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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 21 Spread Of Indian Culture Abroad
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Spread Of Indian Culture Abroad
Intext Questions 21.1
Q.1. Who spread our culture abroad?
Ans: Traders, teachers, emissaries and missionaries.
Q.2. Which two universities did Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-tsang visit?
Ans: Nalanda and Valabhi universities.
Q.3. Name the Tibetan scholar who gave a description of Vikramashila University.
Ans: Taranatha, the Tibetan scholar.
Q.4. Who were the two teachers who visited China during AD 67?
Ans: Kashyapa Martanga and Charmarakshita.
Q.5. Why did Acharya Kumarajiva go to China?
Ans: He went on the request of the king to get sonne Sanskrit texts translated into Chinese.
Q.6. Who were Gypsies in ancient times?
Ans: People who left India and wandered in Europe or settled there, were the ambassadors of Indian culture abroad.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.2
Q.1. Why was the route to China named as silk route?
Ans: Because silk was the main mercantile commodity of China.
Q.2. Where is Kuchi? Why is it famous?
Ans: Kuchi was in Central Asia. It was a famous centre of Indian culture. Silk route bifurcated here.
Q.3. Where were the coins of the first century AD bearing engraving in Chinese on the obverse and Prakrit in Kharosthi script on the reverse discovered?
Ans: Khotan, an oasis kingdom.
Q.4. What are Dun-huang, Yun-kang and Lung-men?
Ans: These are famous cave complexes of the world.
Q.5. When did the philosophy of ‘dhyana yoga’ reach Korea?
Ans: In the eighth to ninth century AD.
Q. 6. How did Indian culture reach japan?
Ans: Indian culture reached Japan through Korea. In 552 AD the Korean emperor sent a Buddha statue, sutras, implements for worship, artists, sculptors, painters and architects as gifts for Japanese emperor.
Q.7. What is known as Shittan in Japan?
Ans: A script in which mantras and syllables are written is known as shittan.
Q.8. How many books of Sanskrit language got translated into Tibetan during seventh century to seventeenth century AD?
Ans: 96,000 Sanskrit books.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.3
Q.1. Name the first two monasteries of Sri Lanka.
Ans. Mahavihar and Abhayagiri.
Q.2. How did Buddhism reach Sri Lanka?
Ans: It was Ashoka who sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra along with a delegation to Sri Lanka. A branch of Bodhi tree from Bodhgaya was planted here.
Q.3. Which language became the literary language of Sri Lanka?
Q.4. What is Angkor Vat?
Ans: It is supposed to be the abode of Vishnu
Q.5. What are the five towers of Angkor Vat called?
Ans: They are called the five peaks of the Sumeru Mountain.
Q.6. What is portrayed at the Angkor Vat? Why?
Ans: The king Suryavarman is portrayed as an incarnation of Vishnu. He had attained a place in heaven because of his meritorious deeds.
Q.7. What does the Angkor Vat temple represent?
Ans: It represents a square mile of construction with a broad moat running around adding to its spectacular charm.
Q.8. What is engraved on the walls of Angkor Vat?
Ans: Scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata are engraved on the walls of this temple.
Q.9. Which is the most important scene engraved on the walls of Angkor Vat?
Ans: The scene of Samudra-manthan (churning of the ocean).
Q.10. What is embellished at Baphuon?
Ans: Scenes from the epics of Rama and Ravana, Shiva on mount Kailasha with Parvati and the destruction of Kamdeva.
Q.11. Name some cities of Vietnam (Champa) whose name were based on Indian culture.
Ans: Indrapura, Amaravati, Vijaya, Kauthara, Panduranga.
Q.12. Where were evidences of Shaivism discovered in Malaysia?
Ans: In Kedah and in the province of Wellesly.
Q.13. What are some of the important figurines unearthed in Malaysia?
Ans: Female figurines with trident, the head of Nandi, a relief of Durga image, Ganesha and Shivlingas.
Q.14. Which are some of the words of Sanskrit find place in the Malaysian language?
Ans: Some words are svarga, rasa, guna, dahda, mantri, dhipati, laksha.
Q.15. Which is the most important inscription of the fourth and fifth centuries AD in Malaysia?
Ans: The most important inscription is from Ligor.
Q.16. How many temples were found at Ligor?
Ans: Over fifty temples.
Q.17. What is Prambanan?
Ans: The largest Shiva temple on the island of Java is called Prambanan.
Q.18. What is constructed opposite the three temples of Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma?
Ans: There are temples of vahanas of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma.
Q.19. How many temples are there in the Java island of Indonesia?
Ans: Eight big temples, surrounded by 240 small temples.
Q.20. Which stories were carved on the walls of the temples in Indonesia?
Ans: Ramayana and Krishna.
Q.21. What was discovered at Bali in Indonesia?
Ans: Over five hundred hymns, stotras dedicated to Shiva, Brahma, Durga, Ganesha, Buddha and many other deities have been discovered.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.4
Q.1. How old is economic relations between India and Arab?
Ans: It started in the ninth century AD.
Q.2. Name some of the prominent travellers of Arab.
Ans: Sulaiman the merchant, Al-Masudi, Ibn
Hauqal, Al Idrisi.
Q.3. Name the two astronomical works given to Arab world by India.
Ans: (a) Brahma-sphuta – Siddhanta better known as Sindhin in Arab.
(b) Khandakhadyaka-known as Arkand.
Q.4. What was the contribution of India in the field of mathematics to the Arabs?
Ans: The decimal system with its concept of zero.
Q.5. Who translated Sushruta Samhita into Arabic?
Q.6. At whose behest, Indian works on medicine and therapeutics were rendered into Arabic?
Ans: Caliph Harun al-Rashid.
Q.7. What other fields of Indian knowledge was studied by Arabs?
Ans: Works on snake poison, veterinary art and books on logic, philosophy, ethics, politics and science of war.
Q.8. Where were Roman coins found in India?
Ans: At Coimbatore and Madurai.
Q.9. What were the things in great demand in Arab?
Ans: Items like pepper, betel, spices, scents, precious stones likes beryl, gem, diamond, ruby, amenthyst, pearls, ivory, silk, muslins.
Q.10. How was a stable gold currency established for the Kushana empire?
Ans: The trade with Rome brought in gold to India. This established a stable gold currency for the Kushana Empire.
Q.11. Who were Yavanas?
Ans: People belonging to Western Asia and the Mediterranean region. It included Greeks and Romans.
Q.12. What was the work of Yavanas in ancient India?
Ans: Guarding tents on the battlefields and the gates of Madurai.
Q.13. Where were specimens of famous Italian pottery Arretine found in India?
Ans: At a site called Arikamedu near Pondicherry.
Q.14. Which Andhra kings issued a rare type of coin figuring the ship as the symbol of state’s seaborne trade?
Q.1. What were the various modes through which Indian culture spread abroad?
Ans: 1. Indian culture spread to various parts (in East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Rome and Arab) through different modes such as traders, teachers, preachers, missionaries etc.
2. Indian universities such as Nalanda, Taxila, Varanasi etc. were very famous for their good standards of education and attracted students from several countries. These students acted as agents for spreading Indian culture.
3. Sanskrit language and texts written in it, Buddhists texts and translation works of ancient Indian literary works were translated in local languages of different countries. They became the best modes to spread Indian culture in different countries.
4. A large number of monasteries and temples were built in all those countries where Indian culture and religions travelled.
5. Indian art styles were adopted by artists of several countries.
6. Sri Lanka was the first country to embrance Buddhism.
7. Indian script Brahmi was the model for many scripts in the Southeast Asian countries.
8. A large number of Sanskrit inscriptions found in these countries are the major sources for the history of Indo-Asian cultural connections.
9. Buddhism is a living religion in countries like Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Cambodia.
10. An important contribution of India to Arab civilization was mathematics.
Q.2. What was the role of the ancient universities in spreading Indian culture abroad?
Ans: (i) During ancient times the universities were the most significant centres of cultural interaction. They attracted large number of students and scholars.
(ii) The scholars coming from abroad generally visited the library of Nalanda university which was said to be a seven story building. Students and teachers from such universities carried Indian culture abroad along with knowledge and religion.
(iii) For instance, the Chinese traveller, Buddhist visitor, scholar cum teacher Husansang (g~osu lkax) describes his stay at two important universities one in the east, Nalanda, and other in the west, Vallabhi.
(iv) Vikramashila was another university hat was situated on the right bank of the Ganga. The Tibetan scholar Taranatha has given its description. Teachers and scholars of this inversity were so famous that once the Tibetan Tuler is stated to have sent a mission to invite he head of the university to promote interest in common culture and indigenous wisdom.
(v) Two Indian teachers went to China on an invitation from the Chinese Emperor in AD 67.
Their names are Kashyapa Mattanga and Dharma rakshita. They were followed by a number of teachers from universities like Nalanda, Takshila, Vikramshila and Odantapuri (in Bihar).
Q.3. How would Buddhism reach the countries of East Asia as a religion of peace?
Ans: The Buddhist philosophy appealed to the Chinese intellectuals because they already had a developed philosophical school in Confucianism. The first Emperor of Wei Dynasty in China declared Buddhism as the state roligion. Korea received Indian cultural elements through China, and Korea further sent Buddhist collections to the emperor of Japan.
Tibetans visited Indian monasteries and adopted Buddhism.
Q.4. Give an account of the Indian culture in Thailand.
Ans: Indian Culture in Thailand: Till the year 1939, Thailand was called Siam, the original name. Indian cultural influences began to reach there in the first century AD. It was first carried by Indian traders, followed by teachers and missionaries.
The Thai kingdoms were given Sanskrit names such as Dwaravati, Shri Vijay, Sukhodaya and Ayutthiya.
The names of their cities also indicate a strong cultural interflow.
Q.5. Describe the religious architecture of Indonesia.
Ans: Religious Architecture of Indonesia: In the field of religious architecture, the largest Shiva temple in Indonesia is situated in the island of Java. It is called Prambanan. It was built in the ninth century.
It has a Shiva temple flanked by Vishnu and Brahma temples. Opposite these three temples are temples constructed for their Vahanas. They are nandi (Bull) for shiva, Garuda for Vishnu and Goose for Brahma.
In between the two rows are the temples dedicated to Durga and Ganesha, numbeing eight in all, surrounded by 240 small temples. It is an example of wonderful architecture.
The stories of Ramayana and Krishna, carved on the walls of the temple, are their oldest representations of the world.
Q.6. Briefly describe India’s trade relations with the Roman Empire.
Ans: The Roman Empire become India’s best customer. This trade happened mostly in South India and is testified both by literary texts and finds of Roman coins specially at Coimbatore and Madurai. Items like pepper, betel, spices, scents and precious stones like beryl, gem, diamond, ruby and amethyst, pearls, ivory, silk and muslins were in great demand. This trade with Rome was bound to bring in gold to India which gave her a favourable position in trade and established a stable gold currency for the Kushana empire of those days.
The volume of trade with Rome was so high that to facilitate its movement, ports like Sopara, and Barygaza (Broach) came to be built in the west coast, while the Coromandel coast in the east carried on trade with Golden Chersonese (Suvaranabhumi) and Golden Chyrse (Suvarnadvipa).
Q.7. Ancient India had a great access to sea and foreign trade. Discuss.
Ans: Ancient India was well connected to see via port cities developed by various rulers. These port cities proved to be the gateway to the outer world, and saw many ambassadors from different countries entering in India. Through these cities India came in touch with foreign countries of Asia and Europe and established strong trade links with them. Some countries, with whom India enjoyed great trade were Sri Lanka, China, Russia, Tibet, Japan, Rome, etc.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. This is not one of the modes through which Indian culture spread abroad.
(a) Through teachers and preachers.
(b) Through emissaries and ambassadors.
(c) Through missionaries.
(d) Through prisoners taken in custody by foreigners.
Ans: Through prisoners taken in custody by foreigners.
2. Java, Sumatra and Malaya together were Called _______ in ancient period.
3. Modern day Orissa was known as _______ in earlier period.
4. This is not one of the prominent Buddhist complexes in China.
5. The country situated on a plateau to the north of Himalayas is:
6. The present day name of Burma is:
7. Nandi is the vahana of Lord _______
8. _______ Had described the university of Nalanda.
(b) Thonmi Sambhota.