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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 16 Establishment of British rule in India till 1857
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Establishment of British rule in India till 1857
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.1
Q. 1. Discuss the methods the British used to establish their rule in India.
Ans: The British adopted following methods to establish their rule in India:
(i) Wars and conquests.
(ii) Subsidiary alliance system.
(iii) Annexation of territories through the adoptation of doctrine of lapse.
Q. 2. Name the Indian regional states in the first half of the eighteenth century.
Ans: Bengal, Mysore, Hyderabad, Awadh, Punjab and Maratha kingdom.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.2
Q. 1. Which battle during Third Carnatic War ended almost a century of conflict over supremacy between the French and British powers in India?
Ans: Battle of Wandiwash in January 1760.
Q. 2. Discuss the effects of the Carnatic wars.
Ans: The British supremacy was established and the weakness of the Indian regional powers in particular their inability to make naval interventions and the ineffectiveness of large armies of some of their powers against smaller European forces became manifest.
Q. 3. What were the causes of the British success in Carnatic wars?
Ans: Their strong naval power in India, progressively increasing military strength and good leadership, the support the Company received from the Government in England, and the larger resources at its command in Bengal were some of the reasons for the British success in carnatic wars.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.3
Q. 1. The ruler of Bengal in 1757 was:
(b) Siraj- ud- daulah.
(c) Mir Qasim.
(d) Mir Jafar.
Ans: (b) Siraj- ud- daulah.
Q. 2. The battle of Plassey was fought in:
Ans: (a) 1757.
Q.3. What were the causes for the battle of Plassey?
Ans. Siraj-ud-daulah’s earlier attack and capture of Fort William, Calcutta during June, 1756, the illegal use of Mughal Imperial export trade permits (dastaks) granted to the British in 1717 for engaging in internal trade within India, British interference in the Nawab’s court and additional fortifications with mounted guns had been placed on Fort William without the consent of the Nawab were main causes of the battle of Plassey.
Q. 4. Who replaced Mir Jafer as Nawab of Bengal in 1760?
Ans: Mir Qasim.
Q. 5. Mention the causes for the Battle of Buxar.
Ans: Equal trade duties for British and Indian traders, the Nawab’s attempts to reorganise the army and shifting of capital from Murshidabad to Monghyr were the causes for the removal of Mir Qasim which ultimately led to the Battle of Buxar.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.4
Q. 1. Explain the terms ‘Nizamat’ and Diwani’.
Ans: Nizamat means administration of law and order and criminal justice; Diwani was the revenue administration and civil justice.
Q. 2. What do you mean by Dual or Double Government?
Ans: As the Diwan, the Company directly collected its revenue, while through the right to nominate the Deputy Nazim, it controlled the nizamat or the police or judicial powers. This arrangement is known as ‘Dual’ or ‘Double Government’.
Q. 3. Why did Lord Clive introduce system of Dual or Double Government?
Ans: Lord Clive introduced system of Dual or Double Government because the Company did not want to take direct responsibility of the administration of Bengal and was interested in earning revenue.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.5
Q. 1. What were the measures adopted by Lord Wellesley to expand the British power in India?
Ans: Lord Wellesley adopted the following measures to expand the British power in India:
(i) Military conquests.
(ii) Subsidiary Alliance System.
Q. 2. What do you mean by the subsidiary alliance system?
Ans: Subsidiary Alliance System: Under this system, Indian rulers under British protection would maintain British troops within their states and would pay for these troops. They surrendered control of their foreign affairs to the British. In return, the East India Company, would protect them from the attacks of their rivals.
Q. 3. Explain the Doctrine of Lapse.
Ans: The Doctrine of Lapse: The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie. Any Indian state created by or under the direct influence (paramount) of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically ‘lapse’ or annexed by the British if the ruler was either incompetent or died without a natural male heir.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.6
Q. 1. Which was the first Act enacted by the British Parliament to control the East India Company’s activities in India?
Ans: The Regulating Act of 1773.
Q.2. Who was the first Governor- General of Bengal?
Ans. Warren Hastings.
Q. 3. What was the main feature of the Charter Act of 1833?
Ans: The Charter Act of 1833 abolished the Company’s monopoly of the China trade.
Q. 4. Name the college established in London to train the Company servants?
Ans: Haileybury College.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.7
Q. 1. Explain the term Rule of Law and Equality before law.
Ans: Rule of Law and Equality before law meant that no one was above the law (certain rules which defined the rights, privileges and obligations of the people) and all the citizens irrespective of their caste, class and other status, were now equal before law.
Q. 2. In which town the Supreme Court was established for the first time under the Regulating Act of 1773?
Ans: Presidency town of Calcutta.
Q. 1. How did the English attain supremacy in India?
Ans: (i) In order to establish their supremacy, it was necessary for the English East India Company to eliminate the French from this region. As a result of Seven Years War (1756- 1763) in Europe, the French and English settlements in India also became involved in open hostilities.
(ii) In the Third Carnatic War, the British East India Company defeated the French forces at the battle of Wandiwash and ended a century of conflict over supremacy in India. This battle gave the British trading company a far superior position in India compared to the other Europeans.
(iii) The French possessions in India were, however, restored by the Treaty of Paris (1763). This conflict was resolved in the English East India Company’s favour because of its strong navy in India, its progressively increasing military strength and good leadership, the support they received from the Government in England, and the larger resources at its command in Bengal.
Q.2. How did Lord Wellesley expand the British power in India? Explain the merits and demerits of the Subsidiary Alliance system.
Ans: (i) Lord Wellesley conquered the unconquered regional kingdoms of South India- Mysore and Maratha empire.
(ii) In 1799, Tipu Sultan of Mysore was defeated and killed by the English East India Company forces. With this defeat the English established their control over Mysore.
(iii) The three Anglo-Maratha wars during 1772-1818 weakened the Maratha empire. Through these wars the British also secured the Maratha territories.
(iv) Thus, under the command of Wellesley, the British had secured the entire region of southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers).
Subsidiary Alliance System-Merits and demerits:
(i) The Subsidiary Alliance System was also introduced by Lord Wellesley in and after 1798
(ii) The British, under the Subsidiary Alliance system, agreed to protect the Indian rulers against external threats and internal disorder but, in return, the Indian rulers who accepted this system were agree to the stationing of British contingent for whose maintenance they would pay a subsidy to the British.
(iii) The ruler under the Subsidiary Alliance could neither enter into alliance with any other power nor fight a war without prior permission from the British. A British resident was stationed at these ruling states that had the authority to interfere in state politics.
(iv) This system was suited best to the advantage of the British as, without even spending a single penny the British were able to maintain large forces.
(v) This system enabled the English to weed Out the foreign influence from the Indian courts
Q. 3. Describe the policy adopted by Dalhousie to expand the British Empire in India.
Ans: (i) Dalhousie adopted the policy of the Doctrine of Lapse to expand the British Empire in India.
(ii) There was a widespread custom of adoption among the Indian kings to secure heir in the absence of a natural successor i.e. son. But as per the Doctrine of Lapse any Indian state created by or under the direct influence (paramount) of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically lapse’ or annexed by the British if the ruler was either incompetent or died without a natural male heir.
(iii) Thus, not only the long-established right of the Indian sovereigns without an heir to choose successor was taken over, but the British also took over the authority of deciding the competence of the Indian rulers.
(iv) With the introduction of this policy of lapse, the Company could establish absolute, imperial administrative control over many regions spread over the subcontinent.
(v) The Company took over the princely states of Satara, Jaitpur, Sambalpur, Nagpur and Jhansi and Awadh using this doctrine.
Q. 4. Describe the British judicial organisation in India.
Ans: British judicial organisation in India:
(i) The British judicial system in India emerged in the three presidency towns of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
(ii) In 1727, the Mayor’s Court was established for civil litigation in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
(iii) In 1772 an elaborate judicial system, known as adalat, established civil and criminal jurisdictions.
(iv) Both Hindu pandits and Muslim qazis (Sharia court judges) were recruited to aid the presiding judges in interpreting their customary laws, but in general, British common and statutory laws became applicable.
(v) The two main theoretical principles underlying the entire British judicial system in India were the notions of the Rule of Law and Equality before law; thus as per theory no one was above the law (certain rules which defined the rights, privileges and obligations of the people) and all the citizens irrespective of their caste, class and other status, were now equal before law.
(vi) The principle of habeas corpus provided that no person could be arrested or kept in prison without a written order from the local executive or the judicial authority. Even the Government servant, if the acts done in their official capacity could be sued in the court of law.
(vii) The natural upshot of the Rule of Law was the Equality before the Law, which subsequently followed the Rule of Law. The Equality before the Law appeared as a novel feature in the caste-ridden Indian society.
(viii) Under the Regulating Act of 1773 the King-in-Council created a Supreme Court in the Presidency town of Calcutta. Under the charter, the Supreme Court also had the authority to exercise all types of jurisdiction in the region of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, with the only caveat that in situations where the disputed amount was in excess of Rs. 4,000, their judgement could be appealed to the Privy Council at London.
(ix) The Supreme Courts in Madras and Bombay were finally established in 1801 and 1823, respectively.
(x) Lord Cornwallis separated the executive and judicial duties at district level. For the civil cases Sadar Diwani Adalat was the highest appealing body followed by the four Provincial Courts of Civil Appeal at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna. Then at local levels District Courts, Registrars’ Courts and a number of Subordinate Courts were making the hierarchy.
(xi) A large number of magistrates were active to deal with criminal cases, above them were four Courts of Circuit at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna which were governed by Sadar Nizamat Adalat at Calcutta.
(xii) In 1831 William Bentinck abolished the four provincial civil and criminal courts and redistributed their work to Commissioners and District Collectors.
Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct answer.
Q. 1. Which of the following was also called as ‘John Company’?
(a) The French East India Company.
(b) The Dutch East India Company.
(c) The British East India Company.
(d) The Company of John Marshals.
Ans: (c) The British East India Company.
Q. 2. The British East India Company was established in:
Ans: (b) 1600
Q. 3. Who granted the British East India Company to establish a factory in Surat?
(a) Shah Jahan.
(c) Shah Alam I.
Ans: (b) Jahangir.
Q. 4. In which battle the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominion to the British East India Company?
(a) Battle of Plassey.
(b) Battle of Panipat I.
(c) Battle of Panipat II.
(d) Battle of Tarain I.
Ans: (a) Battle of Plassey.
Q. 5. Who fought the three carnatic wars?
(a) British and Dutch.
(b) Dutch and French.
(c) French and Portuguese.
(d) French and British.
Ans: (d) French and British.
Q. 6. Who Won the battle of Wandiwash?
(c) The Dutch.
(d) Germany the.
Ans: (a) British.
Q. 7. The first major conflict of the British against an Indian power was in:
Ans: (b) Bengal.
Q. 8. Who ruled Bengal between 1757 to 1765?
(b) Mir Jafar.
(c) Mir Qasim.
(d) All of the above.
Ans: (d) All of the above.
Q. 9. Treaty of Allahabad took place between:
(a) Lord Clive and Mir Jafar.
(b) Lord Clive and Siraj-ud-Daula.
(c) Lord Clive and Mir Kasim.
(d) Lord Clive and Ami Chand.
Ans: (b) Lord Clive and Siraj-ud-Daula.
Q. 10. Who gave the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the British?
(a) Shah Alam I.
(c) Shah Alam II.
(d) Nawab of Bengal.
Ans: (c) Shah Alam II.
Q. 11. Nizamat was concerned with:
(a) administration of law and order.
(b) administration in villages.
(d) land tax.
Ans: (a) administration of law and order.
Q. 12. Civil justice was under:
Ans: (b) diwani.
Q. 13. Incharge of revenue was called:
Ans: (d) diwan.
Q. 14. Who had to take all responsibility for bad governance?
Ans: (a) Nawab.
Q. 15. Haidar Ali became the ruler of Mysore in:
Ans: (c) 1781
Q. 16. Who first entered into a subsidiary alliance with the British in 1798?
(a) The Nawab of Mysore.
(b) The Nawab of Bengal.
(c) The Nawab of Bihar.
(d) The Nawab of Hyderabad.
Ans: (d) The Nawab of Hyderabad.
Q. 17. Which of the following was created by the subsidiary alliances?
(b) Jaipur and Mysore.
(c) Travencore and Hyderabad.
(d) All of the above.
Ans: (d) All of the above.
Q. 18. The last Indian state to be conquered by the British in 1849 was:
(c) Madhya Pradesh.
Ans: (b) Punjab.
Q. 19. Who was the first incumbent Governor-General?
(a) Lord Clive.
(b) Warren Hastings.
Ans: (b) Warren Hastings.
Q. 20. A Supreme Court in the Presidency town of Calcutta was founded in:
Ans: (d) 1773