NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Science and Technology Notes Paper 212.

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 32 Health and Hygiene, NIOS Secondary Course Science and Technology Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Health and Hygiene

Chapter: 32


1. Why do we need to be healthy? List any three reasons.

Ans: We need to be healthy because healthy persons are energetic, efficient, happy and productive. 

2. State the definition of health given by WHO.

Ans: Health is state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease.

3. List the three different dimensions of health.

Ans: Physical, mental and social aspects.

4. How is hygiene related to health?

Ans: Principles, practices or habits that help in remaining healthy are known as hygiene. Thus hygienic ways help in remaining healthy.

5. Identify any one healthy habit. How will you motivate your younger brother/ sister to practise this habit?

Ans: Brushing teeth regularly is very important. Brushing teeth removes the food particles that remain stuck to our teeth. These food particles allow germs to multiply and harm our teeth and gums and lead to bad breath. or any other healthy habit.

6. You have prepared lunch early in the morning at 9 A.M. and it will be served at 1.00 P.M. List any two precautions you will take to store it.

Ans: Food should be covered, stored in cool and insect proof places.

7. Suggest any two ways by which you along with your elders can maintain a healthy environment at home.

Ans: Try to maintain physical health of self /family members, be confident and sensitive towards others’ needs, have healthy interpersonal relationship and try to fulfil duties towards others.(or any other correct point).

8. Tick  the situations given below which in your opinion are correct 

(i) It was 11.30 pm. Raju was celebrating his birthday. There was loud music. His neighbour Tinku had a Mathematics exam the next day and was not able to concentrate. He went to Raju and explained the situation but Raju did not pay any attention. Then, Tinku called the police. They came and stopped the music, the party was spoiled but it was a necessary step. 

Ans: True.

(ii) Rohan believes that taking drugs once or twice is not harmful. 

Ans: Fales.

(iii) Ashu copied some answers from her friend’s sheet during the examination. But later she felt very guilty and confided in her parents. Her friends said that she was a fool to speak the truth. 

Ans: Fales.

(iv) Its fun driving at a very high speed and gives a lot of thrill. There is nothing wrong in doing so if road has no traffic. 

Ans: Fales.

(v) People should not be allowed to burst loud crackers especially late at night even if it curtails fun and enjoyment. 

Ans: True.

(vi) Just when you were ready to leave for a movie, you found that your bike is punctured. In your frustration you kicked the dog sleeping nearby to vent your manger. It calms you down. Later your regretted your action.

Ans: Fales.


1. List some of the activities that are undertaken by the government and local organisations to maintain public health.

Ans: Removal of garbage, supply of clean drinking water, fumigation, organising immunisation programmes, ensuring food standards in food stores and milk outlets.

2. Samina’s family members are expert house keepers. The bathrooms are as clean as the bedrooms and the kitchen. But when Samina steps out, foul odour irritates her nostrils; her feet sink in garbage piles and potholes. Neither the local government authorities nor anyone in Samina’s neighbourhood seems to care. She is very sad and wants to do something to change this situation.

Taking cue from the ‘Bhagidari initiative’ launched by the Government of Delhi, please provide three suggestions to Samina to enable her to make her neighbourhood clean.

Ans: Discussions with neighbours convincing them with the association between healthy population and clean environment and therefore the need to keep their neighbourhood clean; forming peer groups and distribution of handbills to educate people around, making posters depicting ways of keeping a place clean, contacting the municipality for providing garbage bins and garbage collection, and also for repair of the roads.


1. Why is Filariasis also called Elephantiasis?

Ans: In this disease the swollen leg resembles that of an elephant.

2. How will you identify a TB patient? List any four symptoms.

Ans: Persistent low grade fever, blood in sputum, cough, weight loss, chest pain, fatigue. (any four).

3. Complete the table given below:


Modes of transmissionDisease
Droplet infectionTB
Bite of Infected Aedes mosquitofilariasis
Contaminated waterAmoebiasis
Female anopheles’ mosquitoMalaria

4. Complete the table.


Preventive actionsName of the diseases that are prevented
i Use of mosquito netmalaria
ii Sanitary condition and proper disposal of human excretaascaris
iii BCG vaccineInfluenza
iv Cover your cough, sneezeTuberculosis


1. Mention the six killer diseases that are targeted in primary immunisation.

Ans: Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Measles.

2. Name the vaccines against TB and Polio. At what age are these vaccines first administered?

Ans: BCG; to be given within two weeks of infant’s birth and OPV; at the age of two months.

3. Which day of the week is usually chosen for the pulse polio and why?

Ans: Sunday, for the convenience of the parents to take their children to the Polio Booth for vaccination.

4. How will large scale destruction of lymphocytes affect our ability to fight the diseases?

Ans: It is the lymphocytes that recognize an antigen (disease causing agent) and produce antibodies against it to destroy it. If lymphocytes are destroyed, our body will become more

susceptible to diseases as there will be no antibodies to counter the antigens.

5. Given below are four situations that are conducive to mosquito breeding. Identify with any one situation that you are familiar with and answer the questions that follow.

A — building construction site. 

B — Children playing near an open drain /nallah.

C — Tea stall with used paper cups and plates strewn around allowing water accumulation. 

D — House with leaking roof and water puddles around. 

Tick  one or more remedial measures that you think are most applicable for prevention of mosquito breeding in the situation selected. 

(i) Apply mosquito repellent cream or use mosquito net and door nets. 

Ans: Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Measles.

(ii) Fumigate the place or put Kerosene oil in water. 

Ans: BCG; to be given within two weeks of infant’s birth and OPV; at the age of two months.

(iii) Convince the concerned persons prevent accumulation of dirt and water. 

Ans: Sunday, for the convenience of the parents to take their children to the Polio Booth for vaccination

(iv) Not allow stagnation of water in and around your own home.

Ans: It is the lymphocytes that recognize an antigen (disease causing agent) and produce antibodies against it to destroy it. If lymphocytes are destroyed, our body will become more susceptible to diseases as there will be no antibodies to counter the antigens.


1. How is O.R.S. solution made at home?

Ans: By adding one teaspoon of sugar and a pinch of salt in a glass of (about 200mL) water.

2. What first aid would you give to a person who has received burn?

Ans: (a) Place the injured area in cold water/ice to relieve the pain.

(b) Blot the area and apply a dry sterile dressing.

3. List two precautions to be taken in case of bleeding from any wound.

Ans: Press directly on the wound with thumb, make the victim lie down and elevate the bleeding part above the rest of the body.

4. On a hot sultry day you suddenly get a telephone call from your aunt that your cousin who has just returned from Chandigarh has fainted and was bleeding through his nose. Which first aid measures would you suggest to your aunt?

Ans: Dehydration; give him/her lot of house made fluid or ORS. Keep in a cool place and consult the doctor.


1. How will you convince your friend not to take drugs? Give any three reasons.

Ans: Reasons; drugs are harmful for both physical as well as psychological health and such chemicals will have serious consequences on their health. May cause physical as well as mental damage. It may affect their academic field, employment; interpersonal relationship. It also leads to financial ruin and increased risk of contracting STDs.

2. How will you get to know if a friend of yours is taking drug or not? List three important signs that will help you to identify him/her.

Ans: (a) Sudden change in work or school attendance and quality of work. 

(b) Outbursts of anger, lack of concentration, running nose, red eyes, dark circles under the eyes, nausea, vomiting and body pain.

(c) Engaging in secretive behaviour and staying away from friends who are non users, frequent borrowing money or stealing items from home/workplace.


1. Read the following table carefully and fill in the blanks.

Name of the technique Basis of the techniqueTechnique best used for 
RadiographyUse of beam of electromagnetic waves of short wave lengthrickets
Sound wave between 1 to 15MHPowerful magnetic field is used to map the distribution of water in different tissues Secretion from different tissue.
Sonography information of different organ in body.Foetal growth

1. Differentiate between dislocation and fracture. Mention the role of a splint.

Ans: During dislocation, the joints and bones get separated from their natural position. Fractures are caused due to the breakage of a bone.

The role of a splint are mentioned below:

Dislocation: A dislocation occurs when the bones at a joint are forced out of their normal position. This can happen due to a sudden impact, fall, or other trauma. The ligaments that hold the bones together can be stretched or torn during a dislocation Penspark.

Fracture: A fracture, also commonly known as a broken bone, is a break or crack in a bone. Fractures can be caused by a sudden impact, fall, or overuse. They can also be caused by osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones.

2. What is drug abuse? Explain its dangers in terms of addiction, tolerance and dependence.

Ans: Drug abuse or substance abuse refers to the use of certain chemicals for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain.

Addiction: This is the central danger of drug abuse. Over time, the brain adapts to the presence of the drug, making it difficult to function normally without it. This leads to a compulsive need to use the drug, even when it causes problems in your life.

Tolerance: As someone continues to abuse a drug, their body builds up a tolerance. This means they need to take a larger amount of the drug to get the same effect they once did. This can lead to a dangerous cycle of increasing drug use.

Dependence: Dependence is different from addiction, but it’s closely linked. When someone is dependent on a drug, their body experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using it. These symptoms can be physical (sweating, nausea, tremors) or psychological (anxiety, depression, cravings).

Dependence can make it very difficult to quit using the drug, even if you want to.

3. List any four steps that can help a person stay away from drugs.

Ans: Four steps that can help a person stay away from drugs are mentioned below: 

(i) Know your triggers: Identify situations, emotions, or people that make you crave drugs. Avoid those triggers when possible, or have a plan to resist them.

(ii) Build a strong support system: Surround yourself with positive people who don’t use drugs. Talk to friends, family, or a therapist about your desire to stay drug-free.

(iii) Develop healthy coping mechanisms: Learn how to deal with stress and difficult emotions in healthy ways, like exercise, spending time in nature, or creative hobbies.

(iv) Practice saying no: Peer pressure can be tough. Develop assertive communication skills to refuse drugs confidently. You can simply say “no” or explain why you’re not interested.

4. List the danger signs of drug addiction.

Ans: The danger signs of drug addiction are mentioned below: 

(i) Bloodshot eyes, pupils larger or smaller than usual.

(ii) Changes in appetite, sleep patterns, physical appearance.

(iii) Unusual smells on breath, body, or clothing, or impaired coordination.

5. What role does vaccination play in control of diseases? Explain.

Ans: Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your body’s natural defences to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. We now have vaccines to prevent more than 20 life-threatening diseases, helping people of all ages live longer, healthier lives.

6. How is innate immunity different from acquired immunity?

Ans: The acquired immunity is coming from the body itself whereas the innate immunity is coming from the taking the vaccine.

7. List at least six steps you think are essential to remain healthy.

Ans: At the six steps think are essential to remain healthy are mentioned below: 

(i) Don’t compromise on sleep. Scientific research claims that the human body needs eight hours of sleep every day to stay fit and healthy.

(ii) Manage anxiety and stress. 

(iii) Eat a balanced diet. 

(iv) Make exercise a habit.

(v) Don’t sit for long hours.

(vi) Quit bad habits.

8. How are personal health and community health related? Explain with the help of an example.

Ans: Do yourself.

9. What precautions will you take while storing food?

Ans: If we store food then one thing which we must follow is that the food is packed properly and must be kept in a coolant place.

10. List the activities that are carried out by community health organisations.

Ans: The actives that are carried out by community healthy organisation are mentioned below: 

(i) Preventive health services such as chemoprophylaxis for Tuberculosis, Cancer screening and treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension.

(ii) Promotive health services such as health education, family planning, vaccination and nutritional supplementation.

11. Chill and high fever at periodic intervals is characteristic of malaria. What is responsible for this periodic symptom? List any two other symptoms of malaria.

Ans: The mosquito bite is responsible for the spreading of malaria.

Its symptoms are:

(i) High fever.

(ii) Headache.

12. List the various preventive measures that are essential for controlling the spread of TB.

Ans: The various prevention measures that are essential for controlling the spread of TB are mentioned below: 

(i) Take medicine properly.

(ii) Wash hands properly while eating.

(iii) Cover the mouth of the infected person.

13. BCG vaccine provides an artificial and active immunity. Justify.

Ans: BCG, or bacillus Calmette-Guerin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Many foreign-born persons have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease.

The vaccine BCG provides artificial and active immunity as this works against the disease like influenza. 

14. Why do bones appear lighter on a radiograph?

Ans: A bone or a tumour is denser than the soft tissues. It allows few of the X-rays to pass through and appears white on the X-ray. At a break in a bone, the X-ray beam passes through the broken area and appears as a dark line in the white bone.

15. Brain appears clearer in an MRI than in an X-ray. Explain.

Ans: As in MRI the magnetic effect for the detection is greater than X rays so nowadays MRI is taking mostly for the damaged tendon, ligament detection in the body.

16. Name the technique that is best used for monitoring foetal growth.

Ans: The only solution is to offer regular ultrasound scans to assess foetal growth during the second and third trimesters.

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