NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Science and Technology Notes Paper 212.

NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Science and Technology Chapter 22 Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion, NIOS Secondary Course Science and Technology Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Nutrition Transportation Respiration and Excretion

Chapter: 22


1. Give two examples of autotrophs. Why do you call them so?

Ans: Green plants, algae and bacteria (any two); they undertake photosynthesis to manufacture their own food.

2. Why are autotrophs termed ‘producers’ of food chain?

Ans: They are the food for all the organisms in a food chain.

3. Fill in the blanks in the flow chart given below:

Ans: Types of nutrition: Autotrophic, Heterotrophic:—Holozoic, Parasitic, Saprophytic/ saprotrophic.

4. The parasitic and saprotrophic modes of nutrition do not need the three processes required by holozoic animals. Which processes are these?

Ans: Digestion of the ingested food.

5. Classify the following as saprotrophs or parasites: leech, yeast, head louse, mushroom.

Ans: Parasitic: leech, head louse; saprophytic: Yeast, mushroom.


1. In two sentences, justify the term photosynthesis (photo+ synthesis)

Ans: Photo means light and synthesis means manufacture. Plants manufacture food in presence of light.

2. What makes plants look green? What does the green pigment of plants do for them?

Ans: Chlorophyll; necessary for photosynthesis.

3. Glucose and starch are two food substances manufactured in the plants. Which one is formed during photosynthesis and in which form is it stored.

Ans: Glucose during photosynthesis stored as starch.

4. What role does stomata play in photosynthesis?

Ans: Let in CO2 , from the atmosphere let out O2 is to the atmosphere.


1. Why should raw vegetables and fruits be a regular item in lunch/dinner?

Ans: Easy bowel movement / prevents constipation/, forms roughage.

2. I ate one gram of starchy food and you ate one gram of fatty food—who shall get more energy you or me?

Ans: You.

3. What is common between vitamins A and D and B and C to group them together?

Ans: Vitamin B and C.—Water soluble vitamin.Vitamin A, D, E and K. Fat soluble:


1. Name the enzyme secreted by the stomach that converts proteins into peptones.

Ans: Pepsin.

2. What is the movement of muscles of the oesophagus that pushes down food called?

Ans: Peristalsis/ peristaltic movement.

3. In which part of the alimentary canal do the pancreas and liver pour their secretions?

Ans: Small intestine.

4. Name the enzymes present in the pancreatic juice that digests proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Ans: Trypsin digests proteins, Amylase digest carbohydrates, Lipase digests fats.

5. Name the acid that takes part in digestion process.

Ans:  HCl (Hydrochloric acid).


1. Give the full form of PEM and name the diseases due to PEM.

Ans: Protein Energy Malnutrition; Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.

2. If the diet continuously lacks in vitamin A, which disease may be caused?

Ans: Night blindness; Beri Beri, Pellagra; Anaemia, Scurvy; Rickets; Excessive bleeding from wounds (any two).

3. Why does our government frequently advertise the necessity of consuming iodised salt?

Ans: Because it contains Iodine which is necessary for formation of thyroid hormones/ prevention of diseases due to deficiency of thyroid hormone/prevention of goitre. 


1. Why is a system of transportation/circulation necessary for organisms?

Ans: To circulate O2 / products of digestion of food/ removal of waste.

2. Which kind of blood vessels are responsible for the exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases between blood and tissues?

Ans: Capillaries.

3. What is so special about heart that it continues beating without getting fatigued?

Ans: Valves prevent mixing of oxygen laden blood with carbon dioxide laden blood.


1. Which blood cells would you categorise as:

(i) transporters of oxygen and carbon-dioxide. 

Ans: (i) RBC.

(ii) WBC.

(ii) Enemies of germs that enter the body.

Ans: (i) RBC.

(ii) WBC.

2. Sheena has blood group O+ and Veena has AB+. Whose blood would be useful if it has to be transfused into an accident victim of an unknown blood group and why?

Ans: Sheena’s blood because O group is a universal donor.

3. What makes RBC s look red? What is the role of this pigment?

Ans: Haemoglobin; carries oxygen to tissues and brings back carbon dioxide from tissues

4. In which function is lymph similar to blood?

Ans: Prevent body from infections; returns proteins and fluid from circulation to tissues.


1. Why does the trachea not deflate (collapse) during exhalation?

Ans: It is supported by rings of cartilage.

2. The sequence of parts of human respiratory are jumbled. Place them in the right order. Nasal cavity, trachea, pharynx, internal nostrils, bronchi, lungs.

Ans: Nasal Cavities; Internal nostrils; Pharynx; Trachea; Bronchi; Lungs.

3. You have learnt in Physics that when volume increases, pressure decreases. How does this principle find a place in the process of breathing?

Ans: During inhalation, chest cavity enlarges and air pressure in it decreases so air from outside rushes in.

Diaphragm straightens out.

(i)  Ribs are raised upward and outward.

(ii) Volume of chest cavity increases;pressure of air is it decreases. 

(iii) Air rushes into the alveoli.

4. Once oxygen reaches cells, which of its organelles takes over respiration?

Ans: Mitochondria.

5. Why are the alveoli supplied with capillaries?

Ans: For the exchange of gases (O2 and CO2 ).


1. Name the organ of the excretory system, which stores urine before its removal from the body.

Ans: Urinary bladder.

2. Draw a rough diagram of the nephron and label only the part where filtration occurs?

Ans: Bowman’s capsule labelled in the figure of nephron.

3. What happens to the useful substances that move into the glomerulus along with nitrogenous waste?

Ans: Get reabsorbed into the blood capillaries surrounding the tubule.


1. Multiple choice type questions 

i. Rickets is caused due to deficiency of:

(a) Iron. 

(b) Vitamin D. 

(c) Proteins. 

(d) Carbohydrates. 

Ans: (b) Vitamin D. 

(ii) One gram of a substance was oxidised. The energy released amounted to 9.0Kcal. The substance was of the type: 

(a) Carbohydrates. 

(b) Fats. 

(c) Vitamins. 

(d) Proteins.

Ans: (b) Fats. 

(iii) A person living in the hilly regions of Shimla developed swelling in his neck region. The doctor said his thyroid gland got swelled up. Name the nutrient deficient in his diet. 

(a) Calcium. 

(b) Iron. 

(c) Phosphorus. 

(d) Iodine.

Ans: (d) Iodine.

(iv) The vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood is: 

(a) Vitamin A.

(b) Vitamin D. 

(c) Vitamin E. 

(d) Vitamin K 

Ans: (c) Vitamin E. 

(v) In human beings, gas exchange between the environment and the body takes place in the: 

(a) larynx. 

(b) bronchi.

(c) alveoli. 

(d) trachea. 

Ans: (c) alveoli. 

(vi) RBCs of human beings who live in high altitude regions: 

(a) increase in number. 

(b) decrease in number. 

(c) decrease in size.

(d) increase in size. 

Ans: (a) increase in number. 

(vii) Lungs have a large number of alveoli for: 

(a) maintaining a spongy texture and proper shape. 

(b) more surface area for diffusion of gases. 

(c) more nerve supply. 

(d) more space to increase volume of inspired air.

Ans: (d) more space to increase volume of inspired air.

(viii) The main function of lymph is to: 

(a) Transport O2 to the brain. 

(b) Transport CO2 to lungs. 

(c) Return interstitial fluid to blood. 

(d) Return RBCs and WBCs to lymph vessels.

Ans: (d) Return RBCs and WBCs to lymph vessels.

2. Name the following: 

(i) A fluid that transports fatty acid and glycerol.

Ans: The technical term for the fluid that transports fatty acids and glycerol is Lymph.

(ii) The valve is present in between the chambers on the right side of the human heart.

Ans: Tricuspid valve: located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

(iii) The respiratory pigment present in RBCs. 

Ans: The respiratory pigment present in the RBC of vertebrate blood is called. Haemoglobin.

(iv) The iron contains pigment in RBCs. 

Ans: Haemoglobin: RBCs/erythrocytes play an important role in the transport of oxygen to various tissues. It is mainly due to the presence of an iron-containing, red-coloured pigment called haemoglobin.

(v) The phase of cardiac cycle in which the auricles contract.

Ans: In atrial systole is the phase of cardiac cycle in which the auricles contract.

3. Give one point of difference between the following. 

(i) Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. 

Ans: Autotrophic nutrition is when organisms make their own food, for example, in photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs. Heterotrophic nutrition is when organisms gain their food by ingesting other organisms. Heterotrophic nutrition can be parasitic, saprophytic, or holozoic.

(ii) Breathing and respiration.

Ans: Breathing is a mechanical process where the air volume changes in the chest cavity. On the other hand, respiration is a biochemical process where oxygen is introduced into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is expelled from the body.

(iii) Arteries and veins. 

Ans: Arteries and veins (also called blood vessels) are tubes of muscle that your blood flows through. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Veins push blood back to your heart. You have a complex system of connecting veins and arteries throughout your body.

(iv) Blood and lymph. 

Ans: Blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a fluid called plasma. Lymph is composed of white blood cells and a watery fluid. Both blood and lymph possess a circulatory function as well as an immune function.

(v) Auricular systole and ventricular systole.

Ans: The auricular systole is the process when the arteries are contracted whereas in ventricular systole the veins are contracted.

4. Match the columns A and B.

1. Sponge-like organs located in the chest cavity(a) trachea
2. Chamber acting as a common passage for food and air(b) bronchioles
3. Elastic tissue that forms a flap over the top of c. epiglottis the larynx(c) epiglottis
4. Main passageway to the lungs(d) pharynx
5. Small tubes that branch from the bronchi(e) bronch
6. Small air sacs in the lungs(e) bronch


1. Sponge-like organs located in the chest cavityLungs
2. Chamber acting as a common passage for food and airpharynx
3. Elastic tissue that forms a flap over the top of c. epiglottis the larynxEpiglottis
4. Main passageway to the lungstrachea
5. Small tubes that branch from the bronchiBronchioles
6. Small air sacs in the lungsAlveoli

5. Given below is an example of a certain structure and its function. ‘Kidney and excretion’ Fill in the blanks on a similar pattern. 

(i) Alveoli and ____________.

Ans: Bronchioles.

(ii) Diaphragm and ____________.

Ans: Some of the smallest airways in your lungs.

(iii) ‘C’-shaped cartilage rings and ____________.

Ans: tracheas support.

(iv) Erythrocyte and ____________.

Ans: Works against enemy.

(v) Left ventricle and ____________. 

Ans: oxygen supplies to the body by different medium.

(vi) Pacemaker and ____________.

Ans: Blood pump.

6. What is a balanced diet? Name three items of a diet that provide three different nutrients?

Ans: A balanced diet contains all of the essential elements that the human body needs. Carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibre, and water are all essential components in a well-balanced diet. A nutritious, well-balanced diet lowers the risk of disease and enhances general health.

Three items of a diet that provides three different nutrients are mentioned below: 

(i) Carbohydrates, including starches and fibre.

(ii) Protein.

(iii) Healthy fats.

7. What are the main steps of photosynthesis? Is sunlight essential for photosynthesis and why?

Ans: The main steps of photosynthesis are mentioned below: 

(i) Absorption of sunlight: Pigment chlorophyll absorbs the Sunlight.

(ii) Splitting of Water.

(iii) Conversion of light energy into chemical energy, and splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen by light energy.

Yes sunlight is essential for photosynthesis.

The sunlight came from the sun and the water received from the ground is the main source of photosynthesis. In this process the sunlight is very essential for the photosynthesis process as absent of this the process would not happen.

8. A patient complains of lack of appetite, exhaustion and is losing weight. Diagnose the deficiency. What kind of diet would you suggest for the patient?

Ans: Do yourself.

9. Deficiency of which vitamin causes night blindness. What would you suggest to prevent this deficiency?

Ans: Vitamin A is vital for your vision. Your eyes need to make specific pigments for your retinas to work correctly.

A lack of vitamin A hinders your eyes’ ability to make these pigments, which can lead to night blindness. In other words, you need vitamin A to be able to see at night.

10. Where does the digestion of starch, proteins and fats take place and what is the role played in digestion by liver and pancreas?

Ans: The digestion of starch happens in the mouth;the digestion of protein happens in the stomach and the digestion of fats take place in the small intestines.

The bile juice is secreted from the liver which helps in digestion of the food particles.

11. Which component in your diet will not be digested if the enzyme lipase is not secreted?

Ans: Lipase. This enzyme works together with bile, which your liver produces, to break down fat in your diet. If you don’t have enough lipase, your body will have trouble absorbing fat and the important fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K).

12. Explain how oxygen leaves the blood from the tissue capillaries and carbon dioxide enters the blood in the tissue capillaries.

Ans: The oxygen which we take from the air is mixed with the blood and with the help of the arteries transfer to the body parts and the co2 in this same way through veins to the alveoli and then get out.

13. Explain the usefulness of large surface area provided by alveoli for respiration in human beings.

Ans: As the surface are of the alveoli will be how much the amount of oxygen would be intake by it from air and more oxygenated blood will go to the body parts.

14. Why do arteries have a thick or elastic wall?

Ans: Thick walls of arteries help them to resist the pressure of the flow of blood in them. 

Elastic walls of arteries: The elastic layer allows stretching and absorbs pressure. The walls stretch and recoil in response to pumping, thus peaks in pressure are absorbed.

15. What are the four types of blood groups present in humans? Prepare a table with two columns to show the different human blood groups and names of compatible blood groups in the other column.

Ans: Their are  4 blood types  groups are A, B, AB and O. Each of these will be either Rh-positive or Rh-negative.

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