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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 12 Administrative System and Institutions
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Administrative System and Institutions
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.1
Q. 1. What was Chahalgan and who created it?
Ans: Chahalgan was the group of forty nobles. It was created by Iltutmish.
Q. 2. Who was the first Sultan to bring the nobility firmly under the control of the Sultan for the first time?
Q. 3. What was the position of the Sultan vis-a-vis the nobility according to the Afghan concept of sovereignty?
Ans: The Sultan’s position was ‘first among equals’.
Q. 4. Who were Ulema?
Ans: Ulema were religious intellectual group of Muslims who managed religious matters and interpreted religious regulations.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.2
Q. 1. Mention two departments that worked under the Wizarat.
Ans: (i) Mustaufi-i-Mumalik.
Q.2. What practices did Alauddin Khalji introduce in the army?
Ans: Alauddin Khalji introduced in the army the practice of Dagh and Huliya.
Q. 3. Which department dealt with the administration of justice and who headed it?
Ans: Diwan-i-Rasalat dealt with the administration of justice. It was headed by Sadr-us-Sadr.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.3
Q. 1. Name three officials at the level of pargana.
Ans: (i) Shiqdar.
Q. 2. Mention some of the administrative units of the Sultanate period.
Ans: (i) Pargana.
Q. 3. Mention a few important village functionaries.
Ans: Khut, Muqaddam and Patwari were some important functionaries.
Q. 4. What was Fawazil?
Ans: Fawazil was the balance of the revenue income which the muqti was to send to the Sultan after meeting his and his army’s expenses.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.4
Q. 1. Who were the officials to look after market regulation?
Ans: The officials to look after market regulation were – Shehna, Badris, Munihiyan etc.
Q. 2. Name the places at which the granaries were set up by Alauddin Khalji.
Ans: Delhi and Chain in Rajasthan.
Q. 3. Who were Banjaras?
Ans: The Banjaras used to transport food grains from the countryside to the city. During the time of Alauddin Khalji they formed themselves in a body and settled on the banks of Yamuna.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.5
Q. 1. Why did Akbar curtail the power of wazir?
Ans: Akbar wanted to curb the powers of wazir as his wazir Bairam Khan had become very powerful. Akbar took away the financial powers from the wazir.
Q. 2. Who was Mir Saman? What were his duties?
Ans: Mir Saman was the officer-in-charge of the royal Karkhana. He was responsible for all kinds of purchases and their storage for the royal household. He also supervised the manufacture of different articles.
Q. 3. Who was Mutasaddi? What were his duties?
Ans: The Mutasaddi was the governor of the port. He collected taxes on merchandise and maintained a custom house. He also supervised the mint house at the port.
Q. 4. Who were the two important functionaries at the level of Sarkar?
Ans: Faujdar and Amalguzar.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.6
Q. 1. Who introduced the Mansabdari system? Why was this system formulated?
Ans: Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system. It was formulated to stream line the rank of the nobles and to fix their salary and specify the number of cavalry to be maintained by them.
Q. 2. What is zat and sawar?
Ans: The zat denoted the personal rank of an official and the Sawar indicated the size of contingents maintained by the mansabdar.
Q. 3. What changes did Aurangzeb make in the Mansabdari system?
Ans: Aurangzeb created an additional rank in the Mansab system called Mashrut (conditional). He added one another deduction called Khurak-i-dawwab, towards meeting the cost for fed of animals in the imperial stables.
Q. 4. What is Jagir system?
Ans: The system of assignment of revenue of a particular territory to the nobles for their services to the state was called jagir system. Under the Mughals, the areas assigned were generally called jagir and its holders jagirdars. The jagirdars were allowed to collect only authorised revenue from their jagirs in accordance with the imperial regulations.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.7
Q. 1. List the titles of ashta pradhan.
Ans: The titles of ashta pradhan were as follows:
(iv) Waqia navis.
(v) Surnavis or Chitnis.
(viii) Pandita Rao.
Q.2. Who influenced the administrative system of the Marathas?
Ans: The administrative system of the Marathas was influenced by the Mughals and the Deccan states.
Q. 3. Which was the lowest unit of administration under the Maratha administration?
Ans: Mauzas or villages were the lowest unit of administration under the Maratha administration.
Q. 1. How did the administrative structure evolve during the Delhi Sultanate?
Ans: Evolution of the administrative structure during the Delhi Sultanate:
(i) In the initial phase, the available administrative apparatus continued. The local rulers were allowed to collect taxes and send it to the central treasury as tribute.
(ii) With the expansion and consolidation of the Delhi Sultanate, new administrative institutions also started emerging. The rulers were aware of the fact that they had to rule over a subject population that was largely non-Islamic. Thus, the Sultans of Delhi had to introduce particular measures to suit the prevailing conditions in the Sultanate.
(iii) The local level administration was left mainly in the hands of village headman etc.
(iv) During the Sultanate period, administrative institutions emerged at different levels-central, provincial and local.
Q. 2. Discuss the composition of the nobility during the Delhi Sultanate.
Ans: Composition of the nobility during the Delhi Sultanate:
(i) In the initial stage they were those commanders who came with the victorious army. Over a period of time their descendants formed the main strength and some Indian groups also emerged.
(ii) The nobility was not a homogeneous class. There were different groups within the nobility and often there were inter group clashes and rivalries.
(iii) The group of chahalgan (group of 40 nobles), which was created by Iltutmish, also emerged very powerful.
(iv) With the expansion of the Delhi Sultanate there were also attempts on the part of different sections of the society to join the nobility. Initially it was preserve for the Turks only. During the rule of the Khilji and Tughlaqs the doors of the nobility were opened to people of diverse backgrounds. The low caste people, both Hindus and Muslims, joined the nobility and could rise to high positions especially under Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
Q.3. Mention the functioning of Wizarat during the period of Delhi Sultanate.
Ans: Functioning of Wizarat during the period of Delhi Sultanate:
(i) Diwan-i-Wizarat was the most important office after the Sultan. It was a key position in the royal court and his role was of a general supervisor over all departments, though he was one of the four important departmental heads.
(ii) Wizarat was the chief advisor to the Sultan. The main functions of the wazir were to look after the financial organisation of the State, give advice to the Sultan, and on occasions to lead military expeditions at Sultan’s behest. He also supervised the payment to the army.
(iii) The Wizarat or the office of wazir also kept a check on land revenue collections, royal maintained a record of all the income and expenditure incurred by the state and thus controlled or recorded the salaries of all servants, handled the charitable donations such as Waqfs, Inams etc.
(iv) The Wizarat also supervised the mints, the intelligence departments, the royal buildings and other bodies affiliated to the royal court. The wazir had direct access to the Sultan and it was on his wisdom, sincerity and loyalty that the position of the Sultan depended greatly.
(v) There were several other departments which worked under the wizarat. They were entrusted with specific functions. These included Mustaufi-i-Mumalik (Auditor General), Mushrif i-Mumalik (Accountant General), Majumdar (Keeper of loans and balances from treasury).
(vi) Later Diwan-i-Waqoof (to supervise expenditure), Diwan-i-Mustakharaj (to look into the arrears of revenue payments), Diwan-i-Amir Kohi (to bring uncultivated land into cultivation through state support) were also brought under the supervision of the Wizarat.
Q. 4. Trace the evolution of the Iqta under the Sultanate.
Ans: Evolution of the Iqta system under system the Sultanate:
(i) The institution of the Iqta had been in force in early Islamic world as a form of reward for services to the state. In the Caliphate administration it was used to pay civil and military officers. After the establishment of the Sultanate Iqta system was introduced by the Sultans.
(ii) Initially the army commanders and nobles were given territories to administer and collect the revenue. The territories thus, assigned were called iqta and their holders as iqtadar or muqti.
(iii) From the 14th century onward walis or muqtis were commanders of military and administrative tracts called Iqta. In due course the muqti was given complete charge of the administration of the Iqta which included the task of maintaining an army. The muqti was to help the Sultan with his army in case of need.
(iv) From the time of Balban the muqti was expected to send the balance (fawaril) of the income to the centre after meeting his and the army’s expenses. Thus, the central revenue department had made an assessment of the expected income of the Iqta, the cost of the maintenance of the army and the muqti’s own expenses. This process became more strict during the time of Alauddin Khalji.
(v) As the central control grew the control over muqti’s administration also increased. The khwaja was appointed to keep a record of the income of the Iqtas. On the basis of this record the Sultan used to make his revenue demands.
(vi) A barid or intelligence officer was also appointed to keep the Sultan informed.
(vii) A number of governors were appointed on revenue sharing terms by Muhammed-bin- Tughlaq. These governors were to give a fixed sum to the state.
(viii) During Feroz Shah Tughlaq iqtas became hereditary and the control of state over iqtas was diluted.
Q. 5. Discuss the functioning of the local administration under the Sultanate.
Ans: Functioning of the local administration under the Sultanate:
(i) The village was the smallest unit of administration. The functioning and administration of the village remained more or less the same as it had existed in pre-Turkish times.
(ii) Khut, Muqaddam and Patwari were the main village functionaries. They worked in close coordination with the muqti in the collection of revenue and in maintaining law and order etc.
(iii) A number of villages formed the Pargana. Chaudhary, Amil (revenue collector) and Karkun (accountant) were the important Pargana officials. Village and Pargana were independent units of administration, and yet there were inter related areas.
(iv) In certain cases the province had a local ruler (Rai, Rana, Rawat, Raja) who helped the governor in his duties. In such cases the local rulers were recognised tas subordinates of the Sultan.
Q. 6. Discuss the market reforms of Alauddin Khalji. What measures did he take to implement it?
Ans: Market reforms of Alauddin Khalji:
(i) The market reforms of Alauddin Khalji were oriented towards administrative and. military necessities.
(ii) Alauddin Khalji was more or less the first ruler who looked at the problem of price control in a systematic manner and was able to maintain stable prices for a considerable period.
(iii) Alauddin Khalji instituted the market control because after the Mongol siege of Delhi, he wanted to recruit a large army. With low. prices the Sultan could recruit a large army with low expenses. For the market reforms, elaborate administrative arrangements were made to ensure that the market control was followed strictly.
(iv) Prices of all commodities from grain to cloth, slaves, cattle etc., were fixed. Three markets at Delhi, the first for food grains, the second for cloth of all kinds and for expensive items such as ghee, oil, dry fruits, sugar etc., and the third for the horses, slaves and cattle were set-up.
(v) To control the food prices Alauddin tried to control the supply of food grains from the villages, and its transportation to the city by the grain merchants. He also tried to control its proper distribution to the citizens.
Measures taken to implement the reforms:
(i) A number of measures were taken to implement the reforms strictly. Measures were taken to implement the price control laid down by the Sultan.
(ii) Sufficient stocks of food-grains with the government were ensured to prevent any artificial scarcity or profiteering by traders. The Banjaras or Karwaniyan were responsible for the transportation of food grains from one place to another. They were to settle on the banks of Yamuna with their families. Shehna was appointed to see them. To ensure regular supply of food grains to the Banjaras, number of regulations were made. Shehna was also incharge of the market to see that no one violates the royal orders. Barids (intelligence officers) and munhiyans (secret spies) were also appointed.
(iii) In the second market of clothes, clothes were brought from different parts of the country and also from outside and were to be stored and sold in this market at government rate. All the merchants were registered and a deed taken from them that they would bring the specified quantities of commodities to the Sarai-i-adl every year. Advance money was given to those merchants who brought commodities from long distances including foreign countries. Advance money was given on the condition that they would not sell to any intermediaries. An officer was appointed to issue permits to amirs, maliks etc., for the purchase of costly commodities.
(iv) Third market dealt with horses, cattle and slaves. Alauddin did away with the middleman or dallal. The quality and prices of the horses were fixed. Similarly, the prices of slave boys and girls and of cattle were also fixed.
Q. 7. Mention duties of Diwan-i-kul and Mir Bakshi during the Mughal period.
Ans: Duties of Diwan-i-Kul and Mir. Bakshi during the Mughal period:
(i) He was the chief diwan and was responsible for revenue and finances. During the period of Akbar the powers of the diwan was strengthened because now he was entrusted with the revenue powers.
(ii) He inspected all transactions and payments in all departments and supervised the provincial diwan.
(iii) He was the in-charge of the entire revenue collection and expenditure of the empire. The diwans were to report about state finance to the emperor on daily basis.
(i) He looked after all matters pertaining to the military administration. The orders of appointment of mansabdars and their salary papers were endorsed and passed by him.
(ii) He kept a strict watch over proper maintenance of the sanctioned size of armed contingents and war equipage by the mansabdars. The new entrants seeking service were presented to the emperor by the Mir Bakshi.
Q.8. Discuss the functioning of the local administration under the Mughals.
Ans: Functioning of the local administration under the Mughals:
(i) The provinces or subas were divided into Sarkars. The Sarkars were further divided into Parganas. The village was the smallest unit of administration.
(ii) The Faujdar and the Amalguzar were two important functionaries at the level of Sarkar. The Faujdar was appointed by the imperial order. Sometimes within a Sarkar a number of Faujdars existed. At times, their jurisdiction spread over two Sarkars even if these belonged to two different subas. Faujdari was an administrative division whereas Sarkar was a territorial and revenue division. The primary duty of the Faujdar was to safeguard the life and property of the residents of the areas under his jurisdiction. He was to take care of law and order problem in his areas and assist in the timely collection of revenue whenever force was required.
(iii) The amalguzar or amil was the revenue collector. His duty was to assess and supervise the revenue collection. He was expected to increase the land under cultivation and induce the peasants to pay revenue willing. All accounts were to be maintained by him. He was also responsible to send the daily receipt and expenditure report to the provincial Diwan.
(iv) The Shiqdar was the executive officer at the level of Pargana. He assisted the amils in the task of revenue collection. The animals looked after the revenue collection at the Pargana level. The quanungo kept all the records of land in the pargana. The Kotwals who were in charge of law and order were appointed mainly in towns by the imperial government. He was to maintain a register for keeping records of people coming and going out of the towns.
(v) The Muqaddam was the village head man and the Patwari looked after the village revenue records. The services of the zamindars were utilised for the maintenance of law and order in their areas as well as in the collection of revenue. The forts were placed under an officer called Qiladar. He was incharge of the general administration of the fort and the areas assigned in Jagir to him.
(vi) The port administration was independent of the provincial authority. The governor of the port was called Mutasaddi who was directly appointed by the emperor. The Mutasaddi collected taxes on merchandise and maintained a custom-house. He also supervised the mint house at the port.
Q.9. Trace the evolution of the mansabdari system from Akbar to Aurangzeb.
Ans: Evolution of the Mansabdari system:
1. Under Akbar:
(i) The mansabdari system under the Mughals evolved through the time. Mansabdari was a unique system devised by the Mughals in India. This system, evolved by Akbar with certain changes and modifications, was the basis of civil and military administration under the Mughals. The mansab which means a place or position, awarded to an individual fixed both his status in. the official hierarchy and also his salary. It also fixed the number of armed retainers the holders of mansab was to maintain. The system was formulated to streamline rank of the nobles, fix their salary and specify the number of cavalry to be maintained by him.
(ii) Under the mansabdari system ranks were expressed in numerical terms. Akbar had established 66 grades of mansabdars ranging from commanders of 10 horsemen to 10,000 horsemen. Initially, a single number represented the rank, personal pay and the size of the contingent of the mansabdar. Later the rank of mansabdar came to be denoted by two numbers zat and sawar.
(iii) The zat denoted personal rank of an official and the sawar indicated the size of contingents maintained by the mansabdars.
(iv) Depending on the strength of a contingent mansabdars were placed in three categories: (a) a mansabdar having the rank of 7000 zat and 7000 sawar, (b) a mansabdar having the rank of 7000 zat and 4000 sawar and (c) having the rank of 7000 zat and 3000 sawar. The position of the mansabdar was decided by the zat rank. Higher the zat rank higher the position was.
2. Under Jahangir:
(i) A new provision in the sawar rank was introduced by Jahangir. According to it a part of sawar rank was termed du-aspa sih-aspa in case of select mansabdars. For this part additional payment at the same rate 8,000 dams per Sawar was sanctioned. Thus if the Sawar rank was 4000 out of which 1000 was du-aspa sih-aspa, salary for this Sawar was calculated as 3,000 x 8,000+ (1,000 × 8,000 × 2) = 40,000,000 dams. Without du-aspa sih-aspa, salary for the 4,000 Sawar would have stood at (4,000 x 8,000) = 32,000,000 dams.
(ii) Thus the mansabdar was to maintain double number of Sawars for the du-aspa sih-aspa category and was paid for it. Jahangir probably introduced this provision to promote nobles of his confidence and strengthen them militarily.
(iii) By this provision he could increase the military strength of his nobles without effecting any change in their Zat rank.
3. Under Shahjahan:
(i) He introduced the month-scale in the mansabdari system to compensate the gap between Jama (estimated income) and hasil (actual realisation). The mansabdars were generally paid through revenue assignments Jagirs.
(ii) The biggest problem was that calculation was made on the basis of the expected income (Jama) from the Jagir during one year. The actual revenue collection (hasil) always fell short of the estimated income. In such a situation, the mansabdar’s salary were fixed by a method called month-scale. Thus, if a Jagir yielded only half of the Jama, it was called Shashmaha (six monthly), if it yielded only one fourth, it was called Sihmaha (three monthly).
(iii) The month scale was applied to cash salaries also. There were deductions from the sanctioned pay also. During the reign of Shahjahan the mansabdars were allowed to maintain 1/5 to 1/3 of the sanctioned strength of the Sawar rank without any accompanying reduction in their claim on the maintenance amount for the sawar rank.
4. Under Aurangzeb:
He continued with all these changes and created an additional rank called Mashrut (conditional). This was an attempt to increase the sawar rank of the mansabdar temporarily. Aurangzeb added one another deduction called Khurak-i-dawwab, towards meeting the cost for feed of animals in the imperial stables.
Q. 10. Describe the main features of the Jagirdari system.
Ans: The main features of the Jagirdari system:
(i) The Jagirdari system was an integral part of the mansabdari system. It was developed by Akbar.
(ii) During the Akbar’s period, the revenue from Jagir was assigned to Jagirdars in lieu of their cash salary.
(iii) The office of the central Diwan was entrusted to identify parganas the sum total of whose Jama was equal to the salary claim of the mansabdars. In case the recorded Jama was in excess of salary claim the assignee was required to deposit the balance with the central treasury. On the other hand, if it was less than the salary claim the short fall was paid from the treasury.
(iv) None of the assignments was permanent or hereditary. The emperor could shift part or the entire Jagir from one part of the imperial territory to another at any time.
(v) The Jagirdars were also transferred from one jagir to another. The system of transfer checked the Jagirdars from developing local roots. At the same time, its disadvantage was that it discouraged the Jagirdars from taking long term measures for the development of their areas.
(vi) The Jagirdars were allowed to collect only authorised revenue in accordance with the imperial regulations. The Jagirdars employe their own officials like amil etc.
(vii) The imperial office kept watch on the Jagirdars. The Diwan of the suba was supposed to prevent the oppression of the peasants by the Jagirdars. Amin was appointed in each suba to see that Jagirdars were following imperial regulations.
(viii) If Jagirdars faced any difficulty in the collection of revenue, he was assisted by Faujdars.
Q. 11. Discuss the main features of the Maratha administration.
Ans: The main features of the Maratha administration:
Maratha administration was divided into central, provincial and local administrations.
1. Central Administration:
(i) The king was at the centre of the administration. The administration was divided into eight departments each headed by ministers. These ministers were sometimes called Ashta pradhan.
(ii) Ashta pradhan comprised: (a) Peshwa who looked after the finances and general administration. (b) Sar-i-Naubat who was the Senapati. (c) Majumdar looked after the accounts. (d) Waqia navis looked after the intelligence, post and household affairs (e) Surnavis or Chitnis looked after official correspondence (f) Dabir looked after foreign affairs (g) Nyayadhish looked after justice and (h) Pandit Rao looked after ecclesiastical affairs.
(iii) Except Pandit Rao and Nyayadhish all the members of the ashta pradhan were asked to lead military campaigns. These offices were neither hereditary nor permanent. They held the office at the pleasure of the king.
(iv) Each of the ashta pradhan was assisted by eight assistants-Diwan, Majumdar, Fadnis, Sabuis, Karkhanis, Chitnis, Jamadar and Potnis.
(v) Chitnis dealt with all diplomatic correspondences and wrote all royal letters. The Fadnis used to respond to the letters of commanders of the forts. The potnis looked after the income and expenditure of the royal treasury.
2. Provincial and Local Administrations:
(i) All the provincial units were already existing under the Deccani rulers. Shivaji reorganised and in certain cases renamed them. The provinces were known as Prants. The Prants were under the charge of subedar. Over a number of Subedar there were Sarsubedar to control and supervise the work of subedar.
(ii) Smaller than parent were tarfs which were headed by a havaldar. Then there were Mauzas or villages which were the lowest unit of administration.
(iii) At the level of village, Kulkarni used to keep accounts and maintained records while Patil had legal and policing power. At the level of Pargana, Deshpande used to keep account and maintain records while Deshmuksh had legal and policing powers.
(iv) The police officer in rural area was called Faujdar and in urban area was called Kotwal.
(v) The Maratha polity did not have unified civilian-cum-military rank. Under the Marathas performance based Brahmin elites manned the central bureaucracy and the local administration. In this capacity they were called Kamvishdar who enjoyed wide powers of tax assessment and collection. They adjudicated cases, provided information about local conditions and kept records.
Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct answer.
Q. 1. Who established himself as an independent Sultan at Lahore?
(a) Qutubuddin Aibak.
(b) Mohamad Bin Tughlaq.
(c) Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
(d) Ibrahim Lodhi.
Ans: (a) Qutubuddin Aibak.
Q. 2. During the Sultanate period who was the central figure in the administrative set up?
Ans: (b) Sultan.
Q. 3. The group of Chahalgan was a group of ______ nobles.
Ans: (a) 40
Q. 4. Chahalgan was created by which of following Sultan?
(a) Qutubuddin Aibak.
(d) Sikandar Lodhi.
Ans: (c) Iltumish.
Q.5. The religious intellectual group of Muslims was collectively referred to as _______.
Ans: (b) Ulema.
Q. 6. Which of the following Sultan ignored the opinion of Ulema on a number of issues?
(a) Alauddin Khalji.
(c) Qutubuddin Aibak.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (a) Alauddin Khalji.
Q. 7. Which of the following Sultan tried to bring the nobles under their control?
(a) Sikandar Lodhi.
(b) Ibrahim Lodi.
(c) (a) and (b) both.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (c) (a) and (b) both
Q. 8. Wazir was the head of which department?
(d) Diwan- i- Risalat.
Ans: (a) Diwan-i-Wazarat.
Q. 9. Which of the following department worked under the Wizarat?
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
Q. 10. Ariz-i-Mumalik was the head of which department?
Ans: (a) Diwan-i-Arz.
Q. 11. Diwan-i-Insha was headed by which of the following:
Ans: (c) Dabir-i-Khas.
Q. 12. What practices did Alauddin Khalji introduce in the army?
(c) (a) and (b) both.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (c) (a) and (b) both.
Q. 13. Who was the head of the state. news gathering and dealt with intelligence?
Ans: (a) Barid-i-Mumalik.
Q. 14. Under Firoz-Shah Tughlaq there were _____ Karkhanas.
Ans: (b) 36
Q. 15. During the 14th century who was the officer at the provincial level?
(c) Faujdar along with Shiqdar.
Ans: (b) Faujdar.
Q. 16. Who was appointed to keep a record of the income of the Iqtas?
Ans: (a) Khwaja.
Q. 17. During the time of which Sultan the control of state over iqtas was diluted?
(b) Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
(c) Alauddin Khalji.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (b) Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
Q. 18. During the Sultanate period the main village functionaries were:
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
Q. 19. Which of the local ruler helped the governor in his duties?
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
Q. 20. Who introduced the Mansabdari system?
Ans: (a) Akbar.