A towel rack for every family member, “lights” and “darks” dirty clothes buckets, hooks for clothes, containers for bathroom tools, cleaning supply container stored nearby.

Set the standard: everyone cleans up after themselves, every time. Fixing up the laundry room for a fast and easy wash.

• A rack for wet items, a rod for hanging clean clothes, a flat surface for folding items, containers for transporting to and from, a rug for comfort, and good music to pass the time.

• Keep at the task until it is done: Use a timer to know when the washer has stopped, fold the clothes immediately when the dryer is done, and take family’s help to put items away.

(ii) Controlling: Get a piece of paper and write down each name and next to each name write down what each does, including you. Now that you’ve taken an accounting of what you are doing and what your family members are doing, decide fairly what isn’t getting done at all, the way you want or divided fairly. If child doesn’t get chances to learn skills, how will they ever learn them?


Q. 1. List four values considered important by

(a) you, (b) your family, (c) your friend. Would you change your values and standards because your friend wishes you to do so? What factors should you consider while fixing your values, standards and goals?

Ans: (a) You

– Acceptance.

– Accomplishment.

– Attractiveness.

– Capability.

(b) Your family

– Adaptability.

– Affection.

– Assurance.

– Belonging.

(c) Your friend

– Amusement.

– Appreciation.

– Cheerfulness.

– Compassion.

Q. 2. Define values, standards and goals.

Ans: Values are the principles and standards that influence the way we work and behave. A person chooses for herself, that is, in accordance with values or standards of her own, rather than in accordance with the values or standards of others. In global world standards and values will change as cultural values and mores change; ideas and assumptions will surely change as knowledge changes and grows and as resources and skill develop. People shift and adapt in relation to changed knowledge and ideas. However one should be open to improvement and change so should take corrective actions to improve overall performance.

A goal or objective consists of a projected state of affairs which a person or a system plaus or intends to achieve or bring about – a personal or organisational desired end-point in some sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines.

Q. 3. Categorise the following in the categories of:

(a) a few hours.

(b) a few days.

(c) a few months.

(d) a few years.

1. Cooking food ___________.

Ans: a few hours.

2. Cleaning cupboard ___________.

Ans: a few hours.

3. Finishing an assignment for NIOS ___________.

Ans: a few days.

4. Receiving a certificate from NIOS ___________.

Ans: a few years.

5. Knitting a pullover for yourself ___________.

Ans: a few months.

6. Higher education for children ___________.

Ans: a few years.

7. Marriage of a daughter ___________.

Ans: a few years.


Q. 1. Your father wants to take the family for a picnic. Present the steps he should consider to decide about a suitable place and time for it.

Ans: Planning picnic – whether it’s simple or extravagant.  


Step One: Choose a scenic venue for your outdoor meal nearby parks, rooftops, beaches, mountain ridges or meadows are just a few ideas. You can have a picnic almost anywhere.

Step Two: Invite someone (or a group of people) to join you in the fun. 

Step Three: Plan a menu based on the amount of people and the load you can carry. Ask friends to bring certain items to lighten your responsibilities.

Step Four: Outfit yourself with the necessary equipment. A picnic basket filled with plates, utensils (don’t forget the bottle/can opener and corkscrew), cups, plastic containers and napkins is recommended. Pack trash bags to carry away any disposables.

Step Five: Line the bottom of your picnic basket with a towel or plastic to catch any spillage along the way.

Step Six: Pack your food. Place heavier items on the and lighter ones on the top.

Step Seven: Bring along a picnic blanket and/or folding chairs for your sitting and dining comfort. Also pack flashlights or lanterns for night-time picnic, or in the event your daytime adventure carries on into the night.

Step Eight: Carry insect repellent and extra clothing layers. You never know when you’ll need them.

Step Nine: Get going. Hop on a bus, get in your car or walk over to your favourite spot and make memories.

Q. 2. State whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F). Give reasons for you answer.

(a) A decision is the selection of a number of courses of action among alternate choices.

Ans: F.

Reason: Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice.

(b) The first step of decision-making is to identify the problem correctly.

Ans: T.

Reason: State the problem – The first and arguably the most important step in the decision making model in five steps is to identifying the problem. Until you have a clear understanding of the problem or decision to be made, it is meaningless to proceed. If the problem is stated incorrectly or unclearly then your decisions will be wrong.

(c) A family’s resources and goals are the major factors to be kept in mind while choosing among various courses of action.

Ans: T.


1. Effective decision-making means that you can “make things happen,” instead of just “letting things happen.”

2. Before setting goals, do your goal research. How do your goals relate to your or to your family’s overall goals? Be sure you see the big picture.

3. Goals must be realistic, achievable.

4. Goals may be short term, medium or long term.

5. Consider moral values, ethics, emotions, and happiness.

6. Are people and resources available to research the decision?

7. Assign responsibilities. Consider family’s core competences.

Decisions About Resources

Decision-making in resource management focuses on two general areas of concern – resource development and resource allocation. Where the kinds of resources available to the individual or family are inadequate to assure goal achievement, decisions about how additional resources can be achieved are necessary. Where many goals are being pursued, and the resources for achieving them are limited in amount, quality, or kind, decisions about how to allocate or distribute the available resources among the goals are required. These decisions can be:

Social decisions: Social decisions are the selection and ordering of goals by priority, decisions about which of the available resources are relevant for the given family situation, and the general roles to be played by family members. Social decisions involve conflicts among goals, values, or standards which require mediation and integration if the family is to be able to work together as a group.

Allocative decisions: A search for the most productive ways to distribute relevant resources among their alternative uses involves allocative decisions. This is where the basic concepts of economics come into play in the making of decisions. When goals have been established and resources are limited, the decisions which have to do with allocating the existing resources among these goals are economic decisions.

Technical decisions: This is the answering of the what, when, who, how and why questions in relation to getting a given task, or a whole cluster of tasks, done harmoniously and efficiently. Once resources have been committed to the achievement of a specific goal, deciding on the best way to use those resources is a technical decision.

Coordination-interaction decisions.

These are decisions such as:

1. What are the best means of communicating within the family? 

2. What information is necessary for making family decisions and how will new information be obtained?

3. What are the criteria by which evaluation takes place? 

4. What are the responsibilities of family members in the process of making family decisions? and 

5. What are the ways of motivating family members to play their respective roles?

(d) The course of action selected after analysing all the alternatives should ideally satisfy all family members.

Ans: T.

Reason: Family decisions give each person an opportunity to voice opinions on matters that affect work and family living. If the older children are a part of the decision-making team, they will be more understanding of family goals and problems. Through this experience, they will learn and be able to help the family make better decisions.

Making a decision involves making a choice and selecting from among alternatives. All deci-sions carry with them some dissatisfactions and conflicts. The bad must be accepted along with the good. Successful decision-making means making a choice that has enough of the impor-tant satisfactions in it to outweigh the less im- portant dissatisfactions.

(e) Decision-making is a one time process to set up major family goals. 

Ans: F.


1. Identify the problem which needs to be solved.

2. Decide on the goal you want to achieve. 

3. How will you determine when your task is completed to your satisfaction? In other words, what is your standard for this goal?

4. What resources will you need to reach this goal? 

5. What alternatives do you have to reach your goal?

6. Which alternative offers you the best course of action? Why?

7. In what order would it be best to organise your actions?

8. Do you need to make any revisions? If so, explain.

9. Carry out your plan. Keep a record of the decisions needed to keep your plans moving toward a goal.


Q. 1. Define the term resources and classify them.

Ans: Resources are what people use to reach their goals.

Classification of resources:

1. Personal resources, e.g. abilities, skills. 

2. Family resources, e.g. car, house, furnishings, etc.

3. Community resources, e.g. market place, park, fire dept., police, etc. 

4. National resources, e.g. water, trees, roads, etc. 

5. World Society resources, e.g. UNO, etc.

Q. 2. What is management? Describe the steps of management by using an example.

Ans: Management is a planned activity directed towards accomplishing desired goals. 

1. The process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people.

2. The process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of five basic management functions: planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling; that utilise human, financial, and material resources.

The first definition looks at the fact that management is getting work done through other people. The second definition divides management up into five components. These components are all parts of the three components (plan, execute, measure). Thus we can say the process of planning, leading, organising and controlling people within a group in order to achieve goals; also used to mean the group of people who do this.

Q. 3. What are the three major motivations in the process of management? 

Ans: (i) Values.

(ii) Standards.

(iii) Goals.

Q. 4. Identify a major goal in your life. State the value(s) from which it originates and the standards(s) you have set to achieve it.

Ans: We develop goals in the 6 areas of life:

(i) Family and Home.

(i) Financial and Career.

(ii) Spiritual and Ethical.

(iv) Physical and Health.

(v) Social and Cultural.

(vi) Mental and Educational.

Reviewing your goals daily is a crucial part of your success and must become part of your routine. When your goals and values are not in line it is as if you have two horses pulling you in different directions. Values will change as you

go through life. For instance as a teen you may find that a spouse, variety or travel are not in your top 10 values. But friends, status and independence are. Ask the same person when they are 35 years old, happily married with children and you will likely find two of their top ten values will include their marriage and children. Our values are the driving forces behind the choices we make. You will also find your values can easily change based on the circumstances. For example, if you are not feeling physically well, how much you value your health can’t help but increase. When your goals and values are not in line they cause mixed emotions. And these conflicts can create difficulties in making the best choices. Yet, if your goals and values are in line, supporting each other, positive emotions are triggered.

Standards differ from family to family and from person to person within a family, because each has different values. Standards are not easily changed. Families often experience conflicts and stress when they try to develop new standards to meet changes in their lives.

Guiding Values in family

• Love

• Integrity

• Accountability

These guiding values are best maintained and strengthened when all family members meet minimum standards of behaviour.

Family Standards

1. Selflessness.

2. Compassion.

3. Honesty.

4. Trust.

5. Respect.

6. Financial Integrity.

7. Clear expectations of right and wrong.

8. Responsibility.

Femininity and masculinity may shape values and standards. Factors that may influence decision-making include access to resources, the type of problem, past experiences and personal values as well as attitude to change.

Q. 5. Write briefly the importance of decision-making. List the steps of decision- making.

Ans: Decision-making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and choose the one that best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values and so on.

Steps in decision-making

1. Information: This is knowledge about the decision, the effects of its alternatives, the probability of each alternative, and so forth. A major point to make here is that while substantial information is desirable, the statement that “the more information, the better” is not true. Too much information can actually reduce the quality of a decision. See the discussion on the effects of quantity on decision-making above.

2. Alternatives: These are the possibilities one has to choose from. Alternatives can be identified (that is, searched for and located) or even developed (created where they did not previously exist). Merely searching for pre-existing alternatives will result in less effective decision-making.

3. Criteria: These are the characteristics or requirements that each alternative must possess to a greater or lesser extent. Usually the alternatives are rated on how well they possess each criterion. For example, alternative Toyota ranks an 8 on the criterion of economy, while alternative Buick ranks a 6 on the same criterion.

4. Goals: What is it you want to accomplish? Strangely enough, many decision-makers collect a bunch of alternatives (say cars to buy or people to marry) and then ask, “Which should I choose?” without thinking first of what their goals are, what overall objective they want to achieve. Next time you find yourself asking, “What should I do? What should I choose?” ask yourself first, “What are my goals?” A component of goal identification should be included in every instance of decision analysis.

5. Value: Value refers to how desirable a particular outcome is, the value of the alternative, whether in dollars, satisfaction, or other benefit.

6. Preferences: These reflect the philosophy and moral hierarchy of the decision-maker. We could say that they are the decision-maker’s “values,” but that might be confusing with the other use of the word, above. If we could use that word here, we would say that personal values dictate preferences. Some people prefer excitement to calmness, certainty to risk, efficiency to esthetics, quality to quantity, and so on. Thus, when one person chooses to ride the wildest roller coaster in the park and another chooses a mild ride, both may be making good decisions, if based on their individual preferences.

7. Decision Quality: This is a rating of whether a decision is good or bad. A good decision is a logical one based on the available information and reflecting the preferences of the decision-maker.

8. Acceptance: Those who must implement the decision or who will be affected by it accept it both intellectually and emotionally. Acceptance is a critical factor because it occasionally conflicts with one of the quality criteria. In such cases, the best thing to do may be to choose a lesser quality solution that has greater acceptance.

Q. 6. Rearrange the jumbled letters to identify the correct term describing the statements written below:

(i) Means for reaching our needs and goals – CESURROSE.


(ii) Using what you have to achieve what you want – MGEATMENNA. 


(iii) First step of management – INLAGPNN.


(iv) Fixing assembling management – NNSROGGEAII 


(v) Carrying out the activities as planned and organised earlier – GIOONNTCRLL.


(vi) Checking the progress of your plan and taking corrective measures – TVAALUENIO.


(vii) Measures of worth that help you to make choices among alternate courses of action – SULEVA.


(viii) Measures of values that compel individuals to perform actions that give the desired satisfaction – DTAASRNSD.


(ix) Purpose that we want to achieve – OSALG.


(x) Selection of a course of action among alternative choices – NECII DOS.


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