NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 27 Social Transformation, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Social Transformation

Chapter: 27




Q. 1. In what way was population growth affected by the two world wars?

Ans: Huge numbers were killed, marriages were delayed, and there were disruption of family lives.

Q.2. How did political factors in Germany affect the migration of population?

Ans: Nazi policies resulted in forced migration of Jews, minorities and political prisoners from Germany, post war reconstruction led to migration into Germany of Turkish workers.

Q.3. What do you mean by urbanisation?

Ans: Shift of population from countryside to towns because of industrialisation and greater economic opportunities in towns.

Q. 4. Name some of the big cities in the developing countries.

Ans: Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Cairo, Shanghai, Nairobi, Seoul, Bangkok etc.


Q. 1. Which are the two new classes which emerged with capitalist industrialization?

Ans: Bourgeoisie (middle class), working class.

Q. 2. Who are the people included in the middle class?

Ans: Industrialists, bankers, lawyers, teachers and other professionals in service sector.

Q. 3. In what way did the emergence of big factories affect workers?

Ans: Employment of some increased, other faced unemployment, wage labour in factory, composition of workers changed.

Q. 4. What impact did capitalist industrialization have on employment of women?

Ans: Employment outside home, unequal pay, factory discipline.


Q. 1. What were the new jobs that women took up in the 20th century? 

Ans: Factory work, teachers, offices and shops.

Q. 2. How are neo-liberal economic policies of the 1990s affected women?

Ans: Increase in unemployment, pushed into unorganised sector and domestic work.

Q.3. How did the factory system change work patterns? 

Ans: Place, pattern, hours of work, discipline norms.

Q.4. Explain the changes brought about by ‘out-sourcing’. 

Ans: Under outsourcing process, big trans- national companies shift some of their functions to Third World countries, where wages are low, and where they can bully governments to ensure that those enterprises remain trouble-free and enjoy tax benefits.


Q. 1. Give the main reasons for population growth in Western Europe and North America.

Ans: There was a sustained growth in world population throughout the 20th century. In Western Europe and North America this was mainly due to better health facilities and decline in infant mortality, and expansion of social security systems allowed for longer lives.

Q. 2. What do we mean by modern class society?

Ans. Modern class society means that social classes which existed before capitalist industrialization were transformed and integrated into the capitalist economy and society, and two new social classes also emerged- the bourgeoisie, and working class.

Q. 3. Describe the impact of agrarian crises in the third world countries. 

Ans: Impact of agrarian crises in the third world countries:

(i) Landlessness is increasing, and enclaves of corporate agriculture have meant a shift to d export crops.

(ii) The demand for export crops from advanced capitalist countries of the west has resulted in decline of food crop production and consequent decline in food consumption by the majority of the peasantry. This has led of thousands of suicides by farmers, and also movements of the peasantry for support prices, lower costs of inputs, and water and electricity for irrigation.

(iii) China has been able to integrate its peasantry very well into its political system, but the market reforms of the last two decades are leading to discontent there as well, as there is a demand of agricultural land for industrial purposes.

Q. 4. How do cities reflect the different lives of the rich and the poor?

Ans: (i) The city and the social life have reflected the strong division of the rich and the poor. They had different spaces in the city to live in, and the amenities and facilities were quite different.

(ii) Multistoried apartments, huge stores and shopping malls, parks and boulevards have changed the landscape of most modern cities, but these co-exist with pollution, bad sewage, slums, one room dwellings shared by two or three families and even homelessness. This continues to be the face of modern cities even today, anywhere in the world. Unemployment has become a dreaded reality.

Q. 5. How did the labour and socialist movements affected women?

Ans: (i) The real filip for women’s emancipation in the western world came from the rise of labour and socialist movements which spoke for all oppressed, and called for the transformation of the whole society along lines that would ensure equality for all, including women. Women saw this as more realistic.

(ii) Women formed a good percentage of union members and also of socialist organisations, although they were not so visible in leadership roles.

(iii) It was not easy for women to assert equality even in these organisations, and demands for equal pay came only when women or enlightened socialist leaderships stressed on it.

(iv) Rosa Luxemburg and Beatrice Webb were celebrated socialist leaders, Colette and Selma Lagerlof were important writers, and women were already participating in tennis tournaments like Wimbledon, French and US Open in the early twentieth century.

(v) Women took up journalism and photography as professionals, and became doctors and engineers. Soviet Union had a large percentage of women in its mass organisations and in the central parliament, and in scientific establishments.

(vi) In Russia the working class movement had a significant component of women, and peasant women were part of the general revolutionary movement.

(vii) In Russia and in the anti-colonial movements they found a much more favourable environment for mass participation.

(viii) In countries like India and China, questions of women’s education, and opposition to backward social practices were part and parcel of the national liberation struggles, and both men and women expressed them very boldly, with the result that in India and China women won their vote as free citizens along with men. The same was true for women in Russia after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Q. 6. Describe the changes in work patterns brought about by computers.

Ans: (i) In the latter part of the century, another set of changes have taken place in work patterns. With computers it is possible to work from home and they are cheaper as there is no need to spend on office maintenance.

(ii) These changes were presented as benefiting employees, but in fact have meant that employees never fully get off the job; they cannot claim ‘leave’ and other benefits that employees can get because they do not work in an office; and no opportunity to form trade unions or share grievances with other employees.

(iii) New types of software allow employers to more closely monitor the work and work time of the employee through the computer networks.

Q. 7. Give some examples of how science and technological advances have improved human life.

Ans: Do yourself.

Q. 8. Is the gap between the rich and the poor increasing/decreasing today? Discuss it thoroughly.

Ans. Do yourself.

Hint. The gap between the rich and the poor has been increasing today. It is due to faulty policies of the government. These days such policies are made which benefit affluent people much more. In other words, policies of these days are pro-rich and not pro-poor.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer. 

Q.1. In the 1990s the world contained

(a) 2 billion human beings.

(b) 4 billion human beings.

(c) 6 billion human beings.

(d) 8 billion human beings. 

Ans: (c) 6 billion human beings.

Q. 2. Population growth in Europe was negatively effected by the:

(a) World War II.

(b) World War I.

(c) Great Depreciation.

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b)

Q. 3. The most intensive out migration from Europe was witnessed during the period :

(a) 1901-15

(b) 1905-10

(c) 1908-17

(d) 1911-22

Ans: (a) 1901-15

Q. 4. Nazi-policies resulted in forced migrations of:

(a) Jews.

(b) minorities.

(c) political prisoners.

(d) all of the above.

Ans: (d) all of the above.

Q. 5. Son preference has destroyed the gender balance in: 

(a) India.

(b) USA.

(c) USSR.

(d) Japan.

Ans: (a) India.

Q. 6. Urbanisation means: 

(a) growth of villages.

(b) growth of towns.

(c) a faster growth of rural population. 

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (b) growth of towns.

Q. 7. In which country more than 95% of the employed population was engaged in manufacturing and services by the mid 1970s?

(a) India.

(b) China.

(c) UK.

(d) Brazil.

Ans: (c) UK.

Q.8. Capitalist industrialization resulted in the growth of:

(a) rural society.

(b) industrial class society.

(c) modern class society.

(d) middle class society.

Ans: (c) modern class society.

Q.9. In which country dramatic fall of peasantries was noticed in the second half of the 20th century?

(a) India.

(c) UK.

(b) China.

(d) Japan.

Ans: (d) Japan.

Q.10. Who the following was the most influential sections among the bourgeoisie?

(a) Capitalists. 

(b) Industrialists.

(c) Factory owners.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q.11. Which of the following is linked directly with the growth of capitalist industry?

(a) The middle class.

(b) The working class.

(c) The lower middle class.

(d) The upper middle class.

Ans: (b) The working class.

Q. 12. What was the new job that women took up in the 20th century?

(a) Factory work.

(b) Teachers.

(c) Offices and Shops.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 13. How did the factory system change work patterns?

(a) Place and pattern.

(b) Hours of work.

(c) Disciplined norms.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 14. Which of the following emerged with capitalist industrialization?

(a) Working class. 

(b) Common labour class.

(c) Officer class.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (a) Working class. 

Q. 15.Who are the people included in the middle class?

(a) Lawyers.

(b) Bankers.

(c) Industrialists.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

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