NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Science and Technology Notes Paper 212.

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 2 Matter our Surrounding, NIOS Secondary Course Science and Technology Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Matter our Surrounding

Chapter: 2


1. What is matter?

Ans: Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

2. Which of the following is not a pure substance?

(a) Iron.

(b) Water.

(c) Soil.

Ans: Soil.

3. Who coined the term “atom” and what does it mean?

Ans: Democritus. The word atom means indivisible.


1. Which of the three states of matter has no definite volume? Give one reason for your answer.

(a) Solid.

(b) Liquid.

(c) Gas.

Ans: A gas has no definite volume because intermolecular forces in gas are so weak that the molecules are far apart and in constant motion. They can fill containers of any size.

2. Why do solids have definite shape?

Ans: The molecules in solids have fixed positions and strong intermolecular forces are acting between them. Therefore, the solids have a definite shape.

3. Name a substance which exists naturally in all the three states.

Ans: Water.


1. Why are gases more compressible as compared to solids?

Ans: Molecules in solids are closely packed and any attempt to bring them closer results in strong repulsive forces and so solids cannot be compressed. In gases there are large spaces between their molecules and can be brought closer by

applying pressure.

2. How can you change water into ice?

Ans: Water can be converted into ice by lowering the temperature. 


1. Classify the following into element, compound and mixture:

aluminium, carbon, granite, water, silicon, carbon dioxide, air and sugar.

Ans: Element. Compound Mixture Aluminium Water air Carbon Carbon dioxide granite Silicon Sugar.

2. How does an element differ from a compound?

Ans: An element consists of one type of atom but a compound contains two or more types of atom.

3. Which is the most abundant element in the universe?

Ans: Hydrogen. 


1. Say whether ethyl alcohol and water form a homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture.

Ans: The mixture of ethyl alcohol and water is a homogeneous mixture.

2. Give an example of a homogeneous mixture obtained by mixing two solids.

Ans: Alloys eg. brass.


1. To make one kilogram of 40% sugar solution by mass, how much sugar and water will you need?

(i) sugar ……………….

Ans: 400 g sugar.

(ii) water ……………….

Ans: 600 g water.

2. What is the name given to a liquid which dissolves a solid to make a solution?

Ans: Solvent.

3. To make a given solution more concentrated, what will you add?

Ans: Solute.


1. Which physical property is used to separate iron granules from dust particles?

(a) Magnetic.

(b) Electric.

(c) Density.

Ans: (a) Magnetic.

2. The separation of sugar in the form of Mishree is called

(a) Evaporation.

(b) Crystallisation.

(c) Distillation.

Ans: (b) Crystallisation.


1. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.

(i) A liquid has a definite shape true/false.

Ans: False.

(ii) An element cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means. true/false.

Ans: True.

(iii) A solid cannot be converted into liquid even by increasing temperature. true/false.

Ans: True.

(iv) A liquid can be converted into solid by lowering temperature true/false.

Ans: True.

2. Indicate the normal state (i.e. state at room temperature) of each of the following?

(i) Iron. 

Ans: Iron – solid. 

(ii) Water.

Ans: Water-Liquide.

(iii) Nitrogen.

Ans: Nitrogen – Gas.

(iv) Carbon.

Ans: Carbon – Solid (various forms such as graphite or  diamond).

(v) Gold. 

Ans: Gold -Solid. 

(vi) Oxygen.

Ans: Oxygen – Gas.

3. In the table given below, a list of substances has been provided. Identify whether each of them is an element, compound, mixture or solution.

(i) Milk.

(ii) Sugar.

(iii) Silver.

(iv) Air.

(v) Water.

(vi) Sea water.

(vii) Iron. 

(viii) Carbon dioxide.


Elementcompound,mixture or solution 
Iron sugarMilk 
Silver WaterAir
Carbon Dioxide Sea water: Solution (a type of mixture)

4. Why is it important to store cooking gas cylinders away from heat and flame?

Ans: It is important to store cooking gas cylinder from heat and flame because it contains inflammable substances i.e Liquified Petroleum Gas. So, it will catch fire and can also be fatal (death).

5. Identify the most appropriate method to separate the following:

Substances Method of Separation are:

(i) Separate water from yoghurt.

Ans: Filtration or centrifugation.

(ii) Separate clean water from muddy water.

Ans: Filtration or sedimentation followed by decantation.

(iii) Separate oil from oil water mixture.

Ans: Decantation or centrifugation.

(iv) Separate iron nails from sawdust.

Ans: Magnetic separation. 

(v) Separate sugar from saturated sugar solution.

Ans: Evaporation.

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