Human Resource Development Unit 3 Strategic HRD

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Human Resource Development Unit 3 Strategic HRD

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Strategic HRD


1. Multiple choice question and answers:

(i) In the present business environment, HR plays a ________ role in realizing the business goals.

(a) Strategic.

(b) Technical.

(c) Vital.

(d) Very important.

Ans: (a) Strategic.

(ii) What should be the strategy of HRM?

(a) Making the long-term and short-term planning.

(b) Planning the optimum level of man-power.

(c) Introducing training programmes to personnel.

(d) All the above.

Ans: (d) All the above.

(iii) Which of the following components are reformed to support the strategies of human resource function?

(a) Control systems.

(b) Appointment.

(c) Rewards.

(d) Job allotment.

Ans: (a) & (c)

(iv) The meaning of the acronym HRM is ________?

(a) Human Relations Management.

(b) Humanistic Resource Management.

(c) Human Resource Management.

(d) Human Resourceful Management.

Ans: (d) Human Resource Management.

2. What is the strategic importance of HRD?

Ans: The changes made by people are provided by HRD initiatives through training and development which aims to improve individual and organizational learning in order to influence organizational performance. Therefore, HRD has a specific and important in increasing human capital and intellectual capital of an organization.

3. What are the three strategic roles of HRD?

Ans: Three strategic roles for the HRD function in core competency management are proposed and discussed: participating in strategic planning, developing core competencies, and protecting them.

4. What are the principles of strategic human resource management?

Ans: The primary principle of strategic human resource management is to improve business performance and uphold a culture that inspires innovation and works unremittingly to gain a competitive advantage. It’s a step above traditional human resources and has a wider reach throughout the organization.

5. Why strategic HRM is important?

Ans: Strategic human resource management is the foundation of a strong business because, when properly applied, it ensures that the company as a whole is working together to reach its goals. This gives the business a greater chance to succeed.

6. What are principles of human resources?

Ans: Human Resources Principles examines the main functions of human resources management, including planning, recruitment, selection, training, development, compensation, and evaluation. In so doing, the course provides students with the tools to hire, manage, and fire employees.

7. What are the types of HR strategies?

Ans: But two basic types of HR strategies can be identified. These are: Overarching strategies; and Specific strategies relating to the different aspects of human resource management.

8. What is the strategic importance of HRD?

Ans: The changes made by people are provided by HRD initiatives through training and development which aims to improve individual and organizational learning in order to influence organizational performance. Therefore, HRD has a specific and important in increasing human capital and intellectual capital of an organization.

9. What is meant by strategic HRD?

Ans: Strategic human resource development can be defined as a systematic process of developing the skills and competencies of people through talent development, leadership development, employee development, performance development, and training/development processes to enable the organization to sustain its.

10. What is strategic human resource?

Ans: Strategic human resource management involves a future-oriented process of developing and implementing HR programs that address and solve business problems and directly contribute to major long-term business objectives.

11. Why strategic HRM is important?

Ans: Why Is Strategic Human Resource Management Important? Strategic human resource management is the foundation of a strong business because, when properly applied, it ensures that the company as a whole is working together to reach its goals. This gives the business a greater chance to succeed.

12. What are the functions of HRD?

Ans: The original HR wheel from McLagan identified three primary HRD functions: 

(a) training and development.

(b) organisation development. and 

(c) career development.


1. What are the benefits of strategic human resource management? What are the objectives of HRM?

Ans: (a) Identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company’s success.

(b) Provides a clear business strategy and vision for the future.

(c) To supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process.

(d) To recruit, retain and motivate people.

The basic objective of human resource management is to contribute to the realisation of the organizational goals. However, the specific objectives of human resource management are as follows:

(i) To ensure effective utilisation of human resources, all other organizational resources will be efficiently utilised by the human resources.

(ii) To establish and maintain an adequate organizational structure of relationship among all the members of an organization by dividing of organization tasks into functions, positions and jobs, and by defining clearly the responsibility, accountability, authority for each job and its relation with other jobs in the organization.

(iii) To generate maximum development of human resources within the organization by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and education.

(iv) To ensure respect for human beings by providing various services and welfare facilities to the personnel.

(v) To ensure reconciliation of individual /group goals with those of the organization in such a manner that the personnel feel a sense of commitment and loyalty towards it.

(vi) To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals by offering various monetary and non-monetary rewards.

In order to achieve the above objectives, human resource management undertakes the following activities: 

(i) Human Resource Planning, i.e., determining the number and kinds of personnel required to fill various positions in the organization.

(ii) Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel, i.e., employment function.

(iii) Training and development of employees for their efficient performance and growth.

(iv) Appraisal of performance of employees and taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another.

(v) Motivation of workforce by providing financial incentives and avenues of promotion.

(vi) Remuneration of employees. The employees must be given sufficient wages and fringe benefits to achieve higher standard of living and to motivate them to show higher productivity.

2. What are the basic learning principles of HRD. 

Ans: The cornerstone of learning theory is the concept of association. Association is the process by which two cognitions become paired together, so that thinking about one evokes thoughts about the other. There are three principles that influence the learning of associations.

They are:

(a) Contiguity Objects that are experienced together tend to become associated with each other. For example, learning vocabulary in a foreign language usually involves pairing a new word with an object or picture of an object.

(b) The Law of Effect The law of effect states that a behaviour followed by a pleasurable consequence is likely to be repeated. For example, when a superior compliments a police officer who values recognition for the way he or she has handled a difficult arrest, the officer associates the compliment with the arrest method and he/she is likely using that method to make difficult arrests in the future.

(c) Practice Repeating the events in an association will increase the strength of the association. For example, the more times someone rappels down a cliff or a wall, the more adept he or she becomes at rappelling. But practice alone is not enough to guarantee a strong association. The effect of practice is strengthened with reinforcement, such as receiving a pleasurable consequence.

3. What are the roles and competencies of HRD professionals?

Ans: A HRD professional must perform a wide variety of functional roles. A functional role is a specific set of tasks and expected outputs for a particular job, for example, classroom trainer or instructional designer. To carry out these various roles, HRD professionals need to possess

many different skills or competencies. In their “Mapping the Future” study, Bernthal et al. described three areas of “foundational” competencies needed by all HRD professionals. Foundational competencies are described in three areas: personal, interpersonal, and business/management. HRD professionals then make use of these foundational

competencies as they develop particular areas of expertise. These areas of expertise are shown in the middle of the pyramid. Finally, the top of the pyramid shows four key roles for HRD professionals: learning strategist, business partner, project manager, and professional specialist.

Competency Model

Adopted from Werner & DeSimone (2007). Human Resource Development, 4e. Thomson South-Western.

The learning strategist is involved in the high-level decision making concerning how HRD initiatives wi” support the goals and strategies of the organization. The business partner works together with managers and others in determining how the HRD initiative will be implemented and evaluated. The project manager is involved in the day-to-day planning, funding, and monitoring of HRD initiatives, whereas the professional specialist adds his or her expertise in particular areas, for example, designing, developing, delivering, and evaluating the HRD initiative. HRD managers and executives are most likely to be involved with the learning strategist and business partner roles. Next, we will briefly discuss the roles played by two types of HRD professionals: the HRD executive/ manager and the HRD practitioner.

4. What are the five principles of Human Resource Management? What are the various objectives of HRD?

Ans: But the following are the widely accepted principles of human resource management:

(a) Principle of Maximum Individual Development.

(b) Principle of Scientific Selection.

(c) Principle of High Morale.

(d) Principle of Effective Communication.

(e) Principle of Dignity of Labour.

(f) Principle of Team Spirit.

(g) Principle of Fair Reward.

(a) Work Opportunity: HRD provides an opportunity and a systematic framework for the development resource in the organisation for full expression of their talents.

(b) Development of Traits: HRD is associated with the development of total personality so that these can show and use their talent for the benefit of the organisation.

(c) Ability development: HRD makes capable employees. Thus they can develop their capability by which they can do their present job easily.

(d) Creative Motivation: HRD manager motivates employees and improve their level of performance.

(e) Good Relation: HRD manager stresses the need of coordination which is used for the benefits of himself and for the benefits of those who come in their contact.

(f) Develop team spirit: HRD manager develops the spirit of teamwork; team work for it is used for the effective cooperation and coordination of each employee which ultimately checks industrial unrest.

(g) Organisational Growth: HRM manager is responsible for developing health, culture and effective work plan which always result in more profitability.

(h) Human Resource Information: HRM manager in general keeps all records to employees working in his organisation; these can be used at any time when these are needed.

5. What are the models for the delivery of the strategy?

Ans: Carter et al (2002) suggest that the following models are available to deliver HRD strategy:

(a) Centralized: All learning and development activities are conducted and controlled from the centre.

(b) Key account holder: A small corporate centre is responsible for career management and management development processes; key account holders are responsible to the centre for delivering learning and training in business units.

(c) devolved: All learning and development activities are devolved to business units.

(d) business partner: Key account holders report to business unit.

(e) Shared service: Business units share common learning and development services and specify what they want to the corporate centre. Human resource development makes a major contribution to the successful attainment of the organization’s objectives and that investment in it benefits all the stakeholders of the organization.

6. Mention some of the Human Resource Development philosophy.

Ans: Some of the Human Resource Development philosophy are:

(a) Human resource development plans and programmes should be integrated with and support the achievement of business and human resource strategies.

(b) Human resource development should always be performance – related designed to achieve specified improvements in corporate, functional, team and individual performance, and make a major contribution to bottom-line results.

(c) Everyone in the organization should be encouraged and given the opportunity to learn — to develop their skills and knowledge to the maximum of their capacity.

(d) Personal development processes provide the framework for individual learning.

(e) While we recognize the need to invest in learning and development and to provide appropriate learning opportunities and facilities, the prime responsibility for development rests with the individual, who will be given the guidance and support of his or her manager and, as necessary, members of the HR department.

7. What is Human Resource Development — Objectives?

Ans: The main aims, goals and objectives of HRD are:

(a) To maximize the utilization of human resources for the achievement of individual and organizational goals.

(b) To provide an opportunity and comprehensive framework for the development of human resources in an organization for full expression of their talent and manifest potentials.

(c ) To develop the constructive mind and an overall personality of the employee.

(d) To develop the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaborations.

(e) To develop the organizational health, culture and effectiveness. and.

(f) To generate systematic information about human resources.

8. What is Human Resource Development — Focus?

Ans: HRD system is entirely designed keeping in view the contextual factors such as size, technology, skill levels, and support for function. It does focus on developing human resources at various levels (problem solving capabilities leading to increased employee productivity) and commitment. It aims at taking the organization forward by anticipating changes and preparing people for future challenges. It is important to integrate it properly with other long-range functions such as corporate planning, budgeting, etc.

The main focus of human resource development is as follows:

(a) Building Linkages with Other Functions: Human resource development systems should be designed to strengthen some other functions in the company. These functions are long range corporate planning; budgeting and finance, marketing, production, and other similar functions. These linkages are of great significance.

(b) Balancing Specialization and Diffusion of the Function: Although HRD includes specialized functions, line people should be involved in various aspects of HRD. Action is the sole responsibility of the line people and HRD should strengthen their roles accordingly.

(c) Balancing Adaptation and Change in the Organizational Culture: HRD systems are designed to suit the organizational culture yet the role of HRD may be to modify that culture to increase the effectiveness of the organization. There are two contrary views, first view is HRD should be designed to suit the culture and the second view that HRD should be able to change the culture.

Both positions seem to be extreme. Yet they are complimentary HRD should take the organization forward, and this can be done only if its design anticipates change and evolution in the future.

(d) Focus on Enabling Capabilities: The main purpose of HRD is to assist the organization to enhance its ‘enabling’ capabilities. These capabilities include the following development of human resources, development of organizational health, improvement of problem-solving capabilities, development of diagnostic ability so that problems can be located quickly and effectively to achieve increased employee productivity and commitment.

(e) Attention to Contextual Factors: After considering the various contextual factors of the organization the following issues are decided and settled. What is to be included in the HRD system, how it is to be sub-divided, what designations and tides will be used and similar issues its culture and tradition, size, technology, levels of existing skills, available support for the function, availability of outside help, and so on.

9. Describe the various uses of Human Resource Information System in an organisation?

Ans: The various uses of HRIS in an organisation can be listed as follows:

(i) Personnel Administration: It encompasses personal information of an employee. These may include name, address, date of birth, marital status and the date of joining the organisation. These information describe the employee.

(ii) Salary Administration: One of the functions of HRIS is to provide a report containing information like present salary, benefits, last pay increase and proposed increased in future.

(iii) Leave/Absence Increase: HRIS is also used to control leave/absence of employees. This is done by maintaining a leave history of each employee.

(iv) Skill Inventory: Recording employee skills and monitoring a skill data base is yet another use of the HRIS.

(v) Medical History: The HRIS is also used to maintain occupational health data required for industrial safety purposes, accident monitoring and so on.

(vi) Performance Appraisal: In order to form a comprehensive overview about an employee, HRIS maintains performance appraisal data such as the date of the appraisal, potential for promotion, scores of each performance criteria and alike.

(vii) Manpower Planning: HRIS is used for manpower planning also. It keeps information of organisational requirements in terms of positions. HRIS connects employees to the required positions in the organisation. It is also used to identify vacancies and establish employees there on.

(viii) Recruitment: HRIS helps in the recruitment process in a big way by recording the details of activities involved in employee recruitment.

(ix) Career Planning: By providing necessary information such as which employees have been earmarked for which positions, HRIS facilitates positional advancement of employees. In other words, HRIS helps in planning for succession.

(x) Collecting Bargaining: HRIS through a computer terminal can provide up-to-date relevant and required information, facts and figures and these can facilitate collective bargaining. In the same manner, HRIS can also help in maintaining better human relations in the organisation.

10. Explain in brief the main principles of Human Resource Management.

Ans: Different experts and scholars have presented the principles of personnel management in different forms. But the following are the widely accepted principles of personnel management.

(a) Principle of effective utilisation of human resources: The personnel management has been evolved to utilise the available human resources in the best manner possible so as to achieve the organisation objectives effectively. Personnel management is an art to get the work done by the people, to get the desired result. For this purpose, workers should be given humanly treatment in the organisation.

(b) Principle of team spirit: According to this principle, the workers should have team spirit among themselves i.e, workers should feel their joint responsibility. Efforts should be made to let the workers feel that their work as a team can only accomplish the goals of the organisation. For this employees should be educated so that they may extend their co-operation to the organisation.

(c) Principle of dignity of labour: According to this principle, labour should be given due regard in the organisation. His work must be duly recognised so that his ego may be satisfied. For this purpose non-monetary incentives should be provided along with monetary incentives.

(d) Principle of fair reward: According to this principle, the workers should get fair reward for their work. This is necessary to maintain better industrial relations and to increase the worker’s efficiency. For this purpose, performance appraisal should be the basis for wage determination.

(e) Principle of contribution to national prosperity: Personnel management should ensure that employees contribute to the prosperity of the organisation and of the country also. For this purpose personnel management should develop the sense of patriotism in labour and educate them so as to make them realise that their efforts alone can contribute to the prosperity of the organisation and of the country.

11. Give a description on the concept of Strategic Human Resource Development. What are the key components of HRD? Explain.

Ans: Strategic human resource development is a method in terms of which learning or the performing of knowledge processes (creation, sharing and use of knowledge) relating to the emergent strategic orientation of companies is made possible. It focuses on the development of the skills that executives, managers and employees may require in future and is proactive in nature.

The strategic orientation of companies arises from the grand strategy of the company. The grand strategy of the company contains a statement of the activities in which the company is currently involved in and will in future possibly become involved in to ensure its continued competitiveness. The strategic orientation of the company contains an indication of the manner in which the company’s grand strategy is to be accomplished.

Some definitions of the concept “strategy” are: “Strategy refers to the long-term plans developed by top management, usually for periods of two to ten years or even longer. These plans are used to evaluate and seize opportunities as well as to relocate resources. Strategy includes plans to create new products, to purchase other organizations, to sell unprofitable sections of the business, to make shares available, and to enter international markets.”

“Strategy” in commercial terms is often associated with deployment of resources, outflanking the competition, establishing beachheads in the global marketplace, creating strategic alliances.”

“It is a declaration of intent that defines means to achieve ends, and is concerned with the long-term allocation of significant company resources and with matching those resources and capabilities to the external environment.”

Armstrong is of the opinion that the strategy of the company gives an indication of three aspects, namely domain, structures and systems as well as performance standards. In the definition by Armstrong the domain, structures and systems as well as performance standards have the following meaning:

(a) Domain refers to “type of industry, market, competitors, suppliers and, more generally, the limitations and constraints facing their organization.”

(b) Structures and systems refer to “choices made about how centralized, standardized and specialized an organization’s activities will be.”

(c) Performance standards which “partly determine the extent of flexibility an organization has within its economic environment.”

From the above-mentioned definitions it is clear that the strategy of a company and thus also the action plans to achieve the strategy, known as the strategic orientation of a company, should focus on the factors which are present in the strategic environment of companies currently as well as in the future. Furthermore, the Cynefin framework for organisational sense making indicates that these factors are divided amongst the known, knowable, complex and chaos domains in the strategic environment of companies. Each of these domains differs in terms of its characteristics and nature and thus influence the current and emergent strategic orientation of the company in a unique manner. The manner in which the factors in each of the four domains influence the current and emergent strategic orientation of the company give rise to a variety of training needs by employees but more specifically executives and managers involved in strategic processes.

Only if the skills of executives, managers and employees are developed in terms of both their current as well as future performance will the continued competitiveness of the company be ensured. It is therefore necessary that companies should expose executives, managers and employees to both strategic and traditional methods of human resource development. However, the uncertain and largely volatile nature of some of the domains in the strategic environment of companies places unique demands on the development of human resources and even more so in the case of the development of executives and managers in terms of the emergent strategic orientation of large companies.

There are three fundamental component areas of human resource development (HRD): individual development (personal), career development (professional), and organizational development. The importance of each component will vary from organization to organization according to the complexity of the operation, the criticality of human resources to organizational efficiency, and the organization’s commitment to improved human resources.

HRD can be described as the “area of congruence” among the three components.

(a) Individual Development: Individual development refers to the development of new knowledge, skills, and/or improved behaviours that result in performance enhancement and improvement related to one’s current job (training). Learning may involve formal programs, but is most often accomplished through informal, on-the-job training activities.

(b) Career Development: Career development focuses on providing the analysis necessary to identify the individual interests, values, competencies, activities, and assignments needed to develop skills for future jobs (development). Career development includes both individual and organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing career development workshops and seminars, human resource planning, performance appraisal, and career pathing programs.

(c) Organizational Development: Organizational development is directed at developing new and creative organization solutions to performance problems by enhancing congruence among the organization’s structure, culture, processes, and strategies within the human resources domain. In other words, the organization should become a more functional unit as a result of a closer working relationship among these elements. The ultimate goal of organizational development is to develop the organization’s self-renewing capacity. This refers to the organization’s ability to look introspectively and discover its problems and weaknesses and to direct the resources necessary for improvement. As a result, the organization will be able to regenerate itself over and over again as it confronts new and ever-challenging circumstances. This occurs through collaboration of organizational members with a change agent (an HRD practitioner), using behavioural science theory, research, and technology.

12. Why Strategic planning has become Important in HRD?

Ans: Human Resource Development (HRD) is a new discipline, still in development and searching for a clear identity. Before the term HRD became current, training, education and development were used as expression for learning interventions in companies. Training concerned the learning of knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the current position. Education was related to the acquiring of specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes for a future position (career oriented). Development referred to relatively permanent change in knowledge, skills, and attitudes as a result of formal training, education, and informal learning processes (Nadler & Nadler, 1989). Nadler introduced the term HRD in 1969, meaning all organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to bring about the possibility of performance improvement and personal growth (Walton, 1999). In practice, HRD turned out to be a peripheral activity within organizations, isolated from essential organizational functions and processes, as intervention, which is ad hoc, and short term oriented, reacting on specific problems that occur. 

There is hardly any alignment with the organization strategy, and therefore has little practical impact. In literature it was even estimated that only between 10 and 20 percent of capital invested in HRD and learning interventions will lead to enduring performance improvement. Because of the fast changing environment of organizations, this form of HRD became insufficient to support organizations in dealing with dynamic and less predictable environmental pressures. This turbulence places high demands on organizational capacity to learn and change. Companies in such a turbulent environment experience the need for HRD, which is closely linked, to the daily work of their employees and the specific company’s situation, now and in future. HRD, conceived as an intervention in the natural learning process of organizations and individuals (Stewart, 1992), has to be closely linked to the organizational strategy at all company levels, system wide. In other words, HRD has to become strategic and needs to be developed in a strategic planning process. 

13. Discuss the principles of SHRM. Discuss the contribution of SHRM in an organisation.

Ans: Principles of SHRM: Price (1997) mentioned ten principles of SHRM, which he claimed are measurable in some way and can be used for ‘benchmarking.”

These are given below:

(a) Principle of Comprehensiveness: HRM should be closely matched to business objectives.

(b) Principle of Coherence: Allocation and activities of HR integrated into a meaningful whole.

(c) Principle of Control: Effective organizations require a control system for cohesion and direction.

(d) Principle of Communication: Strategies understood and accepted by all employees, open culture with no barriers.

(e) Principle of Credibility: Staffs trust top management and believe in their strategies.

(f) Principle of Commitment: Employees motivated to achieve organizational goals.

(g) Principle of Change: Continuous improvement and development essential for survival.

(h) Principle of Competence: Organizations competent in achieving their objectives-dependent on individual competence.

(i) Principle of Creativity: Competitive advantage comes from unique strategies.

(j) Principle of Cost-effectiveness: Competitive, fair reward and promotion systems.

Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determine the long-term performance of the corporation.

Contribution of SHRM in an organisation has been discussed in the following activities: 

(a) HRM’s Role in Strategy Formulation: HRM can play a vital role in environmental scanning so as to identify and analyse external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company’s success.

HRM is in a unique position to provide competitive intelligence that can be useful in the strategic planning process.

HRM also participates in strategy formulation process by supplying information. For example, the IT major, Infosys has developed unique human resource capabilities that provide the firm with a competitive advantage.

(b) HR’s Role in Strategy Implementation: Human resource management is actively involved in strategy implementation in the form of downsizing and restructuring, throughout placing employees, instituting performance based pay plans, reducing health care costs, and retraining employees. HR practices that build employee commitment can improve an organisation’s performance in an increasingly global marketplace.

(c) Strategic HRM is Different from Traditional HRM: Under traditional HRM, human resources are managed by specialists in line with the country’s law and the company’s rules and regulations. But in strategic HRM, the responsibility for managing human resources is placed mostly on line managers who basically manage people at work.

(d) In the strategic human resource management, both public and private, organisations playing a significant role.

(e) Strategic human resource management also involves in the management process of human capital.

(f) The basic strategic HRM deals with the culture, style and structure of the organisation and the quality, commitment and motivation of employees.

(g) Strategic HRM is also deals to improve business performance for achieving organizational goals.

On the whole, strategy is a unified, comprehensive and integrated plan. Strategic management deals with both aids and means. End gives a vision of how things are likely to shape up, whereas means shows the path of the vision’s realisation in practice. Therefore, strategic management is visionary management, which is concerned with the future of the organisation. It is also empirical management, as it decides how in practice it is going to get their objectives in the changing environment.

Some says, strategic management is a set of decision and actions, that formulates and implements the strategies designed to achieve the goals of an organisation. It is also concerned with policy-decision affecting the entire organisation.

Therefore, strategic human resource management deals with all those activities affecting the behaviour of individuals in their efforts to formulate and implement the strategic needs of the business.

14. Write a short note on the aims of Strategic HRD.

Ans: The fundamental aim of strategic HRD is to enhance resource capability in accordance with the belief that the human capital of an organization is a major source of competitive advantage. It is therefore about ensuring that the right quality people are available to meet present and future needs. This is achieved by producing a coherent and comprehensive framework for developing people. The specific objectives of strategic HRD are to develop intellectual capital and promote organizational, team and individual learning by creating a learning culture — an environment in which employees are encouraged to learn and develop and in which knowledge is managed systematically. Although strategic HRD is business-led, its policies have to take into account individual aspirations and needs. The importance of increasing employability outside as well as within the organization is an important HRD policy consideration.

15. Mention the elements of learning and development process.

Ans: The elements of this process are:

(a) Learning: defined by Bass and Vaughan (1966) as ‘a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience.’

(b) Education: the development of the knowledge, values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to particular areas of activity.

(c) Development: the growth or realization of a person’s ability and potential through the provision of learning and educational experiences.

(d) Training: the planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, programmes and instruction, which enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work effectively.

16. Discuss the functions of HRD.

Ans: The original HR wheel from McLagan identified three primary HRD functions:

(a) Training and Development (T&D): Training and development (T&D) focus on changing or improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals. Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, though attitude change may also be attempted. Developmental activities, in contrast, have a longer-term focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, by also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs.

T&D activities begin when a new employee enters into the organisation, usually in the form of induction training i.e. employee orientation and skills training. Employee orientation is the process by which new employees learn important organisational values and norms, establish working relationships, and learn as to how to function within their jobs. The HRD staff and the hiring supervisor generally share the responsibility for designing the orientation process, conducting general orientation sessions, and begin the initial skills training. Skills and technical training programs then narrow down in scope to teach the new employee a particular skill or area of knowledge. Once the new employees have become proficient in their jobs, HRD activities should focus more on developmental activities specifically, coaching and counseling. In the coaching process, individuals are encouraged to accept responsibility for their actions, to address any work-related problems, and to achieve and sustain superior levels of performance. Coaching involves treating employees as partners in achieving both personal and organisational goals. Counselling techniques.

are used to help employees deal with personal problems that may interfere with the achievement of these goals. Counselling programs may address such issues as substance abuse, stress management, smoking cessation, or fitness, nutrition and weight control.

HRD professionals are also responsible for coordinating management training and development programs to ensure that managers and supervisors have the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective in their positions. These programs may include supervisory training, job rotation, seminars, or college and university courses.

(b) Organisation Development: Organisation development (OD) is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organisational capabilities and the well-being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioural science concepts. OD emphasizes both macro and micro level organisational changes; macro changes are intended to ultimately improve the effectiveness of the organisation, whereas micro changes are directed at individuals, small groups, and teams. For example, many organisations have sought to improve organisational capabilities by introducing employee involvement programs that require fundamental changes in work expectations, reward systems, and reporting procedures. The role of the HRD professionals involved in an OD intervention is to function as a change agent. Facilitating change often requires consulting with and advising line managers on strategies that can be used to effect desired change. The HRD professional may also become directly involved in carrying out the intervention strategy, such as facilitating a meeting of the employees responsible for planning and implementing the actual change process.

(c) Career Development: Career development is “an ongoing process by which individual’s progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks.” Career developments involve two distinct processes: career planning and career management. Career planning involves activities performed by an individual, often with the assistance of counsellors and others, to assess his or her skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan. Career management involves taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan, and generally focuses more on what the organisation can do for foster employee career development. There is a strong relationship between career development and T&D activities. Career plans can be implemented, at least in part, through an organisation’s training programs.

17. Explain the relationship between the HRM and HRD.

Ans: The relationship between the HRM and HRD can be explained as:

(a) HRM is the large system in an organisation. HRD is a sub system of the large system and HRD activities cannot be performed in isolation.

(b) HRM function is largely maintenance oriented and a function of management. HRD is an ongoing process and it is development oriented, aiming to enhance both personal and professional growth.

(c) HRM believes that an increase in the business results would lead to increase in the performance or productivity. But HRD believes that the improvement in the performance would be the result of the continuous increase in its activities.

(d) HRM is more result oriented, whereas HRD is more process oriented.

(e) HRM focuses more on the improvement in performance and on improvement in the capabilities of employees productivity.

(f) HRM aims at creating a successful business result for the organisation and HRD aims at creating learning organisation for improving organisational capabilities and thereby successful business results.

18. Discuss the Primary and Secondary Functions of HRM.

Ans: The Primary HRM Functions:

(a) Human resource planning activities are used to predict how changes in management strategy will affect future human resource needs.

These activities are critically important with the rapid changes in external market demands. HR planners must continually chart the course of the organisation and its plans, programs, and actions.

(b) Equal employment opportunity activities are intended to satisfy both the legal and moral responsibilities of the organisations through the prevention of discriminatory policies, procedures, and practices. This includes decisions affecting hiring, training, appraising, and compensating the employees.

(c) Staffing (recruitment and selection) activities are designed for the timely identification of potential applicants for current and future openings and for assessing and evaluating applicants in order to make appropriate selection and placement decisions.

(d) Compensation and benefits administration is responsible for establishing and maintaining an equitable internal wage structure, a competitive benefits package, as well as incentives tied to individual, team, or organisational performance.

(e) Employee (labour) relations activities include developing a communication system through which employees can address their problems and grievances. In a unionized organisation, labor relations will include the development of working relations with each labor union, as well as contract negotiations and administration.

(f) Health, safety, and security activities seek to promote a safe and healthy work environment. This can include actions such as safety training, employee assistance programs, and health and welfare programs.

(g) Human resource development activities are intended to ensure that organisational members have the skills or competencies to meet current and future job demands.

Secondary HRM Functions: Other functions that may be shared by HRM units include the following:

(a) Organisation/job design activities are concerned with interdepartmental relations and the organisation and definition of jobs.

(b) Performance management and performance appraisal system are used for establishing and maintaining accountability throughout the organisation.

(c) Research and information systems (including Human Resource Information Systems) are necessary to make enlightened human resource decisions.

19. What are the aims of strategic HRD? What are the basic features of HRD?

Ans: The fundamental aim of strategic HRD is to enhance resource capability in accordance with the belief that the human capital of an organization is a major source of competitive advantage. It is therefore about ensuring that the right quality people are available to meet present and future needs. This is achieved by producing a coherent and comprehensive framework for developing people. The specific objectives of strategic HRD are to develop intellectual capital and promote organizational, team and individual learning by creating a learning culture — an environment in which employees are encouraged to learn and develop and in which knowledge is managed systematically. Although strategic HRD is business-led, its policies have to take into account individual aspirations and needs. The importance of increasing employability outside as well as within the organization is an important HRD policy consideration.

Basic feature of HRD:

(a) Human Resource Management has both micro and macro aspects. At the micro level, HRD is deals with improving the skills, attitudes and behaviour of employees in organization. But at the macro level, HRD involves improving the quality of life of people in the country.

(b) Human Resource Development is an inter-disciplinary concept. It involves the ideas from many sciences. So that, sociology helps to growth and development of human system through the study of families, communities and other groups.

(c) Human Resource Development is a planned and systematic approach to the development of people.

(d) Human Resource Development is a continuous process of developing. In the Human Resource Management, there is no end to the development of an individual and learning continues throughout life.

(e) It helps to develop an organisational culture where superior- subordinate relationships.

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