NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 29 Towards The Formation Of The State, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Towards The Formation Of The State

Chapter: 29




Fill in the blanks:

1. The Rigveda was probably composed. between ______, ______ B.C.

Ans: 1800–1000

2. The hymns do not provide us with direct information about _____events. 

Ans: political

3. Usually the best pasture lands are along _____.

Ans: Rivers

4. The people who called themselves as Aryas, fought with others, whom they called ______ or ______. 1. 

Ans: Dasas, Dasyu


Fill in the Blanks:

1. Almost all the Mahajanapadas had a ______city.

Ans: Capital

2. Buidling such huge walls required a great deal of _______.

Ans: planning

3. These cities were sustained by development in agriculture, where with the use of iron tools it now became possible to ______ more _______.

Ans: produce 

4. Alexander conquered part of Egypt, West Asia, came to the Indian subcontinent, reaching upto the banks of the ______.

Ans: Beas


Q. 1. Which was the most powerful janapada?

Ans: Magadha was the most powerful janapada.

Q. 2. Which means of transport and communication were used to acquire control routes by the armies of Magadha? 

Ans: Overland and along rivers were means of transport and communication used to acquire control routes by the armies of Magadha.

Q. 3. How much tax of the agricultural produce was taken by the ruler?

Ans: 1/6 agricultural produce was taken as tax by the ruler.

Q. 4. Name any two powerful rulers of Magadha.

Ans: Bimbisara and Ajatashatru.


Q. 1. What is Rigveda?

Ans: (i) The Rigveda is a collection of hymns addressed to various gods, in particular to Agni, Indra and Soma.

(ii) It was composed between 1800-1000 BC. The hymns were usually chanted when sacrifices were performed, and were used to invite the gods to the rituals.

(iii) The hymns also include lists of things for which people prayed. They occasionally give us the names of chiefs or important men of those times.

Q. 2. Why were the battles fought?

Ans: (i) Some battles were fought to acquire pasture land. Usually, the best pasture lands were along rivers.

(ii) Battles were also fought for water for both people and animals, to capture cattle and land, especially for pasture, and for growing hardy crops that ripened quickly, such as barley.

(iii) Battles were also fought to capture women. 

Q. 3. Distinguish between ‘a chiefdom’ and a ‘kingdom’. 

Ans: (i) The realm over which chief exercised control has been defined as a chiefdom and the realm over which a king exercised control has been defined as a kingdom.

(ii) Chiefs of chiefdoms were usually chosen by the people, either directly or indirectly, whereas kings of kingdom were hereditary.

(iii) Chiefs usually do not have any permanent administrative mechanism to support them: they depend on the support of kinsfolk and other followers. While kings may also depend on their relatives for support, they have additionally, an administrative system to depend on.

(iv) Chiefs do not collect regular taxes: instead, they often depend on gifts that may be brought in by their followings. Kings may receive gifts, but their major source of revenue is usually derived from tax collection.

(v) Chiefs do not maintain standing armies: they depend on militia, i.e. people who are called upon to fight as and when necessary, and who are not paid regular salaries. Kings may continue to recruit people as militia, but usually also maintain standing armies.

(vi) Generally, chiefs interact with people in assemblies, where people can express their opinions on important matters. Kings also participate in assemblies, but these tend to be more formal occasions.

Q. 4. Name any four tribes as described in Rigveda. 

Ans: Four tribes as described in Rigveda are:

(i) Purus.

 (ii) Yadus.

 (iii) Bharatas.

 (iv) Anus.

Q. 5. Explain the new ways of becoming a raja. 

Ans: (i) In some cases, the position of the raja was hereditary. In other words, sons inherited or could legitimately claim the kingdom of their fathers.

(ii) Whoever was capable of performing the elaborate rituals of rajasuya and the asvamedha would be recognized as king.

(iii) Many people were expected to take part in such sacrifices. These included the raja. This was major occasion for declaring his power. His family, especially his wives and sons, had to help him in the sacrifices. The other supporters of raja including the chariot driver, family priest, purohita, head of the army, messengers also joined in. The common people, the vis or vaishya, were expected to bring gifts for the raja, which provided much of the wealth needed to perform the sacrifice. Neighbouring rajas were often invited to watch the spectacle. The entire ritual is performed by the priests.

(iv) In the case of the asvamedha or the horse sacrifice, the sacrificial horse was let loose to wander for a year, accompanied by a group of armed men. All those who allowed the horse to pass through tacitly acknowledged the authority of the owner of the horse.

(v) When the horse was brought back, it was sacrificed in an elaborate ritual. Large number of people, including other rulers, priests, and common people, were invited to participate in and/or witness the event. There was feasting and story-telling as well. The entire ceremony was an enormous, expensive ceremony.

(vi) Any aspiring ruler who wanted to perform such a ritual had to be both powerful and wealthy. The priests were rewarded with large sacrificial fees or daksina. These could include horse, cattle, gold and silver objects, chariots, cloths and slave men and women, amongst other things. Thus, by performing the ritual successfully, the raja was able to make a public announcement, as well as a display of this power.

(vii) Many of these rituals included an abhiseka which was a process in which a sprinkling of the ruler with purified, holy water took place. Usually, the first sprinkling was done by the priest, though others, such as the vaisya and the ruler’s relatives, could also participate in the process.

Q. 6. Explain why collecting taxes was important.

Ans: (i) As the rulers of the mahajanapadas were building huge forts, maintaining big armies, they needed a regular supply of money. So collecting taxes became very important.

(ii) Taxes on crops were the most important. Farmers often depended on the ruler for protection of their land and crops. Usually, 1/6th of the produce on the land was fixed as tax.

(iii) There were taxes on crafts. These were usually in the form of labour. 

(iv) There were taxes on goods that were brought and sold through trade.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q.1. When was the Rigveda probably composed?

(a) Between 1800 BC-1000 BC 

(b) Between 1900 BC-1500 BC

(c) 1000 BC

(d) 500 BC 

Ans: (a) Between 1800 BC-1000 BC

Q. 2. The Rigveda is addressed to which god? 

(a) Agni. 

(b) Soma.

(c) Indra.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q. 3. Which of the following term was used for the common people? 

(a) Jana.

(b) Vis.

(c) (a) and (b) 

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) (a) and (b) 

Q. 4. Between which period settled more agriculture became important?

(a) 1000 BC-500 BC

(b) 500 BC-100 BC

(c) 1800 BC-1500 BC

(d) 2500 BC-2000 BC

Ans: (a) 1000 BC-500 BC

Q. 5. Most of the hymns were composed in ______.

(a) North India. 

(b) West India.

(c) North-west India.

(d) West-east India.

Ans: (c) North-west India.

Q. 6. Which metal was increasingly used to make tools and weapons during 1000 BC to 500 BC?

(a) Iron.

(b) Copper.

(c) Manganese. 

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Iron.

Q. 7. In Abhiseka rituals the first sprinkling with purified holy water was done by the ______.

(a) Ruler’s relatives.

(b) priest.

(c) Vaisya.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (b) priest.

Q. 8. Which of the following were the important mahajanapadas?

(a) Kosala.

(b) Avanti.

(c) Vajji.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q. 9. The Mauryan empire had its centre in which mahajanapadas?

(a) Magadha.

(b) Avanti.

(c) Kosala.

(d) Vajji.

Ans: (a) Magadha.

Q. 10. By about 330 BC which ruler decided to embark on an expedition to conquer the world?

(a) Alexander. 

(b) Samudragupta.

(c) Chandragupta.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Alexander. 

Q. 11. The rulers of the mahajanapadas collected taxes on _______.

(a) crops.

(b) crafts.

(c) goods which were bought and sold.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q. 12. Which was the most powerful janapadas?

(a) Magadha.

(b) Vaishali.

(c) Kosala.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Magadha.

Q. 13. Who belonged to gana sanghas?

(a) Buddha.

(b) Mahavira.

(c) (a) and (b) both.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) (a) and (b) both

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