Human Resource Development Unit 4 Training and Development

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Human Resource Development Unit 4 Training and Development

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Human Resource Development Unit 4 Training and Development Notes cover all the exercise questions in UGC Syllabus. The Human Resource Development Unit 4 Training and Development provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every Unit and score well in the board exams.

Training and Development


1. What is Training? Why Training is necessary? What are the primary objectives of training?

Ans: Training is a systematic and organised process of teaching the new and existing employees the basic skills required to perform their duties effectively.

Training is the art of improving and polishing one’s skill and knowledge in the job performance. It bridges the gap between the present performance of the employees and expected performance from them. Thus, training is necessary to meet the challenges of global competition and to harness the human potential.

Training bridges the gap between the present performance of employees and what is expected from them in organisation.

The primary objectives of training can be outlined as below:

(a) The primary objective of training is to develop capabilities and prepare employees for jobs by imparting the required knowledge and skills which will enable them to achieve organisational objectives.

(b) Training in form of induction to new employees aims at making them comfortable to the new job environment, rules and regulations and aspirations of the organisation.

(c) Training to existing employees is provided to prevent obsolescence. Employees should be made update with recent trends and techniques in production, marketing etc. This helps in improving their productivity.

(d) Training also aims at reducing the degree of absenteeism among the employees and to generate job satisfaction.

(e) Training enable employees to acquire skills of responsible jobs. Thus promotion can be easily earned and leads to career growth of employees.

(f) Training to employees both on the job and off the job helps in building self-confidence and development.

(g) Another objective of training is to remain competitive in the work place. Training brings a feeling of self consciousness and helps the employees to adopt themselves to the organisational changes.

2. What are the different Training methods? 

Ans: The training methods are broadly classified into on the job training, vestibule training, classroom training, apprenticeship training and internship training. Further, on the job training methods comprise of job instruction training, coaching, understudy, career planning and guidance, critical incident, committee assignments, job rotation.

3. To whom training is imparted?

Ans: Training is imparted to both new and existing employees. It is necessary for new employees so that they can learn the necessary skill for effective job performance. Training is necessary for existing employees to keep them updated with latest techniques and information.

4. Is training and development same?

Ans: Although both training and development programmes are designed by the human resource manager but there is a basic distinction between the two. Training is provided to non-managerial personnel whereas development is provided to managerial personnel.

5. Is Training and Education are same?

Ans: Training aims of increasing skill and knowledge in performing a particular job whereas education aims at enhancing the knowledge in general and understanding of the overall environment.

6. Training is given for the purpose of _______

(a) Promoting employees to higher levels. 

(b) Updating employees with latest knowledge.

(c) To prevent accidents and reduce absenteeism.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

7. Management game is a _______

(a) On the job training technique.

(b) Off the job training technique.

(c) On the job executive development technique.

(d) Off the job executive development technique.

(e) Decision making skill technique.

Ans: (e) Decision making skill technique.

8. Training to the new employees is provided _______

(a) After recruitment. 

(b) After selection. 

(c) After performance appraisal. 

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (b) After selection.

9. Training is provided by _______

(a) Marketing manager. 

(b) Personnel manager. 

(c) Production manager. 

And: (c) Personnel manager.

10. What are the different types of skills needed by executives of an organisation?

Ans: Different skills needed by executives are of six types:- decision making, inter personal, job knowledge, organisational knowledge, general knowledge and specific individual needs.

11. How are decision making skills of executives can be developed?

Ans: Decision making skills can be developed by providing in basket exercise, business games and case study method.

12. What are the recent trends in training process?

Ans: Computerized and internet based tools have revolutionised the training process. Various methods of electronic training like computer based training, audio-visuals like using projectors are practiced, these days. Moreover electronic performance support system are also used.

13. What are the basic criteria by which evaluation of training can take place?

Ans: Training can be evaluated by checking difference in responses, job performance, learning and ultimate value.

14. What are the two requirements in recruitment cycle time.

Ans: (a) Checking reference. and

(b) Screening. 

15. What do you mean by outsourcing?

Ans: Outsourcing means sending work outside the organisation to be done by individuals not employed full time with the organisation. In various business activities other than HRM the practice of outsourcing is more popular.

16. What do you mean by Evaluation of a training programme?

Ans: Evaluation of training programme has been rightly defined as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and assess the value of training in the light of that information.

17. What is Career Planning?

Ans: Career planning is a systematic process by which one decides his/ her career goals and the path to reach these goals. Career planning is a managerial technique for mapping out the entire career of employees from the employment stage to the retirement stage. It involves discovery development, planned employment and re-employment.

18. What is career management?

Ans: Career management involves both organisational actions and individual initiatives with an objective to strike a balance between needs and opportunities given the changes there in whether foreseen or not.

19. Write the Importance of Career Development.

Ans: Every employee working in an organization is looking for a career development which moves in the right direction. Career path taken by an employee determines the growth. Career should be planned in a way that it moves forward. Career development provides the framework with skills, goals, awareness, assessment and performance which helps an individual to move in the right direction and achieve the goals one has in one’s career. Careful career planning is always useful for individuals to succeed professionally and also helps to boost employee motivation in the organization.

20. Mention the three-step process including in career development?

Ans: The three-step process included are:

(i) Career need assessment.

(ii) Career opportunities and. 

(iii) Need-opportunity alignment.

21. What are the two criteria for measuring training effectiveness.

Ans: Two criteria for measuring training effectiveness are:

(a) To justify the role of training, considering budget availability and cutback situations.

(b) To improve the quality of training for employee development, training delivery, trainer development, duration, methodology etc.


1. What do you understand by Training? What are the various areas of training?

Ans: Training is the art of increasing the skill of a worker in performing his work or job effectively and efficiently. It may be viewed as a systematic and organised process to impart learning experiences that aims at achievement of organisational objectives. Training polishes the skills and performance of the workers and prepares them to face the future challenges of the work place and taking up new assignments.

According to Edwin Flippo: “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”

According to Armstrong: “Training is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.”

The importance of training has been recognised for all grade of employee i.e., blue collar and white collar employees. It is necessary not only in business organisations but also in professional and educational institutions as well as in public sector undertakings. Training is learning which seeks active participation of employees and workers.

Technical skills: Training is provided to blue collar employes in the areas of operating machineries, handling computers, physical exercise and to teach them the safety measures. As technical skills are primary imparted to new employees so it takes the form of induction training

Social Skills: Training is provided in this area to the employees for developing team work, cooperation and sense of brotherhood. Employees are taught to sharpen their behavioural and human relation skills.

Attitudes: Induction and orientation programmes are provided to inject favourable attitudes among employees which will lead to achievement of organisation objectives.

Knowledge: Training is provided to employees for providing facts, knowledge, latest information and rules related to their job. Employees are provided with recent knowledge regarding changes and demands of job content.

Experience: Experience cannot be taught or pushed in the employees rather experiences are shared and enriched. This helps employees to apply the same in day to day working. Experience makes one smarter and perfect to face the fact the real life complexities.

2. What are the executive development programs? 

Ans: The executives or employees are believed to be the most powerful resources of the organisation. The executives must be developed so that they can handle the most difficult and challenging tasks with ease. Various executive development programmes are designed to help them tackle the complexities of business issues. Executive development programmes aim towards improvement in not only job performance but shapes the overall personality, brings positive changes in attitudes, behaviour and vision of the executives.

Executive management development is a systematic process of learning and growth by which the managers improve their knowledge, attitudes, insights which help them to manage their work in a better way.

According to Edwin flippo, “Management development includes the process by which the managers and executives acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs but also capabilities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.”

ED programmes are ideally an education process which continues through out the career of an executive. It doesn’t aim towards fulfillment of a particular job or project. ED programmes enable managers to tackle difficult issues like collective bargaining, grievance redressal etc. In short, the importance of executive development in an organisation can best be put as —”any thing minus management development in an organisation mounts to nothing.”

3. What is the significance of training in modern days? 

Ans: The significance of training in modern days are:

(a) Training helps in increasing quantity and improving quality of output. This is so because employees understand the basic techniques of higher productivity and profitability through effective training which they can apply.

(b) Training improves the motivation and lead to morale boost. A trained worker is more satisfied and happy in his job and thus positively motivated to work harder.

(c) Training reduces the degree of supervision and thus the superiors are relieved of the burden of constant supervision as the employees become self-reliant after training.

(d) Training improves employee’s ability, knowledge and skills and thus prevents employee’s obsolescence.

(e) Training makes employees proficient and reduces the rate of accidents. Training makes employees and workers safety conscious.

(f) Through training, employees can be promoted to higher level job involving higher pay and responsibilities.

(g) Job training has also helped in meeting challenges posed by the global competition.

(h) Untrained workers may waste materials, damage equipments etc. due to lack of knowledge. A trained workers will know the art of operating the machine properly.

4. What is multiple management?

Ans: Multiple management is an executive development technique. It is designed to prepare executives and young employees to learn the overall job environment rather than concentrating on a specific area of work. The young executives constitute a junior board and studies the overall environment affecting business decisions. It provides information and recommendations to the Board of Directors (BOD). The young board learns the decision making skills and in absence of vacancy of a member in BOD, takes the charge of the position. The board welcomes the constructive opinion of the young executives in the board. And in turn the young managers get necessary exposure and become confident and self reliant.

5. What are the essential principles of executive development training?

Ans: The managerial personnel are the most valuable assets of the organisation. So they must be retained and well developed for the overall development of the enterprise organisations select the talented young personnel and develop them for utilising their potential in the future to achieve the desired objectives of the organisation.

An executive development programme can be made successful by following some principles which are outlined below:

(a) There are differences in individual’s attitudes, intelligence, skill and behaviour. Development programmes should be designed by keeping an account of these issues.

(b) There should be a detailed study of organisational and individual objectives. The depth and nature of training should be decided upon tactfully.

(c) Attractive incentives must be provided to the trainees for increasing their level of motivation.

(d) There should be active participation of both trainer and trainee in the orientation sessions.

(e) Proper selection of trainer must be made. The trainer must be an expert in the job content and technical details of the job.

(f) After the development programmes, adequate feedback should be provided.

6. Highlight the underlying objectives of executive development programmes.

Ans: The objectives of executive development are mentioned as below:

(a) To provide overall knowledge regarding the job environment to the new entrants.

(b) To groom the decision making skills of the managers.

(c) The executives are the foundations to the new generation of employees. So good orientation programmes are necessary for managerial people as through them workers attitudes and behaviours can be developed.

(d) To introduce change in a positive way by the executives by training them.

(e) Executive development aim towards teaching latest management techniques in place of out dated traditional ones.

(f) To prevent obsolescence of the senior managerial personal.

(g) Executive development also aim towards prevention of wastage of human resources. It leads to fullest utilisation of employees in the organisation by exploring their potential.

(h) These programmé also prepare executives for the next successional position in the organisation hierarchy.

7. Highlight about Apprenticeship Training.

Ans: Apprenticeship training has been practiced since years back in industrial crafts, trades, technical areas as well as in professional areas. Under this training method the trainees are provided with both theoretical and practical knowledge for understanding their job better. In India, Government has established Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs). These institutes aim towards all-around development of craftsmen. Generally the trainees are provided stipend during the course of training. Now days, the medical profession and lawyers often opt for apprenticeships. This training programme has gained tremendous popularity. Under this method, the trainees work under a senior for 1-2 years. During that period of time, the trainees constantly observe their seniors and follow their pattern of work. It is like learning by doing. The trainers provide a nominal payment (stipend) to the trainees for practicing under them. The main benefit of this method is that it combines both theory and practice and thus improves workmanship. The trainee catches training promptly. However, these training programmes are time consuming and expensive.

8. Write a note on committee assignments.

Ans: Committee assignments is an on the job training method. The trainees are asked to study and perform some assignments and solve complex organisational issues. A committee is constituted where trainees belong to different departments in the organisation. These trainees work together and understand the issues and processes governing the organisation. The trainees under this method perform in real environment and hence feels the pulse of actual job. This method is economical but very time consuming.

9. What is role playing?

Ans: Role playing is an off the job training method which involves interactions among trainees. It provides imaginary situation that generates realistic behaviour or action of employees. The trainees are asked to play the role of different personalities like that of production manager, sales manager, customer etc. The trainees play the role of different characters and hence broaden their experience by different approaches to the same role. The trainees become smart, confident and breaks ice with other trainees. This is a very good technique of training as it generates the creative level of the employees.

10. What are the objectives of evaluating training?

Ans: The objectives of training evaluation are as follows:

(i) To determine the ability of the trainees to perform jobs for which they were trained.

(ii) To determine the specific nature of training deficiencies.

(iii) To determine whether the trainees require any additional on the job training.

(iv) To determine the extent of training not needed by the participants to meet their job requirements.

(v) To determine the cost effectiveness of the programme.

11. What are the various principles of Evaluation of training programme?

Ans: Evaluation of training programme must be based on the following principles.

(i) The evaluator must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation.

(ii) Evaluation must be specific.

(iii) Evaluation must be continuous.

(iv) Evaluation should also provided the means and focus for the trainers to appraise themselves, their practices and their products.

(v) Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.

(vi) Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process.

12. What are the Purposes of Training Evaluation? What are the types of Training Evaluation.

Ans: Certain purposes guide and dictate the need for evaluation the purposes behind training evaluation are wide enough. Evaluation will have at least one purpose as its primary focus.

The purposes of evaluation are:

(i) To justify the role of training, considering budget availability and cutback situations.

(ii) To improve the quality of training for employee development, training delivery, trainer development, duration, methodology etc.

(iii) To assess the effectiveness of the overall programme, quality and competency of the trainer.

(iv) To justify the course through cost benefit analysis and ROI approach.

(v) To illustrate the real worth of a training.

(vi) To pinpoint where improvement is required in forth coming training programmes.

(vii) To assess effectiveness of the overall course, trainer and the training methods.

(viii) To carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the amount spent to prove that the benefits outweigh the cost.

(ix) To formulate a basis for making rational decisions about future training plans.

(x) To justify the role of training for budget purposes and in cutback situations of budget crunch.

There are main two types of training evaluation Such as:

(a) Formative: A formative evaluation is decisive. An organisation usually conducts this in the early stages of a programme and addresses questions about implementation and ongoing planning. This is used in the classroom as a planned curriculum. Formative evaluations manifest their importance for various purposes.

For example:

(i) They may help catch problems early on, while there exists the scope for corrections and corrective actions.

(ii) They are an evaluation of the training process, so they may be useful in understanding why different outcomes emerge and in improving the programme. and

(iii) They provide an opportunity to collect baseline data for future summative or collective training evaluations (like impact of the training). 

(b) Summative: Summative evaluations assess programme out comes or impacts. In order to explore and establish the relationship of different factors to outcomes, similar to formative evaluations, you are required to collect some information used in summative evaluations at the early stage of a training programme such as primary data, test scores, etc. 

Some advantages of summative evaluations include:

(i) They can, if designed correctly, provide evidence for a causal relationship.

(ii) They assess long-term effects.

(iii) They provide data on impacts. and

(iv) They can provide data on change across time.

13. What are the HRM functions that can be outsourced?

Ans: Before going for outsourcing, the organisation must decide what to outsource and what not to outsource because all HRM functions cannot be outsourced as HR services outsourcing is not just like product outsourcing. 

Based on confidentiality and criticality following HRM functions can be outsourced:

(i) Preliminary process relation to recruitment and selection can be outsourced.

(ii) Administrative work related to employee benefits, employee welfare services, payroll and compensation management etc. can be outsourced.

(iii) Human resource planning, preparation of appraisal forms, job design, job evaluation and installation of safety measures can be outsourced on the basis of confidentiality and critically.

(iv) Contingent workers are part-time, temporary and contract workers used by an organisation to fill peak staffing needs, or perform work unable to be performed by core employees.

14. What are the advantages or benefits of outsourcing HRM functions?

Ans: More and more organisations are restorting to outsourcing HRM functions because it offers certain benefits over performing these functions internally.

Such benefits are as follows:

(i) By outsourcing non-critical HRM functions, the organisation can concentrate on critical HRM functions.

(ii) Performing non-critical HRM functions internally is not cost-effective because performing such functions requires specialized skills and infrastructure which involve cost disproportionate to the contributions made by such function.

15. What are the various problems or limitation in HRM functions?

Ans: Problems relating to outsourcing HRM functions are of following types:

(i) The organisation has to depend on outsiders for getting things done. If  BPO (HR) vendor is not prompt enough or is not efficient, work can be delayed.

(ii) While engaging a vendor, its reliability and capability should be ascertained.

(iii) It is argued that if some of the HRM functions even of routine and administrative nature are outsourced, it will adversely affect the morale of HR professionals in the organisation.

16. Mention the various objectives of career planning? 

Ans: Career planning aims to meet’ ‘he following objectives:

(i) To offer careers, not jobs to the employees so that talent can be attracted and retained in the organisation.

(ii) To have effective utilisation of human resources which will in turn lead to greater productivity.

(iii) To reduce employee turnover.

(iv) To motivate the employees and to boost their morals.

(v) To meet the immediate and future human resource need of the organisation on a timely basis.

17. What is work life balance? Write about the importance of work life balance.

Ans: Work life balance is a method which helps employees of an organization to balance their personal and professional lives. Work life balance encourages employees to divide their time on the basis on priorities and maintain a balance by devoting time to family, health, vacations etc along with making a career, business travel etc. It is an important concept in the world of business as it helps to motivate the employees and increases their loyalty towards the company.

Working on a job for a company and making a career can be an extremely time consuming duty for any employee. Employees are busy at their offices throughout the day and sometimes even on weekends. This gives them very little time to interact with their family. Because of high pressure of work, often family members get neglected. Also, stressful jobs cause the health of employees to deteriorate. This is where work life balance come into the picture. Work life balance concept allows an employee to maintain a fine balance in the time he or she gives to work as well as to personal matters. By having a good balance, people can have a quality of work life. This helps to increase productivity at workplace as the employee is relaxed about his personal commitments. It also allows the employee to give quality time with family to spend vacations, leisure time, work on his/her health etc. Hence work life balance is extremely important for employees and increases their motivation to work for the company.

18. What are the benefits of work life balance?

Ans: There are several advantage of work life balance. Some of them are discussed below:

(a) Work life balance increases the motivation of employees and helps them perform better at job.

(b) It helps people to relieve their stress as they can spend leisure time with their near and dear ones.

(c) Companies can maximise productivity from an employee who is rejuvenated and refreshed as compared to a over worked employee.

(d) Healthy lifestyles can be maintained by having a work life balance. This includes a good diet, regular exercises etc.

(e) Employees who are highly motivated can help the business grow as they are more attached to their job and careers.

19. Write the needs of work life balance.

Ans: Effective work-life balance policies are valuable to businesses and organizations for a number of reasons, including:

(a) Reduced staff turnover rates. 

(b) Becoming a good employer can employer of choice. 

(c) creased return on investment in training as employees stay longer. 

(d) Reduced absenteeism and sick leave. 

(e) Improved morale or satisfaction. 

(f) Greater staff loyalty and commitment. 

(g) Improved productivity.

Work and life demands need to be balanced in view of the following reasons: 

(a) Increased competition due to globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation enhanced work pressures on employees.

(b) Increase in stress levels of employees due to high demands of jobs in terms of targets, high productivity, high quality, customisation and better customer relationship management.

(c) Increase in personal ambitions for higher level salary, status and power.

(d) Increase in pressure of family obligations to the accelerating pace of living standards.

(e) High performance culture eroded the long-term loyalty and a “sense of corporate community.

20. Write the steps to improve work life balance. Explain.

Ans: There are specific guidelines to how an individual can maintain a proper work life balance, some of which are:

(a) Creating a work leisure plan: Where an individual has to schedule his tasks, and divide time appropriately so that he has allocated appropriate time to his work and his career development goals and at the same time allotted time for leisure and personal development. Employees also use a compressed work week plan to build a balance.

(b) Leaving out activities that waste time and energy: Individual should judiciously avoid wasteful activities which demand large time and energy and in return not produce output for either the work life or the leisure life. Effective time management can help an employee be less stressed.

(c) Outsourcing work: Delegate or outsource time consuming work to other individuals.

(d) Set enough time for relaxation: Relaxation provides better work life balance, and tends to improve productivity on the professional or the work front along with providing ample scope to develop the life part of the balance.

(e) Prioritizing work: Often employees do not give priority to work and end up doing a lot of work at the last minute. Better planning can help employees save unnecessary time delays, which can be utilized by employees for personal work.

21. How training programmes are designed? What are the constituents of a training programme?

Ans: Training programmes must be properly organised and managed. Training plays a vital role in preparing employees for effective job performance and to help them meeting the challenges of the future.

An effective training programme consists of the following:

(a) Organisation: To organise the course contents of training and to give responsibility for the same is a very difficult job. The responsibility for training should be divided among various departments and sectional heads. The training policy, rules and regulations, training budget and the effectiveness part is framed by the top management. The human resource (HR) department designs the institutional programmes. The managers and supervisors implement the plans designed by the top management and the senior employees provide feed back and suggestions for betterment of the programme.

(b) Selection of trainees: Proper selection of trainees is very essential for good results. The personnel manager decides to whom the training is meant i.e….., new or existing employees. Those employees who need to be trained must be screened and informed.

(c) Motivating the employees: After the selection of the trainees it is necessary to induce the desire of learning in them. The trainees are provided with proper background information before they start learning new skills. The trainer should inform the trainees regarding positive consequences of training and the worth of the job.

(d) An adequate trainer: Selection of an appropriate trainer is very necessary because the success of training depends on the trainer. He should be intelligent, well qualified, charming and acceptable to the group. The trainers should prepare his contents of training in the beginning. He can be someone from the organisation itself or an expert from outside. The trainer must allow trainees to participate wholly and encourage questions from their side.

(e) Training contents: Before starting the training session the trainer circulates the materials like broachers, booklets, case studies etc. among the trainees so that they know before hand the topics to be taught or skills to be imparted and can understand the same.

(f) Duration of training: The length of training depends upon the skill of trainees, the capability of trainees and the purpose of training. The training period is determined by the personnel manager before hand.

(g) Trail performance: After imparting training, the trainees are asked to perform on the job slowly and repeatedly. The trainer observes the trainees and corrects the mistakes if any. It is like learning by doing.

22. What is on the job training? State its advantages. What are the general principles of training?

Ans: On the job training is the oldest method of training. It is the basic training method which is also known as shop-training. It is a tradition a method where workers learn by doing. The trainees are first placed on the job and are told to work. They work in the actual job environment. The trainees work under the guidance and supervision of certain experienced trainers. The trainer firstly demonstrates the job to the trainees who in turn observes the trainer and practise the same. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainees is repeated till the trainee learns the right way of doing the work. Slowly the trainees learn performing the work in the job independently without any supervision. And finally the follow up is done to identify the deficiencies and taking corrective measures.

The various on the job training methods are: 

(a) coaching. 

(b) understudy.

(c) Job rotation. 

(d) committee assignments.

Advantages of on-the-job training:

(i) The trainee learns the job in the real environment and thus feels the actual pulse of the job. Thus the level of motivation is more.

(ii) Under on the job training, training methods are designed by keeping individual characteristics into consideration. The personal attitude, expectations, goals and differences are studied by the trainer.

(iii) The trainees understand their job soon in on the job training, Firstly they learn by observing them they learn by doing.

(iv) Another advantage of on the job training is that the employees are rotated from one department to another in the organisation after 5-6 years as to induce new learning in them and then and remove their monotony. Thus employees become experts in many areas of work.

(v) Moreover, these methods are economical as compared as off-the job training methods.

The general principles of training are briefly described below:

(a) Training objectives: Determination of training objectives is a primary requisite of an effective training programmes. The objectives of training are necessary to decide the trainees and the type of training need to be imparted.

(b) Individual differences: The trainer should understand that the aptitude, knowledge, skill, intelligence and capability of all the trainees are not same. Some are fast learners where others are slow.

(c) Motivation level: The employees should be motivated to participate actively in training. They must be informed about the positive consequences of training like prompt promotion, salary enhancement, better performance etc.

(d) Previous knowledge: Every human being associates and co-relates new learning with previous knowledge. The trainer should approach the employees with an understanding of the new issues with their previous training.

(e) Cognegial climate: The external conditions prevailing in the organisation should be conducive to the training sessions. The external climate must be encouraging for the trainees like support of top management, cooperation and friendly atmosphere etc.

(f) Well efficient trainer: The trainer is the key figure in training. The trainer should have thorough understanding of the topic and should have a good vision and insight.

(g) Feedback: Feedback is very necessary to judge the effectiveness of programmes. The trainees must be informed of their drawbacks and asked to improve their performance. Likewise deserving trainees must be appreciated for their good performance.

23. What is training? Explain the need of training briefly.

Ans: Training is a systematic and organised procedure which aims towards providing learning experiences that will lead to improvement in an employee. It helps the employees achieving the organisational objectives. In other words, training provides the employees or trainees the scope to achieve technical skills and polish their problem solving attitude in the job place. Training prepares the employees for taking up future challenging commitments and in performing current job effectively.

According to Edwin Flippo: “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”

According to Michael Armstrong, “Training is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.”

The need and importance of training can be understood by below:

(i) Every organisation aim towards increasing productivity and reducing wastages. This can be achieved upto a great extend by proper training. Training helps the employee improving their skill and efficiency which in turn increases productivity.

(ii) Along with production, the quantity of production is also enhanced by adequate training. Products manufactured by trained workers are superior in quality as compared to products produced by untrained workers.

(iii) Training reduces the degree of accidents in the organisation. Trained workers know to handle machines and equipments effectively. Thus, they are less likely to make mistakes and industrial accidents.

(iv) A common problem in industries is increasing labour turnover and absenteeism. It happens due to non- understanding of work and job dissatisfaction. Training increases confidence and reduces absenteeism.

(v) Adequate training saves the time of the superiors which otherwise they spent in supervision. The trained employees can perform their work without supervision.

(vi) Training removes obsolescence and keep the employees update with latest information and recent trends.

(vii) Training brings promotion prompt. It prepares employees for higher responsibilities.

24. What are the various training methods.

Ans: Training methods are primarily divided into on the job and off the job training.

Training Methods On the job

1. Coaching. 

2. Understudy. 

3. Job Rotation. 

4. Committee Assignments. 

5. Temporary Promotion. 

6. Job Instruction training. 

Off the job

1. Lecturers. 

2. Conference. 

3. Case Study. 

4. Role playing. 

5. Vestibule training.

On the job training: This is the traditional method of training where workers learn by doing. The workers learn in the real job environment and get the practical experience.

(a) Coaching: Under this method, the supervisior is appointed as a coach and is given responsibility to train the workers on the job. The coach imparts technical skills, job knowledge to the trainees.

(b) Understudy: The superior trains the subordinates as his assistant. The trainee observes the trainer and enriches his experience. In the absence of the trainer or superior the trainee takes the charge of the position and operates the functions. This is a good method of providing training.

(c) Job rotation: Job rotation is designed to rotate employees in different departments of an organisation to remove their monotony and induce motivation. The objective is all round development of the employees so that they can acquire new, skills and gain experience in handling different jobs.

(d) Committee assignments: The trainer constitutes a committee of trainees who belong to different departments of the organisation. The trainee is allowed to participate in the decision making along with the experienced members of the committee. Thus, he acquires new skills and technique and team work is encouraged.

(e) Temporary promotion: Sometimes when the senior employee goes on leave the organisations promotes the trainee on a temporary basis to the position of his senior. This temporary status in the organisation provides the employees with experience and knowledge which can be utilised in future.

(f) Job-instruction training: This technique of training was developed during world war II. Its a four step instructional process. First the trainees gets to know the details of the job, its purposes and desired outcomes. Secondly the trainer demonstrates the work to the trainees. Then the trainee is asked to copy the performance of the trainer. Fourthly the trainee after constant repetition perform the work without supervision. 

Off the Job training: This is a method of training where the worker is required to undergo training for a specified period away from the actual job place.

(a) Lectures: It is classroom training where trainees are imparted knowledge and skills and lectures are delivered by company executives or experts from professional institutes. They provide lectures on matters like health, safety, productivity, quality etc.

(b) Conference: A conference is a group meeting where active participation from the trainees are sought. This method promotes exchange of information and help trainees to develop their understanding.

(c) Case study: Under this method, a real or a hypothetical problem demanding solution is provided to the employees in writing. The trainees through study and analysis identify alternative courses of action to find its solution. This method polishes the problem solving attitude.

(d) Role playing: Under this method, an artificial conflicting situation is created and trainees are assigned to play different roles. No planned dialogues are given before hand. The role players act and interact with each other. Role-playing helps trainees to behave in a conflicting situation.

(e) Vestibule training (2014): Under vestibule training, an artificial job environment is created just like the actual job place where training is entrusted to qualified instructors. This kind of training is suitable where a large number of employees are to be trained and the job place is accident prone.

25. Mention the steps involved in training process

Ans: The various steps in a training process are outlined below:

(a) Determining the training objectives: First and foremost, the need for training is recognised. The management decides in which area the employees need training, what will be the content of training sessions and to whom the training should be imparted. Decision is also made regarding who will be the best trainer in that specific area.

(b) Establishing the policies of training: Company policies directly influence the policies of training. It defines the rules and regulations and the standards of performance for training and development programmes.

(c) Deciding the budget: Next, the personnel manager decides on the amount of fund required for providing training to the employees.

(d) The place of training: The external conditions play a vital role in training. The atmosphere should be conducive and stimulating to learn new things. The place of training is decided next i.e., whether on the job or off the job environment.

(e) Training methods and techniques: Training methods and techniques vary from organisation needs to system of instruction. Depending on the nature of skills taught, depth of knowledge provided and number of trainees or cost, time etc., the training techniques differs. Thus, the trainers must show best judgement to deploy those methods of training that goes in accordance with the needs of the specific jobs, the individuals and the group.

(f) Training effectiveness: The last but not the least step in an effective training plan is providing feedback. Evaluation of training effectiveness is very necessary because it is concerned with achievement of objectives. Feedback is very necessary as it provides the stepping stone for future training.

The various methods deployed for effective judgement of training are:

(i) Judging through measuring responses of participants in various areas of training.

(ii) By conduct of tests.

(iii) By evaluating changes in attitudes, behaviour, outlook etc.

(iv) Measuring results in terms of costs, quality and quantity of production.

26. Explain how the effectiveness of training programme can be evaluated.

Ans: Approaches to measure the effectiveness of employee training programs are:

Level 1: Reaction: This level measures how your learners feel about the training. This is the first data you need to understand how well the training was received, how the learners react to it, and identify any gap that needs improvement. Although the data won’t give you immediate or obvious insights into your ROI, this level is the foundation of any development of your employee training programs in the future.


(i) Gathering feedback using questionnaires or through informal conversations with your learners. Here are some topics you can cover: 

Whether the course was relevant and useful.

Whether the training was enjoyable. 

Whether the training accommodates their learning styles and paces. 

How likely they would recommend the course to their colleagues.

(ii) Using data from your learning management system to get a big picture of the learners’ behaviour. You’d like to know, for example, how many have liked/ disliked a video, how many have fast-forwarded the video, how many have got stuck at a question.

Level 2: Learning: The second level of evaluation measures the knowledge and skills learners gain from the training. To conduct the measurement, you need to have a little planning in advance – Determining the objectives of your course. What knowledge do you want your learners to absorb as a result of the training? What skills do you want them to master? Then based on the metrics you can gather from different assessment methods, evaluate whether the course has met its set objectives and identify what needs to be improved within the scope of content and delivery method.


(i) Pre-test and post-test or quizzes. On Wibe Academy video-based learning platform, a quiz is tied to every topic in the course and comes automatically at the end of each topic, helping you verify your learners’ know-how in real time.

(ii) Using data from your learning management system to identify course completion rate and how long it takes your learners to complete the course.

Level 3: Behaviour: The third level of evaluation measures how employees apply what they have learned. This assessment is an extension of level 2, where you can determine whether the training has an impact on your learners’ behaviour, attitude, and performance at work.


(i) Self-assessment questionnaires. 

(ii) Employee interviews. 

(iii) On-the-job observation. 

(iv) Supervisor report and feedback. 

(v) Informal feedback from peers. 

(vi) Feedback from customers (comment or complaints). 

Level 4: Results: This level is the most practical way to calculate the ROI of your training as it measures tangible results that the training brings to your business.

The key metrics you’d want to take into account are:

(i) Improved work quality and productivity.

(ii) Improved business results (e.g. sales, customer satisfaction and retention). 

(iii) Increased employee engagement, satisfaction and retention.

(iv) Reduced production cost, duration, error and rework.

As you would agree, measuring results of training is an essential stepping stone to effective training programs. However, executing all the assessment levels above can be costly and time-consuming depending on the resources of your company. Thus, you don’t have to measure everything but the one that helps verify the returned values from your training programs.

Notice that the evaluating process should start from level 1 and move consecutively up to the next levels depending on the time and financial budget that you have. Information gathered from each level serves as a foundation for the next. Therefore, each consecutive level is a more accurate measurement than its prior, and as a result is more expensive and requires more time and effort to execute.

27. Write briefly on Outsourcing of training. What are the five key benefits of Training Outsourcing?

Ans: Consistent with the trend toward outsourcing, many HR functions and programs are now being referred to outside vendors. Many recent surveys indicate that over 90% of all firms today outsource some aspect of HR. Many of the tasks historically outsourced by HR are either administrative or transactional. However, today there is a growing trend toward outsourcing HR functions of a more strategic nature as well. This shift in paradigm raises its own set of unique questions about how this practice might serve to the advantage and/or disadvantage of an organization.

Benefits of outsourcing:

(i) A more productive and highly trained workforce with unmatched skill set expertise.

(ii) Establishes a known commitment to excellence and prestige for organizations that employ COPs and adopt the COP program.

(iii) When certified outsourcing professionals come together around the table they share a common lexicon and a common approach to achieving the value the customer organization is seeking.

(iv) The COP program validates actual experience, thereby ensuring that recognized professionals are deserving of the credit since the certification is a reflection of an individual’s ability to influence positive outcomes within an organizations sourcing engagements.

(v) The COP program traverses mid-management to top management levels, requiring decision-making skills, seniority with experience, and specialist knowledge of risks and impacts organizations bring to the table with initiatives.

(a) Reduce Costs: The number one reason why companies outsource training is to save money. Our experience shows that can save up to 30%.

(b) Speed to Market: Planning on bringing a new product to market Your success may be dependent on getting resellers trained on how to sell or service your product. With training you can quickly get your product into your customers’ hands, without scaling up internal resources.

(c) Geographic Reach: When Cisco needed to train local employees in China, they simply outsourced training to The Learning Factor. We have resources in China who already understand the Chinese culture.

(d) Access to Talent: The most strategic way to source the best training talent at the best possible price is to outsource. Instantly you have a pool of trainers and facilitators, who are industry experts in their field. This commercial experience brings training to life.

(e) Improve Scalability of Resources: Running an internal training department takes a number of people with different skills and talents. Internal staff a fixed resource. But training is a variable activity. When you work with a training outsource company, you are able to scale up or scale down the number of resources you need-just when you need them most!

28. What are the factors to be considered for Outsourcing. Explain. 

Ans: Before involving into outsourcing, every company should consider the following factors —

(i) Dependency Risk: If a company has to adapt its operations to do business with as supplier, it might then find itself dependent on that vendor. Dependency risks increase when the outsourced activity requires the co-location of facilities specialised training. If the supplier fails to perform the outsourced function that will disrupt other processes, this factor needs to be taken into consideration when the company outsources. Thus, when activities are highly interdependent, a company might be reluctant to outsource any of them.

(ii) Spillover Risks: Contracting with a supplier can expose a company to leaking its confidential information, perhaps even to competition spillover risks are exacerbated (aggravated) when the interface between the outsourced activity and other internal functions is complex, requiring a company to reveal proprietary information to ensure a good fit between the two.

(iii) Trust: To protect against dependency and spillover risk, a company can rely on detailed legal contracts with vendors. But such documents are time-consuming and expensive to negotiate and enforcement is uncertain and costly, thus discouraging outsourcing.

(iv) Relative Proficiency: Outsources can take advantage of economics of scale and scope by aggregating the needs of several clients. So companies needs to examine their proficiency relative to that of vendors on a case-to-case basis.

(v) Strategic Capabilities: A company should not outsource an activity that directly contributes to its strategic competitive advantage. If a company believes it can build a sustainable lead in an activity that offers long-term competitive advantage, then it should refrain from outsourcing that function and instead devote efforts to building superior capability even if its current relative proficiency is modest and other factors make outsourcing attractive.

(vi) Commitment vs. Flexibility: Irreversible commitments to core activities can be a powerful weapon for a company to signal to competitors its intent to defend its advantage. Uncertainty about the future trajectory of a technology might make a company less inclined to outsource a process that relies on that technology if the activity is core or critical but more inclined to outsource if it is neither.

29. What do you mean by Management Development? Explain the important objectives of Career Development. 

Ans: Managers are the indispensable resources, the priceless assets of an organisation. They generate creative ideas, translate them into concrete action plans and produce results. Management development or executive development is a process of developing the managing ability of managers and executives. Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills.

The management development process consists of:

(i) Assessing the company’s strategic needs (for instance, to fill future executive openings, or to boost competitiveness).

(ii) Appraising managers’ current performance and them.

(iii) Developing the managers and future managers.

In simply way, it is to be mentioned that executive development is primarily concerned with improving the performance of managers by giving them stimulating opportunities for growth and development.

The Important Objectives of Career Development are explained below:

(a) Fostering Better Communication in Organization: The main objective of designing a career development system is to foster better communication within the organization as a whole. It promotes communication at all levels of organizations for example manager and employee and managers and top management. Proper communication is the lifeblood of any organization and helps in solving several big issues.

(b) Assisting with Career Decisions: A career development system provides employees as well as managers with helpful assistance with career decisions. They get an opportunity to assess their skills and competencies and know their goals and future aspirations. It helps them give a direction so that they can focus on achieving their long term career goals.

(c) Better Use of Employee Skills: A career development system helps organization in making better use of employee skills. Since managers know their skills and competencies they are put them at a job where they will be able to produce maximum output.

(d) Setting Realistic Goals: Setting realistic goals and expectations is another main objective of a career development system. It helps both employees and organization to understand what is feasible for them and how they can achieve their goals.

(e) Creating a Pool of Talented Employees: Creating a pool of talented employees is the main objective of organizations. After all, they need to meet their staffing needs in present and future and a career development system helps them fulfil their requirements.

(f) Enhancing the Career Satisfaction: Organizations especially design career development systems for enhancing the career satisfaction of their employees. Since they have to retain their valuable assets and prepare them for top notch positions in future, they need to understand their career requirements and expectations from their organization.

(g) Feedback: Giving feedback on every step is also required within an organization to measure the success rate of a specific policy implemented and initiatives taken by the organization. In addition to this, it also helps managers to give feedback for employees’ performance so that they can understand what is expected of them.

30. What is the process of Executive development. Explain the steps briefly.

And: The essential steps in planning the executive development programmes are as follows:

(a) Determining the needs: First and foremost, a careful and detailed analysis is carried out regarding the needs and requirements of the organisation. How many executives need to be developed and from which departments or sections. A critical analysis of the organisation pattern in context of future plans helps in knowing the future requirements of the departments and the kind of skill and knowledge required by the executives for each position.

(b) Assessment of the present performance: After determining the needs of various positions the management evaluates the performance of the employees and managers by comparing the present performance with the standard performance

(c) Inventory of Executive personnel: An inventory of executive personnel is maintained where detailed information of each employee is prepared. The individual personnel in that team have a personal profile i.e., details regarding their name, age, length of service, education, work experience, health fitness, psychological fitness, results of merit rating etc. The managers are selected for the executive development programmes on the basis of their provided information.

(d) Individual development programme: Depending upon the results of performance appraisal, the employees identify their respective strengths and weaknesses. Those employees whose performances are not up to the mark are provided with development programmes for improvement in their skills.

(e) Conducting training and development programmes: The personnel manager prepares a systematic procedure for development of executives. These programmes are for overall development of the executives and do not provide job skills in a particular area. It is a comprehensive programme which provides broad outlook on human relations, decision making skills, leadership ability, innovating skills etc.

31. State the importance of Executive Development Programmes. Why its importance is felt in recent times?

Ans: Executive development programmes are gaining importance in recent years due to increasing complexities in the business organisations and its significance. 

The need of ED programmes can be understood from the following:

(a) Increasing organisations: The number of organisations are increasing in recent days due to which the intensity of competition has also increased. By seeing the recent trend in the market the managers need to be developed.

(b) Non-availability of trained personnel: The number of trained experts and mangers are less as compared to the needs. The demand for qualified managerial staff is more than its availability. So it becomes utmost necessity for the organisation to design executive development programmes and maintain an inventory of executive skills.

(c) To remove obsolescence: The technology is fast changing. There have been tremendous changes in modern equipments and the executives should have knowledge to operate and handle sophisticated technologies.

(d) Complexity of relations: The labours and workers are getting more aware of their rights. The education level of workers are increasing and thus their participation in negotiations. Collective bargaining and grievance redressal is also increasing. Thus, the managers should be prepared to manage the workers.

(e) Social responsibility: The concept of social responsibility has been much recognised by various parties including customers, shareholders, creditors, general public, government, employees and media. Thus development programmes are necessary for leadership responsibility and increased management burden.

(f) Social changes: The culture, customs, usage, attitudes and learning of people are going through sea change. The managers need to have complete knowledge of the socio-cultural environment to understand the needs and behaviour of people in the long run.

32. What are the various methods or techniques of executive development. Explain.

Ans: The various methods of executive development programmes are explained below:

(a) In basket exercise: After the trainees are given information about a company and its products, personnel etc., they are given in-basket of assorted memoranda and datas relating to the firm. The personnel go through these documents and paper work and prepares notes by delegating work to subordinates within the stipulated time. It is a situational judgement where executives determine priorities and schedules meetings. They give explanation for their actions.

(b) Management games/business games: Management game is another technique of executive development where the executives sit in a classroom, form groups and compete against each other. They are given various areas where decision is sought like production, purchase, marketing, research and development etc. The executives study the problem in groups and by some intuition solve the problems and learn by trial and error method. Management games are designed to prepare managers for complex managerial decisions.

(c) Case study: Under this method, a problem may be real or hypothetical is presented to employees. The employees study the problem in detail, identify alternative courses of action to solve the problem and chooses the best possible alternative. The trainer guides the employees and ensures that they do not overlook any major issue. This method improves the problem solving skills of the participants.

(d) Role playing: It is a inter personal skill method of executive development. The participants are assigned different roles to play. They have no idea regarding which role will be provided and no background information is provided. The participants are allotted sufficient time to plan their actions and then they are asked to act spontaneously. These techniques removes hesitation and builds up confidence. These techniques aim towards polishing leadership and human relations. Competitive atmosphere spurs active participation.

(e) Multiple management: This method is designed for training junior executives. Here, the executives are prepared for overall management and not for particular skill development. A young board is constituted of junior executives who actively participate in the company affairs and give suggestions to the board of directors. Vacancies in the board of directors can be filled from the junior board members who have considerable exposure to problems.

(f) Transactional Analysis: Transactional analysis is a technique to foster and develop interpersonal skills of executives. Transactional analysis studies the social transactions between two or more employees. This technique was first introduced by Eric Berne in 1950. which was later developed by Harris and Jongheard. Companies adopt this method to improve employee’s self understanding, interpersonal effectiveness, communication and leadership abilities.

33. What is Career Development? Write its advantages.

Ans: Career Development is essential for the implementation of career planning. It refers to a set of programmes designed to match an individual’s needs, abilities and goals with current or future opportunities in the organisation. It is the process through which the action plans are implemented. Developmental activities include all of the off-the-job and on-the-job training techniques.

Some major advantages of career development programme for an organisation are as follows:

(i) Management can be assured of availability of needed talents according to the changing staff requirements of the organisation.

(ii) It enables the management to attract and maintain a pool of talented employees.

(iii) It reduces the scope of frustration among employees, particularly women and minorities, as they become aware of management’s endeavour to provide them with opportunities for career advancement.

(iv) Effective career development programme promotes opportunities for advancement for employees with diverse cultural backgrounds.

(v) Career development programme is also conducive to promotion of employees’ loyalty and belongingness towards the organisation.

(vi) The functioning of the organisation is strengthened as a result of more fruitful contributions from the employees. 

34. Explain the need for employees’ Career Development in an Organisation.

Ans: The need for effective employees’ career development are for following reasons:

(a) Making Available Needed Talent: Career development is a natural extension of strategic and employee training. Identifying staff requirements over the intermediate and long-term is necessary when a firm sets long-term goals and objectives. Career development will help organizations in putting the right people in the right job.

(b) Attracting and Retaining Talents: There is always a scarcity for talented people and there is competition to secure their services. Talented people always prefer to work in organizations which care for their future concern and exhibit greater loyalty and commitment to organizations where there is career advancement. As career development is an important aspect of work life as well as personal life, people prefer to join firms which offer challenges, responsibility and opportunities for advancement.

(c) Reduced Employee Frustration: Along with educational level and knowledge, the aspirational level of occupations is also increasing. When these levels are not met due to economic stagnation frustration sets in. When organizations downsize to cut costs, employee career paths, career tracks and career ladders tend to collapse resulting in aggravation of frustration. Career counseling comes a long way in reducing frustration.

(d) Enhancing Cultural Diversity: Fast changing scenarios in globalization reflects a varied combination of workforce representing different types of races, nationalities, religious faiths, ages and values in the workplaces. Effective career development programmes provide access to all levels of employees.

(e) Improving Organizational Goodwill: It is quite natural that if employees think their organizations care about their long-term well-being through career development they are likely to respond in kind by projecting positive images about their organizations. Career development does help organization in impressing image and goodwill.

35. Give some Suggestions for Effective Career Development.

Ans: The various important suggestions for effective career development are:

(i) Challenging Initial Job Assignments: There is evidence indicating that employees who take up initial challenging jobs perform better at later stages.

(ii) Dissemination of Career Option Information: Mostly, employees lack information about career choices/options. The managers identify career paths and succession paths. This information should be made available to all employees concerned.

(iii) Job Positioning: Management should provide job information to employees through job positioning. For posting the jobs organisations can use bulletin board displays, company publications, electronic billboards and similar means.

(iv) Assessment Centres: The assessment centres evaluate the people regarding their ability to certain jobs. This technique helps to identify the available skills, abilities and knowledge.

(v) Career counselling helps employees in setting directions, reviewing performance, identifying areas for professional growth.

The content of career counselling includes:

(a) Employee’s goals, aspirations and expectations with regard to future career.

(b) The manager’s views about the future opportunities.

(c) Identification of employee’s attempts for self-development.

(vi) Career Development Workshops: Managements should conduct career development workshops. There workshops help for resolving misperceptions. Entry workshops help for orientation and socialisation activities. Mid-career workshops help the employees with the same background and length of service. Late-career workshops are helpful for the employees preparing for retirement, employees who are frustrated over unfulfilled career goals.

(vii) Continuous education and training help the employees to reduce the possibilities of obsolete skills. In fact, continuous education and development are highly essential for career planning and development. Competency-based training approaches are best for career development.

(viii) Periodic Job Changes: In the modern business, the proverb, “rolling stone gathers no moss” has a little relevance. In fact, the rolling stone gathers moss. The technique of job rotation helps the employees to acquire the organisational knowledge, and knowledge about different jobs and departments.

Ultimately, the employee gains confidence of working efficiently under any environment. The periodic job changes offer diverse and expanded range of experiences that the future job will demand. Thus, this technique prepares the employee for the future careers.

36. Explain the various benefits / advantages of career planning and development?

Ans: Career planning and development is beneficial to the individual as well as to the organisation. These benefits are as discussed below:

(a) Benefits to the Individual:

(i) It helps the individual to discover his own talents, needs and motives related to work.

(ii) It helps fulfill the individual’s need to know what his position and future in the organisation will be.

(iii) It provides a sense of affiliation with the organisation and a feeling that the organisation is interested in the individual’s development.

(iv) It is conducive to job satisfaction by providing assignments most suited to the individual’s needs and tastes.

(v) It leads to optimal personal development by developing abilities and aptitudes to the full.

(vi) It provides greater opportunities for change in the working environment that would otherwise lead to boredom.

(b) Benefits to the Organisation:

(i) It helps in increasing effectively / productivity in jobs and in turn, effectiveness in meeting the organisational objectives through greater creativity, motivation etc.

(ii) It helps in reducing the turnover of high potential staff and absenteeism of all staff.

(iii) It contributes significantly to the reduction of costs.

(iv) It promotes continuity of organisational knowledge by drawing more upon internal personnel resources.

(v) It facilitates staff mobility by planning assignments well enough in advance to avoid some of the obstacles which arise when staff are required to move at short notice.

(vi) It helps in reducing pressure on job classification and other personnel system resulting from frustrated career.

37. What is employee well-being?

Ans: The concept of “employee well-being” is not a new one, but it has seen a resurgence in interest with the challenges in the world in the last few years, and employee well-being has been making its way to the top of company consciousness. This interest has many companies scrambling to develop a plan.

There are many definitions of well-being and employee well-being. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) – Europe’s largest professional institute for people management and development, with over 135,000 members across 120 countries— define it as: “Creating an environment to promote a state of contentment which allows an

employee to flourish and achieve their full potential for the benefit of themselves and their organization.” The CIPD believes “that employee well-being at work initiatives need to balance the needs of the employee with those of the organization.”

Many smaller organizations would like to ensure their employees have a great sense of well-being when it comes to the workplace, but are hesitant to research or go forward with health and wellness plans as they are perceived to be costly. It is important to remember that a person’s overall well-being includes all aspects of life, not just the workplace. This article will address things any size employer can do at little or no cost to reap the benefits of employee well-being, such as increased customer satisfaction, increased sense of company loyalty and higher productivity. There are a plethora of items that may seem inconsequential to some; however, they go a long way in employees’ minds and contribute to a feeling of safety, security and health.

A few ideas are listed below:

(i) Providing paid time off: This allows employees time to recharge their batteries & relax and/or care for themselves or a family member who may be ill, such as a sick child. UPDATE: As of July 2015, a new California bill signed by Governor Jerry Brown requires almost all public- and private-sector employers to give almost all workers in California at least three paid sick days per year.

(ii) Providing a comfortable area for breaks and lunches, so employees get a brief respite from the day’s work and stresses.

(iii) Equip the break / lunch room(s) with small appliances such as a toaster oven, microwave, water fountain, etc.

(iv) Small incentive programs like a special parking space for the employee of the month.

(v) Spread the work around as to not overwhelm any employee. Chances are the high performers already have more than they can handle.

(vi) Encourage healthy living – offer healthy snacks such as fruits & vegetables and water & juice, instead of the usual fare in snack machines.

(vii) Research offering information on health-related employee benefits such as dental or vision. Many times the money employees pay in premiums can be taken from their paychecks pre-tax.

(viii) Be sensitive to employees who may be ill and assist them as much as possible with any options that may be available to them such as a leave of absence.

As mentioned before, the list above consists of items that all employers can do to show their employees that the organization is looking out for their health and well-being. There are firms that specialize in developing health and wellness plans for organizations, which are definitely worth researching if the budget allows.

38. Explain the importance or need of employee well-being.

Ans: (i) Improving the health of employees: By creating a change in behaviour, choices are made around healthier food options, exercise programmes, reduced smoking.

(ii) Improving productivity through presenteeism: Many of us have been physically present at work but not really achieved much. True presenteeism and reduced absence has been cited through employees suffering less stress, reduced mental health issues and reduced depression as a direct result of wellbeing programmes.

(iii) Improving recruitment and retention: By offering incentives such as gym membership, health clinics, subsidised healthy food options, companies are more likely to attract employees. 87% of employees in the Health Miles/Workforce Survey said they consider these when choosing and employer. A strong well-being strategy helps organisations to stand out from the crowd and be an ’employer of choice’.

(iv) Improving Employee Culture: Employees are an expensive resource to the business and its most important asset. A strong employee well-being programme demonstrates that the business values the employees. It can build and sustain high morale and engagement and create shared experiences for employees.

(v) Improved employee productivity: On one hand, research shows that smokers are twice as likely to take time off work, and workers with obesity take three to six sick days more than those of normal weight annually. On the other hand, employees that handle stress better are less likely to experience burnout. Overall, when employee well-being is optimized, employees are more focused on their work and their productivity increases.

(vi) Improved employee morale: During COVID-19 crisis, we have seen how important it is to keep employee morale afloat. By introducing employee well-being initiatives such as mental health workshops or a fitness competition among departments or teams, you can significantly improve your employees’ morale.

(vii) Attractive employer branding: 78% of employers offer wellness programs to attract and retain talent. The fight for the best talent on the market is very competitive, and high-quality candidates have several options to choose from when picking their next employer. Providing employee well-being benefits that are in line with your future workforce is very important if you want to attract the best candidates that will ensure your company’s business success.

(viii) Reduced absenteeism and healthcare costs: Companies started realizing that preventing issues related to poor employee well-being such as burnout, stress or sickness were more profitable than reacting to all these issues when they already happened.

More specifically, the employees’ sedentary lifestyle increases possibilities of diabetes, high blood pressure and other diseases. Moreover, employees who say they often or always experience burnout at work are 63% more likely to take sick days. That means that employee well-being is directly related with absenteeism and its cost for employers.

39. What are the challenges faced by the manager for employee well-being?

Ans: Even once an organisation has determined what it wants to introduce as a well-being programme, it can be difficult to know how to integrate it in the workplace without coming across as being dictatorial.

There are various considerations here:

(i) Physical: you can not force people to eat certain foods or to engage in a gym class or other such activities. Even if you only have a healthy offering in the work restaurant, people will choose to eat what they want (often bringing their own food in or going out to eat whatever they choose).

(ii) Social: although a business might want to be collaborative, internal social networks exist and if a group choose not to participate, it is very hard to influence this. Far from creating a collective, this might serve to define a disparate group.

(iii) Personal: an individual’s own development at work can be structured and influenced through a development programme but an LMS is not necessarily going to be able to affectively tackle some of the well- being issues. It can look at stress management and personal time organisation but has its limitations. That said, 72.8% of companies say a high-pressure work environment is the biggest threat to staff wellbeing so addressing this area is key.

(iv) Practical: whilst a business can design and develop a well-being guide and integrate the well-being initiatives as part of the broader reward offering, it can be difficult to affect and change behaviours that are formed and established habits.

40. What is the importance of Work-Life Balance?

Ans: (i) Work-life balance helps maintain mental health: Having a healthy work-life balance means that employees will be happier when they come to work. This, in turn, helps reduce stress and the chances of burnout, two common health issues in the workplace.

(a) Chronic stress occurs when employees are continuously stressed. It can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia, as well as physical health issues including chronic aches and pains, heart troubles, and hypertension.

(b) Burnout happens when an employee suffers too much stress over a long period of time. Burnout can cause anything from mood swings and irritability, to fatigue and a decrease in productivity. It can lead to employees seeking health care or taking sick days, which in turn can become costly for a company.

(ii) It also helps with physical health: If employees are being too overworked, they are much more likely to be plagued with physical ailments. This is especially true if they aren’t taking appropriate breaks throughout the day. 

Some examples include:

(a) Chronic pain/carpal tunnel syndrome: Overworking, especially if the office environment isn’t ergonomic, can lead to soreness or worse.

(b) Higher risk of heart disease and high blood pressure: Being sedentary is a big contributor to these conditions.

(iii) It can make you more well-rounded: There’s a reason that CVs have a space for hobbies, and interviewers often ask about what an employee likes to do outside of work. Being able to share stories, knowledge, and experiences will allow employees to connect on a social level, creating a tighter-knit team.

(iv) It increases productivity: A company needs its employees to be productive. That’s where the importance of work-life balance comes into play – if an employee’s work-life balance is steady, they will be much happier at work. This leads to greater productivity. Staying late every night and working overtime may seem like it would boost productivity, but realistically the work is most likely of a lesser quality.

41. What is Quality of Work Life. Explain the importance of Quality of Work Life.

Ans: Quality of Work Life (QWL) is an improvised HRD mechanism which attempts to design and to develop the work environments for the employees working at all levels. It is one of the major issues faced by the organisations. QWL is not only related to the achievement of greater human satisfaction, but also aims at improving productivity, adaptability and effectiveness of organisations.

QWL includes the attempts to achieve integration among the technological, human, organisational and societal demands (the factors of work environments) so as to maximise the benefits for enriching the human factor.

QWL is not based on any theory or any technique but it is concerned with the overall climate of work, the impact of work on people and the organisational effectiveness. The basic purpose is to change the work environment, which will lead towards a better QWL and ultimately to an improved quality of life in the community/society.

WL is important because of the following reasons:

(a) Enhance stakeholder relations and credibility: A growing number of companies that focus on QWL improve their relationships with the stakeholders. They can communicate their views, policies, and performance on complex social issues; and develop interest among their key stakeholders like consumers, suppliers, employees etc.

(b) Increase productivity: Programmes which help employees balance their work and lives outside the work can improve productivity. A company’s recognition and support — through its stated values and policies — of employees’ commitments, interests and pressures, can relieve employees’ external stress.

(c) Attraction and retention: Work-life strategies have become a means of attracting new skilled employees and keeping existing ones satisfied. Many job seekers prefer flexible working hours as the benefit they would look for in their job. They would rather have the opportunity to work flexible hours than receive an additional increment in annual pay.

(d) Job involvement: Companies with QWL have employees with high degree of job involvement. People put their best to the job and report good performance. They achieve a sense competence and match their skills with requirements of the job. They view their jobs as satisfying the needs of achievement and recognition. This reduces absenteeism and turnover, thus, saving organisational costs of recruiting and training replacements.

(e) Job satisfaction: Job involvement leads to job commitment and job satisfaction. People whose interests are protected by their employers experience high degree of job satisfaction. This improves job output.

(f) Company reputation: Many organizations, including Governments, NGOs, investors and the media, consider the quality of employee experience in the work place when evaluating a company. Socially responsible investors, including some institutional investors, pay specific attention to QWL when making investment decisions.

42. Write the principles of Quality of Work Life (QWL). What is work life balance?

Ans: In order to humanise work and to improve the QWL, four basic principles may be helpful:

(a) The Principle of Security: Quality of work life cannot be improved until employees are relieved of the anxiety, fear and loss of future employment. The working conditions must be safe and fear of economic want should be eliminated. Job security and safety against occupational hazards is an essential precondition of humanisation of work.

(b) The Principle of Equity: There should be a direct and positive relation between eort and reward. All types of discrimination between people doing similar work and with same level of performance must be eliminated. Equity also requires sharing the prots of the organisation.

(c) The Principle of Individualism: Every individual should be provided the opportunity for development of his personality and potential. Humanisation of work requires that employees are allowed to decide their own pace of activity and design of work operations.

(d) The Principle of Democracy: This means greater authority and responsibility to employees. Meaningful participation in the decision-making process improves the quality of work life.

Work life balance is a method which helps employees of an organization to balance their personal and professional lives. Work life balance encourages employees to divide their time on the basis on priorities and maintain a balance by devoting time to family, health, vacations etc along with making a career, business travel etc. It is an important concept in the world of business as it helps to motivate the employees and increases their loyalty towards the company.

43. What do you mean by training and development?

Ans: Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing the job assigned to him. It is a short-term process. After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an organisation he must be provided with training facilities so that he can perform his job efficiently and effectively.

Development is a long-term educational process utilising an organised and systematic procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those activities which improve the personality of an employee.

Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.

44. What are the importance of training and development? What are the advantages of training and development?

Ans: The importance of training and development are:

(a) It optimises human resource utilisation: Training and development helps in optimising the utilisation of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organisational goals as well as their individual goals. It also helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioural skills in an organisation. It also helps employees attain their personal growth. It also helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horisons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

(b) Productivity: Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organisation further to achieve its long-term goal.

(c) Team spirit: Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

(d) Organisation culture: Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organisational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organisation.

(e) Organisation climate: Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organisation. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

(f) Quality: Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

(g) Healthy work environment: Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organisational goal.

(h) Health and safety: Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organisation thus preventing obsolescence.

(i) Morale: Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

(j) Image: Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

(k) Profitability: Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

Training and Development aids in organisational development i.e. Organisation gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies. Training and development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

The advantages of training and development are:

(a) Optimum utilisation of human resources: Training and Development helps in optimising the utilisation of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organisational goals as well as their individual goals. 

(b) Development of human resources: Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioural skills in an organisation. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

(c) Development of skills of employees: Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horisons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

(d) Productivity: Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organisation further to achieve its long-term goal.

(e) Team spirit: Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

(f) Organisation culture: Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organisational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organisation.

(g) Organisation climate: Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organisation. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

(h) Quality: Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

(i) Healthy work-environment: Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organisational goal.

(j) Health and safety: Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organisation thus preventing obsolescence.

(k) Morale: Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

(l) Image: Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

(m) Profitability: Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation resources’ technical and behavioural skills in an organisation. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

45. What are the three categories of training and development techniques?

Ans: Training and development techniques fall into three categories:

(a) Content techniques: to provide knowledge or information at cognitive level i.e. information processing techniques.

(b) Process techniques: to change attitudes, develop self-awareness and improve interpersonal skills. These are based on theoretical models of learning and behaviour change. e.g.; roles play behavioural modification and transactional analysis.

(c) Mixed techniques: to provide both information-transmitting function and an attitude change function e.g.: conference, discussion, simulation and on the job training

46. What are the classifications of training methods? Explain.

Ans: There are two classifications of training methods. 

Such as:

(i) On-the-job training methods. and

(ii) Off-the-job training methods. 

(i) On-the-Job Training Methods: These methods are more popular and most commonly used method used both in basic skills training and in management training and development. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary for that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor.

This method includes the following:

(a) Job Rotation: In this type of training the trainees will shift from one job to another. It enables the employees to gain knowledge and experience from the trainers of the different job assignments. This method is common for training managers for general management positions. It facilitates the trainee to understand the problems of employees on the other jobs.

(b) Coaching: The trainee employee will undergo training under a particular coach or supervisor. This coach provides feedback for the trainees on their performance and also gives suggestion for improvement. A major disadvantage of this method is the trainee may not have the freedom or Training and Development opportunity to express his own ideas. 

Job instruction: This is also known as step by step. Here the trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs and provides feedback to improve the performance of the trainee. Team assignments: In this method a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The problem is solved jointly by the team of trainees. This method helps to develop team work.

(ii) Off-the-Job Training Methods: In this method trainee is separated from the job and is made to learn the information that is related to the job. Here the trainees are not disturbed by the job requirements as in on the job training methods. Therefore they can concentrate on the learning and get trained before starting the job. The following methods are part of off-the-job training: Vestibule training: In this method the real work setting is simulated; the files and equipment used in actual work situation are also used here. Later the skills learned in the simulated setup are used in actual job. The case method: Here the job situation is presented on the paper, and the group of trainees identifies the problems and offer solutions. Here trainees learn from each other and receive feedback on one another’s performances. The incident method: This is similar to the case method. In this method trainees only get know the outline of a particular incident. The trainees have an interaction with the trainer and seek information on the incident by asking questions. After seeking adequate information trainees attempt to solve the problem. Later at the end of the session the trainer gives all the information and trainees compare their solution based on the complete information. Role playing: This method is the human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. The members play a role of certain characters such as manager, supervisor, workers etc. this method is mostly used for developing inter- personal interactions and relations. 

Experiential exercises: This technique incorporates elements of both case study and role playing. Trainees examine their responses first as individuals, then with the members of their own groups or teams, and finally with larger group and with the trainer. Conference or Discussions: This involves a group of people who give ideas, examine and share information which help the trainee to improve his job performance. 

Programmed Instruction: This is a popular method of recent times. In this the subject matter which has to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks.

47. Discuss evaluation of a training programme.

Ans: The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.

The need for evaluation of training programme: 

There are four reasons to evaluate training:

(i) To make decisions about the future use of a training program or technique (e.g.. continue, modify, eliminate). 

(ii) To make decisions about individual trainees (e.g.. certify as competent, provide additional training). 

(iii) To contribute to a scientific understanding of the training process. and

(iv) To further political or public relations purposes (e. g.. to increase the credibility and visibility of the training function by documenting success). 

48. Summarize the role and responsibilities of training department.

Ans: Responsibility for the training of employees has to rest firmly on the shoulders of the manager or supervisor, since he is responsible for their performance in the ultimate analysis and knows better than anyone else what the job entails.

The most comprehensive listing of the role and responsibilities of a training department could be as follows:

(a) Working with management to produce corporate plans (including manpower plans) and business strategies.

(b) Producing training policies, plans and budgets.

(c) Providing training inputs to management development. 

(d) Selecting trainees (e.g. apprentices, student trainees, graduates) Arranging appropriate induction programmes.

(e) Carrying out job analyses.

(f) Assisting managers to identify training needs.

(g) Arranging and partly carrying out training programmes including course design.

(h) Organising further education for employees.

(i) Measuring, evaluating and following up training.

(j) Developing training staff.

(k) Liaising with educational establishments, professional associations, etc.

(l) Providing a training advisory and information service.

(m) Controlling all training resources.

(n) Advancing the cause of training as a profession.

49. What is the importance of person analysis? What is the significance of training need analysis?

Ans: Person analysis requires determining which employees require training and which employees do not require training. In view of the foregoing person analysis acquires greater importance. It helps organisation to avoid the mistake of sending all employees to training when some of them do not need it It certainly helps in saving the training cost to the organisation. Person analysis also helps managers to determine the content coverage and design of the training programme.

The person analysis is done in two phases:

(a) First phase the performance indicators are developed. and

(b) Second phase the gaps existing in knowledge, skill, attitudes are determined and approaches to resolve them are developed. Organisations use performance appraisal data for person analysis.

50. Define group discussion method. What are the advantages and disadvantages of group discussion method?

Ans: The Group Discussion is defined as “the process of reaction and counter reaction between two or more than two persons on a common subject with the objective of achieving some specific conclusion or results”. The trainer conducts a group discussion with purpose of solving a problem, getting feedback, sharing experiences, establishing a consensus or for exchanging ideas. During the group discussion the trainer plays the role of facilitator and poses questions, encourages involvement, manages the environment and summarises the conclusions reached by the group. The trainer should be sensitive to group dynamics so that the learners remain focused and should be prepared to intervene when the discussions deteriorate. The trainer should be careful while handling discussion of controversial topics so as to avoid hurt feelings, lasting anger and frustrated learners. There are different types of group discussion like small group discussion, buzz method group discussion, symposium, seminars, huddle method group discussion, etc.

Advantages of Group Discussion Method: A group discussion is usually effective in engaging learners and encouraging participation. Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits resulting from the discussion method. Group discussions centre around problems, questions, ideas or issues presented to the group for consideration and verbal exploration.

Disadvantages of Group Discussion Method:

(a) Behavioural problems like hurting feelings, jarring personal conflict/ etc. may happen in group discussion, if the trainer has not handled the situation and environment properly. Sometimes the discussion may be so lengthy that meaningful results may not be achieved.

(b) In some cases the trainees get off the track or one trainee dominates the discussion, then the other trainees feel that the discussion was a waste of time.

(c) One of the obvious disadvantages of group discussion is when many trainees may like to contribute at the same time or when trainees are verbose.

51. Why training needs to be evaluated?

Ans: Evaluation data takes many forms and is highly valuable in that it can be used to:

(a) Provide feedback on whether the training or development activity is effective in achieving its aims.

(b) Indicate the extent to which trainees apply what they have learned back in the workplace (transfer of training), an issue which many organisations find they have problems with.

(c) Provide information on how to increase the effectiveness of current or later development activities.

(d) Demonstrate the overall value and worth of development activities. 

Anderson and Ball (1978) proposed the following major needs for evaluation:

(e) To contribute to decisions about programme installation.

(f) To contribute to decisions about programme continuation, expansion or certification.

(g) To contribute to decisions about programme modification.

(h) To obtain evidence to really support a programme.

(i) To contribute to the understanding of basic psychological, social and other processes.

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