# NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population: Distribution Density, Growth and composition

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## NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population: Distribution Density, Growth and composition

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Geography Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography, Geography: India People and Economy, Geography: Practical Work in Geography. NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population: Distribution Density, Growth and composition Notes, NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 11

PART – II INDIA: PEOPLE AND ECONOMY

1. Name the four most populous states of the country.

Ans: Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state in India. The other two most populated states in India are Maharashtra and Bihar.

2. What is the average growth rate of population in India during 1991-2001?

Ans: The decadal growth of population at 21.34 per cent between 1991-2001, (Table. 10.14) witnessed the sharpest decline since independence with the average growth rate for the corresponding period declining to 1.93 per cent per annum.

3. What is the root cause of short distance migration?

Ans: Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate.

4. What is the density of population of Delhi and Arunachal Pradesh?

Ans: Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest population density with 17 persons per sq.km, whereas our national capital has the highest population density with 11,320 persons per sq.km.

5. Which state of India is most thickly populated? Give its density.

Ans: Bihar has the highest population density (1106 people per square kilometre), followed by Bengal (1028) and Kerala (860). Although population and dispersion have different meanings, they are frequently used interchangeably.

6. Name the districts with highest and lowest population density respectively.

Ans: Bengaluru urban district has the highest density of population.

7. Which state of India is most rural in character?

Ans: In India, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have more than 80% rural population.

8. Name three most urbanised states of India.

Ans: Tamil Nadu is a leading global hub for agri-commodities, metals and minerals.

9. What is the percentage of rural and urban population in India?

Ans: The correct answer is 31.15% and 24.87%. The percentage of the urban population in India and Rajasthan is 31.15% and 24.87% respectively as per Census 2011.

10. Which five states together constitute more than 50 percent of the total urban population of our country?

Ans: Goa is the most urbanised state of India. 62.71% of the population of Goa lives in urban areas. After this, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Punjab have more than 50% population living in urban areas.

11. What is the sex ratio in India according to the 2001 census?

Ans: Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males.

12. Which state has the highest sex ratio in India? What is its sex ratio?

Ans: Kerala has the highest sex ratio in India, with 1084 females for every 1000 males.

13. What do you understand by ‘participation rate’?

Ans: The participation rate refers to the total number of people or individuals who are currently employed or in search of a job.

14. Which age group constitutes the working population?

Ans: The working-age group includes people aged 15 to 59. They are economically productive and biologically reproductive.

15. Name the two agriculturally developed states having the lowest participation rate.

Ans: West Bengal is situated in eastern India and shares its borders with Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Sikkim, and Assam.

16. What is the dependency ratio and how is it calculated?

Ans: A measure of the number of dependents aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, compared with the total population aged 15 to 64.

17. What is urbanisation?

Ans: The process by which huge numbers of people are permanently concentrated in relatively limited regions, establishing cities, is known as urbanisation.

1. Define migration. Name four streams of migration in India.

Ans: Migration in geography usually refers to the movement of humans from one place to another. In India, the migrants are classified into four migration streams, namely, rural to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban and urban to rural.

2. Explain any three differences between in migration and out migration.

Ans:

3. Why do people migrate? Write three main causes.

Ans: Social migration-moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends.

(i) Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation.

(ii) Overgrazing, i.e. grazing of natural pastures at stocking intensities above the livestock carrying capacity.

(iii) Livestock including overgrazing and overdrafting.

4. Explain the concept of population growth.

Ans: Population Growth can be defined as the increase in the number of people in a given area. Population growth can be measured in a neighbourhood, country, or even global level! You can imagine how difficult it may be for each country to accurately count its population.

5. Which type of area in India support high density of population?

Ans: The Northern Plains are included in India’s high population density zone, which is defined as having a population density of more than 500 people per square kilometre.

6. How does the rural population differ from urban population? Explain with three suitable examples.

Ans:

examples: Urban areas can include towns and cities while rural areas include villages and hamlets.

7. What do you understand by sex ratio? Mention the changes in sex ratio in India in the last century.

Ans: Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in a given population. In a society that has males and females equal in number, the sex ratio is 1:1 or 1000 females for every 1000 males.

From 1951 to 2011, the sex ratio in rural India fell from 965 to 946, while it rose from 860 to 929 in urban India. The sex ratio in India has declined from 946 in 1951 to 943 in 2011. During this time, 19 states and territories have seen a considerable increase in the gender ratio.

8. What is the special feature of the age-structure of the Indian population?

Ans: In 2022, about 25.31 percent of the Indian population fell into the 0-14 year category, 67.8 percent into the 15-64 age group and 6.9 percent were over 65 years of age. India is one of the largest countries in the world and its population is constantly increasing.

9. Explain three differences between main workers and marginal workers.

Ans:

10. Distinguish between cultivators and agricultural labourers.

Ans:

11. Distinguish between working age group and reproductive age group.

Ans:

12. Distinguish between primary and secondary economic activities.

Ans:

13. Define the limits of young, adult and old age groups.

Ans: Young adulthood, spanning approximately ages 18 to 26,1 is a transitional period during the life course when young people are traditionally expected to become financially independent, to establish romantic relationships and become parents, and to assume responsible roles as productive and engaged members of the community.

14. Mention the salient characteristics of the age pyramid of India.

Ans: India’s pyramid is bottom heavy i.e. the Indian population has a larger proportion of children, teenagers and young adults compared to China’s. The country’s population for the age cohorts of 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 is roughly equal, whereas the numbers for older groups become progressively smaller.

15. Give occupational structure to workers.

Ans: Occupational structure refers to distribution of working force among the different occupations. Occupational structure is classified on the basis of the skill level and economic status.

16. Distinguish between main and marginal workers.

Ans:

1. Describe main features of population growth from 1901-2001.

Ans: India experienced enormous population growth during the twentieth century. The population more than quadrupled over the century and the growth was particularly rapid during the second half. The growth occurred due to a welcome development, namely, mortality decline, which was notable after 1921 and quite impressive after 1951. As fertility remained high for some time after mortality decline had set in, rapid population growth naturally took place. This paper seeks to address these questions on the basis of projections of population for India and for its large states. First, an overview of population growth since 1901 is presented to provide the background for the work followed by the methodology in brief. Results based on projections are presented for India as a whole and then for large states so as to understand variations Implications of these findings are discussed at the end.

(i) Phase of Stagnant Population: 1901-21 During this period, the population increased by 1.29 crore only. If we were to break this period in accordance with the two censuses, we find that during 1901-11, the decadal growth rate was only 5.75 per cent, as the natural growth rate of population was low (6.6).

(ii) Phase of Steady Population Growth: 1921-51 From 1921 onwards till 1951 there was a steady growth of population. During these years, the population increased by 2.8 crore in 1931, to 4 crore in 1941 and to 5 crore in 1951. But the decadal growth rate in 1951 census was 0.9 percentage less than in the 1941 census due to the Partition of India in 1947.

(iii) Phase of Rapid Population Growth or of Population Explosion: 1951-81 This was the period of rapid population growth when population increased by 32.5 crore as against about 12 crore during the last 50 years from 1901 to 1951. The average annual growth rate of the population increased from 1.25 per cent to 2.2 per cent in 1981. The main reason was a large decline in the death rate from 22.8 to 15 due to better medical facilities while the birth rate fell slowly from 41.7 to 37.2 over the period.

(iv) Phase of High Growth with Declining Trend: 1981-2001 During this phase, a definite declining trend of population growth is visible. Total population increased by 34.37 crore during 20 years. But the average annual growth rate had definitely declined to 1.93 per cent in 2001 as against 2.2 per cent in 1981. As per the Census of India, 2001, the relative share of population of the States and Union Territories to the total population of India is shown in Table 31.2. This table also shows the size-wise ranking of population in different States and Union Territories of India for the years 1991 and 2001.

(v) Birth Rate and Death Rate: The total number of births per 1000 people in a given area at a given time is called the birth rate, while deaths occurring per thousand people in a given area in a given time is called the death rate. A given time is called the birth rate, while deaths occurring per thousand people in a given area in a given time is called the death rate. The birth rate, the death rate and the natural growth rate are shown in Table 31.4. When the birth rate, the death rate and the natural growth rate are studied for the period from 1901 to 2001, a number of interesting facts emerge. For the period between 1901 and 1910, both the birth and death rates were high, being 49.2 and 42.6 respectively.

2. Discuss the causes of uneven distribution of population in India.

Ans: The uneven distribution of population in India can be attributed to a variety of factors, including historical, geographical, economic, social, and political influences.

Here are some of the key causes:

(i) Geographical Factors:

(a) Topography: Topography is the study and description of the physical features of an area, for example its hills, valleys, or rivers, or the representation of these features on maps, countable nouns. The topography of a particular area is its physical shape, including its hills, valleys, and rivers.

(b) Climate: Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, month-to-month or even year-to-year. A region’s weather patterns, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate.

(ii) Historical Factors:

(a) Colonial Legacy: The most salient colonial legacy has features of the perpetuation of the political territory of the State, born of colonial occupation and administration, as well as of the interaction between colonial powers themselves.

(b) Historical Settlement Patterns: In the scientific field of archaeology, the term “settlement pattern” refers to the evidence within a given region of the physical remnants of communities and networks. That evidence is used to interpret the way interdependent local groups of people interacted in the past.

(iii) Economic Factors:

(a) Industrialization and Urbanization: Industrialisation is the process of transforming any society into an industrial society (by developing industries), whereas, in urbanisation, the rural population migrates towards the urban areas.

(iv) Infrastructure and Development:

(a) Transportation Networks: A transport network, or transportation network, is a network or graph in geographic space, describing an infrastructure that permits and constraints movement or flow. Examples include but are not limited to road networks, railways, air routes, pipelines, aqueducts, and power lines.

(b) Urban Amenities: These amenities, ranging from parks, museums, and libraries to good-quality schools, public transportation, and safety services, not only serve the basic needs of urban residents but also determine the attractiveness of a city for potential residents, businesses, and investors.

(v) Social and Cultural Factors:

(a) Language and Ethnicity: Ethnicity refers to a group of people who share cultural practices, beliefs, customs, and linguistic traits. Language variation is a significant part of ethnicity, and it is seen in accents, dialects, vocabulary, and grammatical changes that occur within the same language.

(b) Social Networks and Migration: It is through social networks that migrants learn about opportunities and conditions in potential destinations; at home, the structure of migrants’ social networks shapes their ability and desire to leave.

(vi) Government Policies:

(a) Regional Development Policies: The policies of regional development are aimed at reducing the regional disparities existing in particular to a minimum and to find out the possible means for developing the region as a whole.

3. Why do people migrate? Give reasons.

Ans: Migration is a natural process that often happens depending on the socio-economic, demographic, cultural, political and environmental factors related to the migrant people. Migration is not a mere shift of people from one place of residence to another. It is most fundamental to the understanding of continuously changing space content and space relationships of areas (Gosal, 1961), Bogue (1959) considers it an instrument of cultural diffusion and social integration which yields more meaningful redistribution of population. Smith (1960) has stated about three-fold impacts of migration on (a) the area of out- migration (b) the area of in-migration and (c) the migrants. The persons of the areas of out migration decrease while the population of in- migration increases. The migration from rural to urban areas has been increasing slowly with industrialization and modernization in India. The main reason for migration is employment or business related migration. The male migration constitutes the highest level of migration in India due to employment purposes.

Causes of Migration Urbanisation:

(i) Urbanisation: has been a major driver of internal migration. Rates of urbanisation influence rural-urban wage differences. An increase in the demand for labour in urban areas can attract urban wages and increase migration. The pull factors of better job facilities, good salary, and more income, medical and educational facilities are attracting the rural people to move to the cities (Kundu, 2012). The push factors of no job facilities, low salary, less income, drought, less medical and education compel people towards cities.

(ii) Marriage: Marriage is a very important social factor of migration. Every girl has to migrate to her in-law’s place of residence. Thus, the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distances. About 49.35 percent people shifted their residence after marriage in 2011.

(iii) Employment: People migrate in large numbers from rural to urban areas in search of employment in industries, trade, transport and services. The rural areas do not provide employment to all the people living there. Even the small-scale and cottage industries of the villages fail to provide employment to the entire rural community. About 10.22 per cent of migrants migrated for employment in 2011.

(iv) Education: Due to lack of educational facilities in rural areas, people migrate to the urban areas for higher education. Many of them settle down in the cities to earn a livelihood after completing their education. In the 2011 census, about 1.77 percent of people migrated for education.

(v) Lack of Security: Political disturbances and interethnic conflicts drive people away from their homes. Large number of people has migrated out of Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last due to disturbed conditions there. People also migrate on a short-term basis in search of better opportunities for recreation, health care facilities etc.

(vi) ‘Pull’ and ‘Push’ Factors: Two principal factors- push and pull are responsible for migration. The push factors are poverty, lack of work opportunities, unemployment and underdevelopment, poor economic condition, lack of opportunities, exhaustion of natural resources and natural calamities, scarcity of cultivated land, inequitable land distribution, low agricultural productivity etc., Pull factors attract migrant to an area (area of destination), like, employment and higher education opportunities, higher wages facilities, better working condition.

4. Describe the regional patterns of density of population in India.

Ans: Here’s an overview of the regional patterns of population density in India:

(i) High-Density Regions:

(a) Northern Plains: The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits of the three major river systems of the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is completely formed of alluvial soil. The plains are very fertile and are best suited for agriculture.

(b) Western Coast: The Western Coastal Plains is a strip of coastal plain 50 kilometres (31 mi) in width between the west coast of India and the Western Ghats hills, which starts near the south of the Tapi River. The plains are located between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.

(c) Urban Agglomerations: An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns.

(ii) Moderate-Density Regions:

(a) Eastern States: Eastern India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal and also the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

(b) Central Plateau: The Central Plateau is an extensive area of high but level country whose underlying rocks and soils are of volcanic origin; hence it is sometimes referred to as the Volcanic Plateau.

(iii) Low-Density Regions:

(a) Himalayan Region: The Indian Himalayan Region (abbreviated to IHR) is the section of the Himalayas within the Republic of India, spanning thirteen Indian states and union territories, namely Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Assam, and Arunachal.

(b) Desert Areas: Deserts cover more than one-fifth of Earth’s land area, and they are found on every continent. A place that receives less than 25 centimetres (10 inches) of rain per year is considered a desert. Deserts are part of a wider class of regions called drylands.

(iv) Islands and Remote Areas:

(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands: The terrain of Andaman and Nicobar islands is around 70% Paleogene sedimentary rocks. Terrains built on sedimentary rocks tend to be rough, layered and brittle. Sandstone, siltstone, limestone and shale are the main components of the land in Andamans. Hills are found more than the flat land with a few valleys.

(b) Northeastern States: This area of land has a lot of important geography, such as the enormous waterfall, Niagara Falls, the Hudson river, Massachusetts Bay on the Atlantic Ocean, and the Appalachian Mountains, a range of mountains stretching across 13 states in southwest to northeasterly direction.

5. Highlight the significance of socio-economic factors affecting the distribution of population in India.

Ans: Here are some key aspects of the significance of socio-economic factors affecting population distribution in India:

(i) Employment Opportunities: Employment opportunities are influenced by economic activity. This plays a crucial role in population distribution. Rural residents primarily depend on agriculture for their livelihood. They may choose to migrate to cities due to inadequate agricultural support or better opportunities in urban areas.

(ii) Agricultural Potential: Agricultural potential refers to the capacity of an area for successful agricultural production. It takes into account factors such as climate, soil fertility, water availability, and infrastructure.

(iii) Infrastructure and Services: Infrastructure is often categorised as hard or soft. Hard infrastructure is the tangible, physical assembly of structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, and railways. Soft infrastructure is the services required to maintain the economic, health, and social needs of a population.

(iv) Urbanization and Industrialization: Industrialisation is the process of transforming any society into an industrial society (by developing industries), whereas, in urbanisation, the rural population migrates towards the urban areas.

(v) Government Policies and Development Initiatives: The government policy can influence how much tax the community pays, pensions, immigration status and laws, penalties for violation of rules, education system, commerce and trade in an economy. The government implements a policy that changes social behaviour in the business environment.

(vi) Social Factors: A social factor is any aspect of society that influences human behaviour and interactions. It can include things like cultural beliefs, norms, values, traditions or social institutions.

(vii) Quality of Life: Quality-of-life (QOL) surveys are another tool that are used globally to measure standards of living based on indicators other than economic ones. Introduced as a concept to Geography in the 1970s, quality of life is the general well-being of individuals and societies.

6. Give rural and urban composition of the Indian population.

Ans: Rural Urban composition: Population is divided into two parts-rural and urban on the basis of the size and occupation of settlements. The rural population consists of small sized settlements scattered over the countryside. Urban population is one that lives in large size settlements i.e. towns and cities. Rural areas are those where people are engaged in primary activities and urban areas are those where majority of the working population is engaged in non-primary activities.

In Western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas and females outnumber the males in urban areas. In countries like Nepal, Pakistan and India the case is reversed. The excess of females in urban areas of U.S.A, Canada and Europe is the result of influx of females from rural areas to avail the vast job opportunities. Farming in these developed countries is highly mechanised and remains largely a male occupation. Sex ratio in Asian urban areas remains male dominated due to predominance of male migration. Shortage of housing, high cost of living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of security in cities, discourage women from migrating from rural to urban areas.

(i) Literacy: Proportion of literate population of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development as it reveals the standard of living, social status of females,

(ii) Availability of educational facilities and policies of the government. In India-literacy rate denotes the percentage of population above 7 years of age, who are able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.

(iii) Occupational Structure: The working population takes place in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities, manufacturing as secondary, transport, communication and other services as tertiary and the jobs related to research and developing ideas as quaternary activities. The proportion of the working population engaged in these four sectors is a good indicator of the levels of economic development of a nation. A developed economy with industries can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is in primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities would be high.

7. The sex ratio has been generally declining ever since 1901. Critically examine the statement and give reasons for the declining trend.

Ans: In India, the sex ratio has been declining due to prevailing social norms that tend to value males much more than females, which leads to ‘son preference’ and the relative neglect of girl child. In 1901 it was 972, 946 in 1951, 927 in 1991. Reasons and Implications of declining sex ratio.

(i) Health risk of child bearing by mothers: India’s maternal mortality remains high (4.2 per 1000 live births) as compared to international standards. This necessitates focus on levels of nutrition, general education and awareness, as well as, the availability of medical and communication facilities.

(ii) Severe neglect of girls in infancy: leading to higher death rates, sex-specific abortions that prevent girl babies from being born and female infanticide. This is due to social reasons like patriarchal nature of society, dowry etc. Such meta son preference is shown by educated urbanised sections evident in use of modern techniques like sonogram combined with adoption of modern values like nuclear family necessitating fewer children and meta son preference.

(iii) Improving the health of mothers through institutional deliveries, free pre and post-natal check-ups.

(iv) Banning use of modern tools for sex-selective abortions like Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act.

(v) Removing biases in societal norms and values like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Andolan, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana.

Gender Sensitising policy making like gender budgeting, 33% reservation in local bodies.

8. Discuss the main characteristics of the workforce in India. What kind of economy do they reveal?

Ans: Here are some key characteristics of the Indian workforce:

(i) Size and Diversity: In a nutshell, diversity refers to our differences. There are different dimensions of diversity including age, religion, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity, mental and physical ability and language, as noted previously. Some dimensions of diversity are not always visible.

(ii) Youthful Population: A youthful population is defined as a population that has a high proportion of young people (0-14 years of age) due to high birth rates and a decrease in infant mortality. Children are young dependents on the working population.

(iii) Informal Sector Dominance: While the informal sector contributes around half of the GDP of the country, its dominance in the employment front is such that more than 90 percent of the total workforce has been engaged in the informal economy.

(iv) Service-Oriented Economy: The services sector contributes over 50 percent to India’s GDP. Employment Generation: The service sector is a major source of employment in India. It provides jobs to 30.7% of the Indian population.

(v) Skill Gap and Education: The skills gap refers to the divide between the skills that employers require and the skills that job seekers possess. This gap is a result of a mismatch between the education system and the job market demands.

(vi) Urban-Rural Disparities: The rural–urban disparity in the standard of living in India is estimated on the basis of per capita consumption or use of non-durable goods, durable consumer goods, and house and living facilities enjoyed by the population of the rural and urban sectors in major states of India in 2011–12.

(vii) Tech-Savvy Workforce: India’s digital landscape has witnessed advancements, propelling the nation towards a tech-savvy future. The industry currently employs 5.4 million workers, but this could only reach 7.5 million by 2030. India’s \$ 250 billion information technology sector, which was expected to double its workforce by 2030 will likely miss the target, according to industry experts.

9. What is the special feature of the age-structure of the Indian population? Mention its two consequences.

Ans: The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescents are generally grouped in the age-group of 10 to 19 years. They are the most important resource for the future.

This demographic trend has two significant consequences:

(i) Demographic Dividend: Demographic Dividend helps in increasing the workforce, there will be rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. It leads to more investment in physical and human infrastructure. The productivity of the country’s economy increases due to increased labour force.

(ii) Need for Employment and Skill Development: India is going to have the largest working age population in the world by 2030, but gainful employment for students from the general stream is a major challenge. Improving the employability of students requires a new vision with curricular support.

10. Write a detailed note on growth and distribution of rural population.

Ans: Here’s a detailed exploration of this topic:

(i) Growth of Rural Population:

(a) Natural Growth: Natural and induced, While the natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates, the induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area.

(b) Migration: Rural-to-urban migration may reduce population growth in some rural areas significantly, and in some regions may lead to an actual decline in population. This potentially provides new opportunities for conservation.

(c) Economic Opportunities: Economic opportunity means providing an equal chance for people to earn a living wage. To achieve a situation in which people have this kind of opportunity, governments must ensure adequate education and training, rights for workers and an economic climate in which legitimate businesses can grow.

(ii) Distribution of Rural Population:

(a) Geographical Variation: Population distribution refers to how citizens of countries around the world are spread across different geographical areas. These distributions are generally caused by environmental and human factors and often take the form of patterns.

(b) Land Use and Agriculture: Agriculture is said to be the main source of income for the farmers or people living in the rural areas. Farming and many other activities contribute to the rural regions in respect to the infrastructure, business opportunity and quality of the environment.

(c) Infrastructure and Connectivity: Most of the rural infrastructure services (roads, water supply including drinking water, minor irrigation, water management and watershed development, health and sanitation and housing) are under the control of state governments, while the central government manages rural electricity and telecommunications.

(d) Government Policies: Effective public services, including education and health care, attract people leading to a higher population density. A safe, reliable Government can encourage people to a country, leading to an increased population density.

(e) Environmental Factors: Factors Influencing the Distribution and Density of the Population. Climate, landforms, terrain, soil, energy and mineral resources, accessibility in terms of distance from the shore, natural harbours, navigable rivers or canals, etc., are the primary physical variables.

(iii) Implications:

(a) Economic Development: Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices.

(b) Social Dynamics: Understanding social dynamics provides context and insight into what is happening in society by looking at differences and similarities in communication styles, behaviors, and social norms for groups.

(c) Environmental Sustainability: Environmental sustainability is the responsible use of natural resources to ensure they will be around in the future. It is important because the Earth is a finite place, with limited land, water, and wildlife. Sustainable resource use is the only way to make sure future generations will have what they need to survive.

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the give options:

(i) India’s population as per 2001 census is:

(a) 1028 million.

(b) 3128 million.

(c) 3287 million.

(d) 20 million.

Ans: (a) 1028 million.

(ii) Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India?

(a) West Bengal.

(b) Kerala.

(d) Punjab.

Ans: (a) West Bengal.

(iii) Which one of the following states has the highest proportion of urban population in India according to the 2001 census?

(b) Maharashtra.

(c) Kerala.

(d) Gujarat.

Ans: (b) Maharashtra.

(iv) Which one of the following is the largest linguistic group of India?

(a) Sino-Tibetan.

(b) Indo-Aryan.

(c) Austric.

(d) Dravidian.

Ans: (b) Indo-Aryan.

(v) The principal cause of female migration in India is:

(a) Search for employment.

(b) Marriage.

(c) Education.

(d) Movement of family.

Ans: (b) Marriage.

(vi) What happens to the proportion of migrants with the increasing distance from the source area?

(a) Decreases.

(b) Increases.

(c) Becomes female-dominated.

(d) Remains constant.

Ans: (a) Decreases.

(vii) The four largest metropolitan cities in India are:

(b) Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore.

(c) Greater Mumbai, Kanpur, Delhi, Chennai.

(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai.

Ans: (c) Greater Mumbai, Kanpur, Delhi,Chennai.

(viii) The proportion of main workers in India is highest in:

(a) Quaternary economic activities.

(b) Tertiary economic activities.

(c) Secondary economic activities.

(d) Primary economic activities.

Ans: (b) Tertiary economic activities.

(i) Rank of India according to its total covered area in the world.

Ans: Seventh.

(ii) Rank of India in terms of population in the world.

Ans: Second.

(iii) The most populous country in the world.

Ans: China.

(iv) The largest state in terms of area in the country.

Ans: Rajasthan.

(v) Average density of population in India as per 2001 census.

Ans: 324 person/sq. Km.,.

(vi) The largest tract of high density population in India.

Ans: Satluj-Ganga plains.

(vii) Total population of India as per 2001 census.

Ans: 1027 million.

(viii) The administrative unit with the highest growth of urban population in the country.

(ix) The most densely populated state in the country.

Ans: West Bengal.

(x) The proportion of the Indian population living in villages.

Ans: Two-thirds.

(xi) Status of the person who is enumerated at a place other than the place of his birth.

Ans: Migrant.

(xii) The year known as ‘Demographic Divider ‘in the history of population growth in India.

Ans: 1921.

(xiii) The Union Territory with the highest proportion of rural population in the country.

(xiv) Average proportion of population living in urban areas in India in 2001.

Ans: 28%.

(xv) The proportion of population living in urban area in the world on average.

Ans: Goa.

(xvi) Name the most urbanised state of the country.

Ans: 15–59 years.

(xvii) Working age-group.

Ans: 15–49 years.

(xviii) Reproductive age-group of females.

Ans: Sex-ratio.

(xix) The number of females per thousand males is called.

Ans: Kerala.

(xx) The state with the highest sex-ratio in the country.

Ans: Participation Rate.

(xxi) Proportion of workers to total population.

Ans: Marginal Worker.

(xxii) A worker whose main activity is participation in any economically productive work by his mental or physical ability for less than 183 days.

Ans: 933.

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