NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 28 Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Cultural Change In The Twentieth Century

Chapter: 28




Q. 1. Give two examples each of revolutionary and slow modes of change witnessed in the twentieth century.

Ans: Examples of revolutionary Changes of the twentieth century include the birth of the Soviet Union in 1917 and the independence of colonised nations of Asia and Africa, led by India from 1947. Illustrations of slow but major cultural changes of the same period include the spread of literacy and ideas through expansion of educational institutions as well as mass media and the increasing globalisation of entertainment, news and knowledge production.

Q. 2. Compare and contrast various interpretations of the term culture. Can you locate some common features in these interpretations?

Ans: (i) The term culture has been used in two different ways by social scientists: to refer to creative work in the arts, literature, philosophy etc., and to denote common values, beliefs and behaviour patterns of a community deriving from its shared history, physical environment and traditions of language, folklore etc. While the former notion of culture is often exclusive to highly talented minds the latter pertains to social groups as a whole.

(ii) Both, however, speak of mental phenomena mainly.

Q. 3. Why is culture such a difficult term in social sciences? 

Ans: The term culture is as difficult as it is important in social sciences because its usage varies across thinkers and also because it refers to phenomena which are neither concrete nor measurable.


Q. 1. Name four outstanding scientists of the twntieth century along with the discoveries.

Ans: (i) Marie Curie: She laid down her life while working on the process of radiation. 

(ii) Albert Einstein: He is credited with the development of the theory of relativity.

(iii) Fyneman: He is responsible for the development of the wave theory of subatomic particles.

(iv) Charles Babbage: He did pioneering work in the creation of computers. Sofe

Q. 2. Name the major art movements which influenced artists and writers across nations in the twentieth century.

Ans: Modernism, Socialist realism, and Post- modernism.

Q. 3. Name a few thinkers who continued to write innovatively on ethical and political issues at a time when excessive specialisation and jargon came to dominate the majority of scholarly writing in the preceding century.

Ans: Bertrand Russel, Noam Chomsky, E.P. Thompson and Amartya Sen.


Q. 1. What is meant by the term cultural institutions in the given text? Name some major institutions of culture.

Ans: Cultural institutions here refer to symbol / systems which are designed to shape attitudes, beliefs and values in a community. Some of the major cultural institutions found in all societies are religion, education, language, folklore and customs and the means of mass communications.

Q. 2. In what ways did the linguistic pattern of the globe change in the twentieth century?

Ans: The twentieth century saw the further consolidation of national languages or major regional languages over local dialects and classical tongues in Asian and several African countries. too. At the same time, English has emerged as a major link language of a globalising world.

Q.3. Name the various new channels of mass communication which revolutionised the ways in which we receive news, information, entertainment and talk today.

Ans: Telephone, radio, cinema, television, tape recorders, compact discs, computers, communication satellites and mobile phones.


Q. 1. Unprecedented growth of science and technology in the twentieth century has not been an unmixed boon. Comment.

Ans: (i) The phenomenal growth of science and technology is perhaps the most remarkable achievement of the twentieth century. It has affected and transformed every aspect of life from entertainment and education to transport and communication at a very rapid pace during the period.

(ii) Cars and aeroplanes, radio and transistors, movies and television, calculators and computers, satellites and mobile phones and lasers and organ transplants are only some of the new products and services made available by modern technology during the preceding century.

(iii) While contemporary science and technology have offered numerous benefits to people, at the same time, the apprehension and fear of science amongst people has also grown simultaneously. Partly this is due to the incomprehensibility of latest advances in modern science even to educated laymen.

(iv) The power to manufacture evermore destructive weapons and to threaten the delicate balance on the earth makes modern science even more awesome.

Q. 2. Despite the fact that most people in the world still describe themselves as religious, the role of religion in public life has declined in recent times. Explain.

Ans: (i) Most people in the world still describe themselves as religious, the role of religion in public life has declined in recent times.

(ii) The shrinking influence of religion in everyday life is evident in the fact that religion does not permeate daily practices ranging from greetings, meals, celebrations, public ceremonies etc., specially in the cities in the manner it did only a hundred years back.

(iii) Religious values and outlook do not entirely encompass other major social institutions such as the state, arts etc. as they did earlier and a vast number of our practices today are actually carried on in a manner quite contradictory to common religious beliefs.

(iv) Thus, only a century ago, most marriages even in the west were solemnised in the church and baptism for every new born was almost mandatory.

(v) By 1990, it was discovered in France that only 30% of couples got married in church.

(vi) Divorce and abortion which were prohibited by the church have become not only legalised in most countries in the west but also increasingly accepted and destigmatised. Similar trends are visible in many Asian and African countries too.

Q. 3. Describe the role of education and students in cultural transformation during the twentieth century. 

Ans: (i) Education and students have played significant role in cultural transformation during the twentieth century. 

(ii) University students have been active in social and cultural protests. The large scale and simultaneous student protests which spread like wild fire form New York and San Fransisco to Paris and Prague in 1968 are still remembered for their radicalism since they sought to not only oppose repressive state policies and educational elitism within these countries, but also spawned robust internationalism and anti-war, anti-imperialist sentiments by challenging US intervention in Vietnam.

(iii) In the more recent decades, however, especially after the fall of the Soviet Union and the proliferation of escapist entertainment channels, student protests seem to be in a state of lull worldwide.

Q.4. Describe the relationship between globalisation and westernisation and also reflect on the challenges as well as opportunities they bring to cultures of countries such as India.

Ans: (i) There is deep relationship between globalisation and westernisation. The growth of multi national corporations, the availability of goods and services from across the globe in city malls and over the internet, cheap and instant communication of ideas, news and information across the globe, the emergence of global trends and markets in fashion, food and entertainment are all indications of the extent of globalisation apparent today.

(ii) Globalisation did not suddenly emerge in the twentieth century. Global trading networks and flow of medical and technical knowledge can be traced back to earlier periods too.

(iii) The process of colonisation of non- European countries by European powers from the beginning of the sixteenth century stepped up the unequal integration of the world in a phenomenal way. But the growth of powerful and far reaching transnational corporations and associations and global media networks are more specific to the preceding century only.

(iv) While these new channels enable global flows of goods, services and information and may be expected to bring greater choice and possibly prosperity to some regions, the reality is that not only have they suddenly disrupted age old cultural patterns and social customs but are also moulding the entire world in western habits and values generally, besides further sharpening inequalities between the rich and the poor across the globe.

(v) Unfortunately, within this advance of western ideas and habits across the globe again, the migration of the great ideals of liberty, equality and democracy into the non-western world have been much more difficult than the contagion of western individualism, materialism, break up of the joint family and community ties, loneliness, neurosis etc.

(vi) On top of this, in many developing countries, the problems of rampant poverty, corruption, criminalization, lawlessness or dictatorships still complicate the situation ominously.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q.1. From which year the Independence of colonised nations of Asia and Africa led by India?

(a) 1947 

(b) 1940

(c) 1950

(d) 1970

Ans: (a) 1947 

Q. 2. The word culture refer to creative work in the field of _____.

(a) arts.

(b) literature.

(c) philosophy. 

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q.3. Who is responsible for the development of the wave theory of sub atomic particles?

(a) Marie Curie.

(b) Fyneman.

(c) Charles Babbage.

(d) Albert Einstein.

Ans: (b) Fyneman.

Q. 4. Which of the following scientists laid down her life while working on the process of radiation?

(a) Marie Curie.

(b) Albert Einstein.

(c) Homi J. Bhabha. 

(d) Fyneman.

Ans: (a) Marie Curie.

Q. 5. Ability to use and comprehend two languages with equal competence is called _____.

(a) Modernism.

(b) Bilingualism.

(c) Jargon.

(d) Secularism.

Ans: (b) Bilingualism.

Q. 6. Excessive use of technical and unfamiliar terms instead of everyday words in a display of scholarship is called _____.

(a) Jargon.

(b) Globalisation.

(c) Modernism. 

(d) None of these. 

Ans: (a) Jargon.

Q. 7. Which language has emerged as a major link language of a globalising world in the twentieth century?

(a) Hindi.

(b) English.

(c) Urdu.

(d) German.

Ans: (b) English.

Q. 8. Who developed the theory of relativity?

(a) Albert Einstein.

(b) Picasso.

(c) Maxim Gorki.

(d) Homi J. Bhabha.

Ans: (a) Albert Einstein.

Q. 9. Who evolved ‘cubism’ or multi dimensional view of figures in paintings?

(a) James Joyce.

(b) Berfold Brecht.

(c) Pablo Picasso.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) Pablo Picasso.

Q. 10. Which of the following is related with the arts and literature? 

(a) Bertold Brecht.

(b) George Bernard Shaw.

(c) Maxim Gorki.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q. 11. In Latin America the anti US resistance was inspired by the poetry of ______.

(a) Pablo Neruda.

(b) Luttsun.

(c) Alexander Blok.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Pablo Neruda.

Q. 12. Nearly how many languages are still spoken in the world today?

(a) 650

(b) 6500

(c) 500 

(d) 1000 

Ans: (b) 6500

Q. 13. In a 1981 survey of religious beliefs in the USA what was the percentage of people describes themselves as atheists?

(a) 10%

(c) 30%

(b) 20%

(d) 25%

Ans: (a) 10%

Q. 14. Which of the following is the great artists of the twentieth century?

(a) Charlie Chaplin.

(b) Satyajit Ray.

(c) Steven Spielberg.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

Q. 15. Which language has emerged as the second adopted language in the world?

(a) English.

(b) Hindi.

(c) Chinese.

(d) French.

Ans: (a) English.

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