Concept & Debates in Political Theory Unit 3 Concept in Political Theory – II

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Concept & Debates in Political Theory Unit 3 Concept in Political Theory – II

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Concept in Political Theory – II

PART – I: Justice


1. What do you mean by Justice in Political Science?

Ans : Justice is the most important and most discussed objective of the State and Society. It is the basis of orderly human living. It stands for harmony between Individual interests and the interests of social. Justice is of central importance to political theory. 

2. What are the 4 types of justice?

Ans : The 4 types of justice are: commutative, distributive, legal, and social. 

3. What are the 3 principles of legal system?

Ans : The three main principles of the legal system are fairness, equality before the law and justice. The legal system and lawmakers strive to achieve equal outcomes for all and equal protection of its citizens by making fair and just decisions. 

4. What is Socrates theory of justice?

Ans : In response to Thrasymachus, Glaucon, and Adeimantus, Socrates seek to show that it is always in an individual’s interest to be just, rather than unjust. Thus, one of the most pressing issues regarding the Republic is whether Socrates defends justice successfully or not. 

5. How does Aristotle define justice?

Ans : The entire Greek political thought revolves around the important concept of justice. But for Aristotle, justice is of two types, viz, universal justice and particular justice. The former refers to obedience to laws, that one should be virtuous. 

6. What is individual justice?

Ans : Individual Justice to be a tenet not focused on individuals, but on society at large. In that vein, justice addresses how benefits and burdens are shared by members of a society. 

7. How are Justice and injustice related?

Ans : Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or underserved outcomes. The term may be applied in reference to a particular event or situation, or to a larger status quo. In Western philosophy and jurisprudence, injustice is very common- but not always. 

8. What does Justice mean in religion?

Ans : Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities-e.g., earning one’s own living. The Christian religion established a basis for social life, and thus deals with religious and moral justice. 

9. What does justice mean in law?

Ans : Fairness, Moral rightness, and Scheme or system of law in which every person’s receives his or her due from the system, including all rights, both natural and legal. One problem is that attorneys,judges and legislatures often get caught up more in procedure than in achieving justice for all. 

10. What are the characteristics of justice?

Ans : Compassion, empathy, and respect for the essential dignity of all persons, Courtesy, Patience. Moral courage and high ethics. A reputation for honesty, integrity and fairness. 

11. What is morality justice?

Ans : Ethics of justice, also known as morality of justice. 

12. What is the virtue justice?

Ans : justice is one of the four cardinal virtues in classical European philosophy and Roman Catholicism. It is the moderation or mean between selfishness and selflessness-between having more and having less than one’s fair share. 

13. What is the purpose of justice?

Ans : ‘The purpose of the Criminal Justice System is to deliver justice for all by convicting and punishing the guilty and helping them to stop offending. 

14. What is meant by political justice?

Ans : Political justice refers to the use of the judicial process for the purpose of gaining (or upholding or enlarging) or limiting (or destroying) political power of influence. It may accompany or confirm political or military action, or it may be a substitute for such action. 

15. What is justice in ethical principle?

Ans : Justice is a complex ethical principle, with meanings that range from the fair treatment of individuals to the equitable allocation of healthcare dollars and resources. In light of the challenges inherent in defining Justice, it is fair to say that it is a concept involving fairness, equal, and equitable treatment. 


1. Explain the term “justice” State the platonic concept of Justice. 

Ans : The word ‘Justice’ has been derived from Latin word ‘Jus’ Which means Bond or Tie. It means Justice is the system where in all individuals are related to each other. Justice is connected with the face as to what type of moral, social, economic, political and legal relations and individual has with the other individuals. 

(a) According to Salmond: ‘Justice means to give individual his due share.’

(b) According to Merriam: ‘Justice consists in a system of understanding and procedures through which is accorded what is agree upon as fair.’ 

In brief Justice requires a just state with the condition of morality. 

The Greek philosopher Plato gives a philosophical interpretation of Justice in his a life of people confirming to the rule of functional specialisation simply it is means that one man should practise only one thing to which his nature is best suited. It signifies ‘doing your own work and not meddling with what belongs to others. 

Plato’s Justice is also related to social order. He explains Justice for the individual as well as the state on the basis of his tripartite theory of appetite courage and wisdom. 

For Plato there are 3 classes in a society corresponding to the three elemental of the soul. 

The classes are:

(a) The Producers.

(b) The military.

(c ) The ruler.

Justice means maintenance of harmonious order between these classes. When each class minds if own business and does not meddle with the job of others. There is Justice is the state. In the individual Justice consists in keeping a balance between different elements. 

2. Write the two major concepts of justices in the context of history of idea?

Ans : In the History of clears, there are two major concept of Justice. 

(a) Numerical Justice of law: It gives equal share to all Bentham said ‘Every one’ is to counts for one unequal would be treated as equal. When the holding. Of an office did not call for any special knowledge or qualification, Modern liberal democracies are also based on this principle. Rich or poor, illiterate of literate employ can all have the right of single vote. 

(b) Geometrical concentric of Justice: Plato and Aristotle favoured this concept of Justy. It is a concept of proportionate equality. It means equal share to equals and the qual to unequals. According to Aristotle it should distributed any among those who have the capacity for flute playing. Numerical Justice is sometimes called democratic Justice and geometric Justice is equated with aristocratic Justice. 

3. What steps would you suggest to ensure social justice in a modern state?

Ans : The concept of social Justice existed even in the ancient time. Social Justice implies citizens from the social points of view. They should have all opportunities for self development. For the establishment of social Justice, it is essential that political authority through this legislative and executive established society based on equality. The social Justice exist in a society where all the individuals are equal. 

There are many provisions is our constitution in the chapter of Directive Principle. 

Some of these provisions are: 

(i) The article 40 says that the state shall within the limits of its economic capacity make provisions for securing the right to work, to education and for public assistances in areas of unemployment old age, sickness etc. 

(ii) Article 42 says that the state shall make provisions for securing just and human conditions. 

(iii) Article 46 says that the state shall promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society, particularly SC and ST and shall protect then from social injustice. 

(iv) Article 39 A added by the 42nd amendment act say that the state shall try to secure justice and free legal aid to citizens. 

4. What measures have been taken by the Indian Government to secure social Justice to the citizens?

Ans : Indian Government has tried to establish the social Justice to its citizens. At the time of independence in 1947 India was a poor country. Due to the economic stagnation under the British and the growth of many patterns of inequalities based on caste and religion. The Indian constitution proclaims that the Democratic Republic of Indian stands committed to securing to all its citizens. ‘Justice social, economic and political. The preamble of the Indian constitution declare the objectives to ensure the social, economic and political Justice. 

Since Independence various programmes have been started to tackle the problem of Poverty. The Antyodaya schemes for upliftment of the poorest. Farmer Development agency programmers, Five year plans and many other programmes have been launched by the government. Special steps have been taken to improve the social status of the back words and their economic condition. To improve the social status of schedule caste (SC) and scheduled Tribes (ST), the centre and the state government have positively discriminated in their favour by giving them in preferential treatment in school, colleges and employment posts have been made reserved in favour of backward classes. 

5. What are the features of Justice? Discuss briefly. 

Ans : Firstly, the concept is related to dealings amongst human beings. It implies an examination as to how various human beings are being treated. Secondly, it implies impartiality in the treatment of various persons and requires that no discrimination should be made amongst the various members of the society ‘on the basis of religion caste, sex, place of birth, family, etc. 

Thirdly justice does not essentially mean doing away with all types of discrimination. It does permit some sort of discrimination on reasonable grounds. For example, the special treatment promised to the backward classes under the Indian Constitution does not violate the concept of justice. 

Fourthly, it emphasises the importance of personal dignity and all those actions which restrict the rights and freedom of the individuals as derogatory or unjust. However, this does not preclude imposition of restrictions on the freedom of the individual in the larger interest of the members of society. 

Fifthly, the concept of justice is intimately connected with the concept of equality. Absence of equality. is considered as a violation of the principle of justice. For example legal justice implies equality before law. 

Sixthly justice implies the existence of a feeling of fraternity among the members of society. 

Finally, justice implies due consideration of the natural limitations. As Brecht has said “It is unjust to inflict punishment or moral reproach for non-fulfillment of a law or command which is impossible of fulfillment”. In short, Justice tries to reconcile the individual fights with the social good. 

6. What is economic Justice? Describe the main texture of economic Justice. 

Ans : According to Stan Alves, ‘Economic Justice is the provision of equal opportunities to the citizens to acquire wealth and to use if for their living. It is applied to those persons who are disabled or old or unemployed and therefore not in a position to acquire wealth should be helped by society to live. 

Main texture of Economics Justice are as follows: 

(a) Minimum basic needs: Economics Justice means to provide minimum basic needs to all the citizens of the state. This goes in the right direction. Without this the concept of democracy and political Justice been no meaning to a person who is even busy in meeting out the basic needs. He will under these circumstances, be continued to be exploited economically. 

(b) Equal money for equal work: It means that equal wages be given for equal work. Workers in factories, peons and clerks in offices, or other workers should get equal money as wages. 

(c) Work according to capacity: Economic Justice demands that a man should work according to his capacity and can earn sufficient money to meet our his basis needs. These two are interdependent. 

7. What is social justice? Point out the relationship between law and justice. 

Ans : Social justice implies the prohibition of discrimination and oppression on the basis of caste, sex, religion, colour etc. It prohibits the practice of untouchability. It tries to improve the socio-economic condition of the weaker section of the society. Social justice relates to the promotion of a just and equitable social order. Equality and liberty can be established with the help of social justice.

Law and justice are very much closely related. Justice implies a just and equitable social order. It is the law which ensure justice among the people of society. Law makes certain provisions by which justice is established firmly in the society.  Law is the means and justice is the end. Law helps in achieving justice. 


1. Justice in modern times- Explain. 

Ans : During the period between Renaissance and the French Revolution the concept of justice underwent a further change. As a result of the decline of the church and religion, greater importance was attached to humanism. Consequently, practices like slavery inequalities, etc., came to be regarded as unjust and emphasis was laid on the Principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. These three principles were the watch words of the French Revolution of 1789, It may he observed that upto this time no significance was attached to economic freedom, and freedom was taken purely in political terms. 

David Hume and Bentham assigned a new meaning to the concept of justice and laid emphasis on the principle of the greatest happiness of the greater number. They asserted that the nature of the political institutions should be such that the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people can be achieved. Bentham not only opposed the idea of punishment but also emphasised the need reforming the criminal. 

In the nineteenth century Marx and Engels gave a new interpretation to the conception of justice. They interpreted justice in terms of economic system and the mode of production. They strongly condemned the oppression of the proletariat by the capitalist classes, ans asserted that there could be no justice in a capitalist society which was based on inequality, oppression and exploitation. Justice could be possible only if there was equitable. Distribution of property, income and economic freedom. This could be possible only if the capitalist system of production was replaced by a socialist system. Only in the socialist system each individual of the society shall be able to get thing according to his requirements and real justice shall prevail. 

Finally certain scholars like Laski and Maclver have tried to interpret the concept of justice in terms of development of individual’s personality This can be possible only through the combination of the principles liberty, equality and fraternity. Justice implies the co- ordination synthesis of relations between the various individuals and the social systems 

It is evident that the concept of justice is not static and has been undergoing changes with the development of civilization. It is noteworthy that the concept is closely related with the social behaviour and the social system and to a large extent the contents of justice have bee determined by these two. In other words the concept of justice has undergone changes with the change in the social notions of the people. 

2. What do you mean by Distributive Justice? Discuss about the Principle of Distributive Justice. 

Ans : Principles of distributive justice: Principles of distributive justice are normative principles designed to guide the allocation of the benefits and burdens of economic activity. 

Strict Egalitarianism: One of the simplest principles of distributive justice is that of strict or radical equality. The principle says that every person should have the same level of material goods and services. The principle is most commonly justified on the grounds that people are owed equal respect and that equality in material goods and services is the best way to give effect to this ideal. Even with this ostensibly simple principle some of the difficult specification problems of distributive principles can be seen. The two main problems are the construction of appropriate indices for measurement and the specification of time frames. Because there are numerous proposed solutions to these problems, the ‘Principle of strict equality ” is not a single principle, but a name for a group of closely related principles. This range of possible specifications occurs with all the common principles of distributive justice. 

Difference Principle: The Difference Principle allows allocation that does not conform to strict equality so long as the inequality has the effect that the least advantaged in society are materially better off than they would be under strict equality. However, some have thought that Rawls, Difference Principle is not sensitive to the responsibility people have for their economic choices. Resource -based distributive principles, and principles based on what people deserve because of their work, endeavour to incorporate this idea of economic responsibility. 

Welfare-based principle: Advocates of Welfare-based principles do not believe the primary distributive concern should be material goods and services. They argue that material goods and services have no intrinsic value and are valuable only in so far as they increase welfare. Hence, they argue, the distributive principles should be designed and assessed according to how they affect welfare. Advocates of Libertarian principles, on the other hand, generally criticise any patterned distributive ideal, whether it is welfare or material goods that are the subjects of the pattern. They generally argue that such distributive principles conflict with more important moral demands such as those of liberty or respecting self-ownership. 

Utilitarian distribution principles: Utilitarian distribution principles, like the other principles described here, have problems with specification and implementation Most formulations of Utilitarianism require interpersonal comparisons of utility. This means, for instance, that we must be able to compare the utility one person gains from eating an apple with that another gains from eating an apple. Furthermore, Utilitarianism requires that differences in utility be measured and summed for widely disparate goods. 

Desert-Based Principles: The different desert-based principles of distribution differ primarily according to what they identify as the basis for deserving. Most contemporary proposals for desert-bases fit into one of three broad categories:

Contribution: People should be rewarded for their work activity according to the value of their contribution to the social product. Effort People should be rewarded according to the effort they expend in their work activity. 

Compensation: People should be rewarded according to the costs they incur in their work activity. 

Aristotle argued that virtue should be a basis for distributing rewards, but most contemporary principles own a larger debt to John Locke. Locke argued people deserve to have those items produced by their toil and industry, the products (or the value thereof) being a fitting reward for their effort His underlying idea was to guarantee to individuals the fruits of their own labour and abstinence. According to the contemporary desert theorist people freely apply their abilities and talents, in varying degrees, to socially productive work People come to deserve varying levels of income by providing goods and services desired by others. Distributive systems are just in so far as they distribute  incomes according to the different levels earned or deserved by the individuals in the society for their productive labours, efforts, or contributions. 

3. Write a note on Rawls’s theory of Justice- Explain. 

Ans : A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls. It was originally published in 1971 and revised in both 1975 and 1999. In a Theory of Justice, Rawls attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract. The resultant theory is known as “Justice as Fairness”, from which Rawls derives his two Principles of justice: the liberty principle and the difference principles. 

Principle 1 (Principle of Equal Basic Liberties): Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, scheme which is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all. 

Principle 2: (i. Fair Equality of opportunity; ii. Difference Principle) Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first, they are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second, they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society. 

These principles are listed here in the order of their lexical priority. By “lexical priority”, Rawls means that the first principles must be fully satisfied before the next principle is applied. It means, for instance, that “liberty can be restricted only for the sake of liberty”, and not say, for the sake of income or wealth. It must, however, be noted in this context that Rawls assumes that society to which his principles of social justice are to be applied is one which is reasonably well-off and in which the basic material needs of all are provided for. The main purpose of the rule of priority is to assign greater importance to equal basic liberties than to other primary social goods. In “basic liberties,” Rawls includes freedom of conscience, freedom of thought, freedom of the person along with the right to hold personal property, freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention or, in other words. the freedom of the rule of law, freedom of speech and assembly and political freedoms. 

According to Rawls, these basic rights and liberties enable us to exercise and realize our “two highest order moral powers,” namely, (i) the capacity to understand, apply and act according to the principles of justice and (ii) the capacity to form, revise and pursue conceptions of the good. 

In Rawls’s view, every member of a just society must be viewed as having these two moral capacities. These make them free and equal citizens. The moral equality of citizens means that “they each have, and view themselves as having, a right to equal respect and consideration in determining the principles by which the basic arrangements of their society are to be regulated”. The freedom of the citizens includes their freedom to realise their capacity to pursue their own conception of the good life. Since the distribution of social primary goods will have to respect the equality and freedom and “fraternity” and welfare, etc. Of all the members of society, it cannot strictly be an equal distribution across the board According to Rawls, once the basic material needs of the people are met, their right to basic liberties is to be accorded priority over their right to the other social primary goods, which are covered by the principle of equal opportunities and the difference principle. 

While he is opposed to any unequal distribution of basic liberties, he assumes that some inequalities in income and wealth are inevitable and perhaps not undesirable. Accordingly, the main purpose of his second principle of social justice is to keep inequalities within the bounds of justice-as-fairness. Obviously, the distinction between just or fair inequalities and unjust or unfair inequalities is of crucial importance in Rawls’s theory of social justice. Rawls thinks that excessive equality in income and wealth would destroy the economic incentives required for greater creativity and productivity. This would be harmful to both the rich and the poor. From the standpoint of the poor, justice does not require the complete elimination of economic inequality. Rawls believes that certain inequalities, which serve as incentives for the greater creativity and productivity of the talented and the gifted, are not unjust if that greater creativity and productivity are integrated into a social structural or institutional arrangement for distribution to the benefit of all, especially the least advantaged members of the society. He also thinks that giving advantage to the least advantaged would invariably entail giving benefits to everyone else.

Rawls maintains that a society can so structure or restructure it’s basic institutions as to make inequalities in income and wealth yield maximum benefits to the least advantaged maximum in comparison to any reasonable, alternative social restructuring. His difference Principle is meant not to replace inequality with equality in income and wealth, but to transform unfair or unjust degrees or kinds of economic inequalities into a fair or just kind of degree by maximising the benefits of the least advantaged. According to the difference Principle, inequalities which are advantageous to the better off but not to the least advantaged are unjust. 

Rawls’s principle of fair equality of opportunity stipulates that the state should ensure fair equality of opportunity in the educational, cultural and economic spheres as well as provide unemployment and sickness benefits. These require an interventionist, welfare state to run or aid schools, to regulate the economy, etc. 

The principles of justice, which we have discussed so far, have been described by Rawls as “special” formulations of a “general” conception of justice. This general conception is stated as: All social primary goods – liberty and opportunity income and wealth and the bases of self-respect are to be distributed equally, unless an unequal distribution of any or all of these goods is to the advantage of the least favoured. 

4. Define justice. Discuss different kind of justice. 

Ans : The word justice is derived from Latin word justice, which means joining or fitting. In simple, justice means giving everyone his or her due. According to Plato, justice is the performance of one’s duty effectively and sincerely. According to Aristotle justice means reason minus passion. In modern time, justice means fulfilment of the legitimate expectations under the provisions of law. Justice enables citizen to protect their rights. It is the source of democratic principles like equality, liberty and fraternity. It refers to the promotion of a just and equitable social order. There are several kinds of justice. 

The different kind of justice as follows: 

(i) Social justice: Social justice implies the absence of discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, colour, sex, language etc. Social justice includes recognition of equality and protection of weaker section of the society. 

(ii) Economic justice: Economic justice implies the right to work and livelihood. It implies that all the people should be free from starvation, hunger and unemployment in the society. Economic justice can be secured through abolition of economic exploitation of any form and eradication of unemployment and poverty. Economic justice is the most important form of justice through which goal of socialism can be established. 

(iii) Political Justice: Political justice means equal opportunity for all in the political sphere. It includes right to vote, rule of law, right to apply for government jobs and offices. It means equality in the enjoyment of political rights. It also means equal share in the government and equal access to all offices of authority. Political justice is the main aim of democratic rule. It implies giving every person in the society, irrespective of caste,sex, religion and education, equal opportunity in the participation of political affairs. Political justice also implies the right to raise voice against injustice and corruption. 

(iv) Legal justice: Legal justice means justice by law. Law provide justice in the society. Legal justice means everyone is equal before law and no individual can be punished without the provision of law. An individual can be punished only when he or she violates the provisions of law. A person can be punished according to the degree of his offence. 

(v) Distributive justice: The concept of distributive justice was used by Aristotle. It means offices and honours should be distributed according to his contributions towards society. 

(vi) Corrective justice: Another kind of justice is corrective justice. It means helping a person to whom some wrong has been done. For example, to restore a person’s property which have been forcibly taken away without any genuine cause. 

5. Discuss Plato’s theory of Justice. 

Ans : The great political philosopher of Greek, Plato discussed the theory of justice in his book, “The Republic”. The word ‘justice’ is derived from a Greek word “Dikaiosune.” The word “Dikaiosune” is used in a wider sense in comparison with the general term justice. But Plato has developed his own theory of justice after he studied the theories of justice forwarded by Cephalus, Thrasymachus, Glaucon and Polemarchus. Plato advocates the theory of justice with the help of his ideal state. According to Barker, “the will to concentrate on one’s own sphere of duty and not middle with the sphere of others; and it’s habitation, therefore, it is in the heart of every citizen who does his duty in his appointed place” Plato tries to embody the true liberty. 

Justice is the condition of every other virtue of the state. Justice rests with specialization of functions and concentration on duty. Justice consists in the citizen’s sense of duty. Plato’s conception of justice gives importance on the performance of duty by the individuals toward the state. Plato’s justice does not embody a conception of right but of duties though it is identical with true liberty. In fact, justice is the true condition of the individual and of the state. Philosopher king of the platonic ideal state is a man of reason, where he derived the individual soul in to three elements. 

They are:

(i) Reason.

(ii) Spirit.

(iii) Appetite. 

These three elements keeps the individual within their proper bounds. In the ideal state justice is the bond which unites men in the state. Every individual must perform their duties according to their merit and concentrate on efficient performance of responsibility only. Then justice will automatically prevail in society. 

6. Discuss Aristotle’s concept of justice. 

Ans : The whole Greek Political thought centred round the conception of justice. Like other Greek Political thinkers Aristotle also stressed on great importance of the justice in the state. 

According to him justice is a related term. It is related with both persons and things. He defines, “Justice as a relation between persons as well as things and just distribution. It embracers all persons and things.” 

Kinds of Justice: Aristotle classified justice in to four classes. 

They are:

(i) Complete justice: It is concerned with moral virtues and excellence of character of individual. It depends upon the moral virtues. It is said that if the people strictly adhere to law, there will be complete justice. 

(ii) Particular justice: Proper distribution of wealth and honour is called particular justice. 

According to Aristotle, particular justice is mainly concerned with the distribution of offices. 

(iii) Distributive justice: According to Aristotle distribute justice consists in proper allocation of award to everyone according to his worth or ability. 

(iv) Corrective justice: It is a negative conception. According to this justice one should do his allotted work one should not interfere with other works. 

Aristotle’s conception of justice is not free from criticism. It is criticized by various writers and termed it as unsuitable for modern big state. 

29. Write the two major concepts of justices in the context of history of idea?

Ans : In the History of clears, there are two major concept of justice. 

These are as follows: 

(a) Numerical Justice of law: It gives equal share to all Bentham said ‘Every one’ is to counts for one unequal would be treated as equal. When the holding of an office did not call for any special knowledge or qualification, Modern liberal democracies are also based on this principle. Rich or poor, illiterate of literate employ can all have the right of single vote. 

(b) Geometrical concentric of Justice: Plato and Aristotle favoured this concept of Justice. It is a concept of proportionate equality. It means equal share to equals and the equal to unequals. According to Aristotle illitershould has distributed any among those who have the capacity for plute playing. 

Numerical Justice is sometimes called democratic Justice and geometric Justice is equatated with aristocratic Justice.

PART – II: Rights


1. What do you mean by rights in political science?

Ans : Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement, Rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. 

2. What are the three types of rights?

Ans : There are three types of human rights like civil-political, socio-economic, and collective-developmental. 

3. What are right of a citizen?

Ans : The rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenship, especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the US Constitution and by subsequent acts of Congress, including civil liberties, due process, equal protection of the laws, and freedom from discrimination. 

4. What is the difference between civil rights and political rights?

Ans : In simplest terms, the difference between a human and civil rights is why you have them. Human rights arise simply by being a human being. Civil rights, on the other hand, arise only by virtue of a legal grant of that right, such as the rights imparted on American citizens by the U.S. Constitution. 

5. What are examples of civil rights?

Ans : Examples of civil rights include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to government services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities. 

6. Are civil rights the same as human rights?

Ans : In simplest terms, the difference between a human and civil right is why you have them. Human rights arise simply by being a human being. Civil rights, on the other hand, arise only by virtue of a legal grant of that right, such as the rights imparted on American citizens by the U.S. Constitution. 

7. What are examples of civil rights violations?

Ans : Civil rights include the ensuring of people’s physical and mental integrity, life, and safety, protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, sextual orientation, national origin, colour, age, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion, and disability; 

8. What are legal rights?

Ans : Legal rights refers to rights according to law. It exists under the rules of some particular legal system. Following is a case law defining the term legal right. 

9. What is the theory of rights?

Ans : Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. 

10. What is a constitutional right definition?

Ans : A liberty or right whose protection from governmental interference is guaranteed by a constitution. 

11. What are rights in government?

Ans : Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement. 

12. What are rights and responsibilities?

Ans : A right is a freedom that is protected, such as the right to free speech and religion. A responsibility is a duty or something you should do, such as recycling or doing your homework. Voting is both a right and a responsibility. 

13. What are the most important constitutional rights?

Ans : Here are just some of the important, often-discussed provisions and where you can find them in the Constitution: freedom of speech, press, and religion: First Amendment, right to bear arms: Second Amendment, right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures: Fourth Amendment. 

14. What rights does the Constitution protect?

Ans : The Bill of Rights of the US Constitution protects basic freedoms of United States citizens. The Bill of Rights protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the right to keep and bear arms, the freedom of assembly and the freedom to petition. 


1. What was the historical theory of rights? Mention its importance. 

Ans : The historical theory of rights emphasises that rights are the product of history. They have their origin in customs which one possessed practical social utility and passed on from one generation to another, ultimately having been recognised as inherent claims or rights. 

Importance: It is true that most of the rights of the people are a result of the long established customs. 

2. Define ‘Natural Rights’, ‘Right of Property’ and ‘Right to Freedom’. 

Ans : The ‘Natural Rights are those rights which have been given the individuals by nature or God. In fact, these rights are basic natural and essential for the human beings, without which they cannot live and cannot progress. The right to life, right to liberty and the right to property in the state of nature are the natural rights. 

‘Right to property’ is another right of citizen. Property provides citizens with incentives to work to achieve their desired goals. It provides conditions of comfort to living in which men are able to perform their assigned tasks. Property may be immovable like house and farms and movable like cash, jewellery and furniture. 

‘Right to freedom’ is an another important right to a citizen. This right means freedom of speech, thought, expression, process of assembly or association with out arms. Right to freedom has certain restrictions. It is exercised within the frame work of public order, morality, decency and unity of the country. 

3. Mention any two kinds of rights. 

Ans : The two kinds of rights are mentioned below:

(a) Political Rights: In the modern times, in most of the countries of the world the democratic form of government is functioning. In the democratic government the citizens get many political rights. The political right to contest elections, the right to hold public offices, the right to form political parties and right to equality before law. The political right are of great importance. 

(b) Economic Rights: The modern state give many economic rights to its citizens. Some of the economic rights are the right to work the right to adequate wages, the right to property, etc. For the development and progress of the people economic right have much importance. 

4. Example any two socio economic right. 

Ans : The two socio-economic rights demanded by the people are:

(a) Right to adopt the profession of one’s liking: In the modern welfare state every citizen gets the fundamental right that he can adopt profession of his liking. Neither government nor any individual can compel any person to adopt any profession. 

(b) Right to work: In the modern world no person can live without doing some work by which he earn his livelihood. It is duty of every state provide work to all its citizens. Since every responsible state shoulders the responsibility of making is citizens morally and materially fit for the struggle of like. It has to see that they have work enough to give them a decent living. 

5. Define Right to life. Describe any two political rights of a citizen. 

Ans : The two political rights of citizens are as follows:

(i) Right to vote: Right to vote is the most important political right. It is through the exercise of this right that citizens in democracy taka in the government formation of the country. Criminals, bankrupts, lunatics and aliens are not given the right to vote. In most of the country. Criminals, bankrupts,lunatics and aliens are not given the right to vote. In most of the modern state, every adult person man or woman is given the right to vote. 

(ii) Right to contest Electrons: Every voter is normally given the right to be elected to the local bounds and state or central legislature certain states sometimes impose certain resonations for being elected to the legislative bodies. This right is given equally to all citizen of the state. 

6. Define rights? Distinguish between a right and claims. 

Ans : Definition of right:

(i) ‘Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can reek to be himself at his best.’ H.J. Lasi.

(ii) A right is a claim recognized by the society and enforced by the state.’ – Bosanquet. 

(iii) “Right means one’s capacity of taking work from other person and prohibiting them from doing same work.”

Difference between Right and claims: 

(i) It is a demand back ed by Personal coercive of the individual. (i) It is a claim backed by disinterested desired. 
(ii)Being an unreasonable demand it may not be accepted by the society. (ii)It received recognition. 
(iii)It aims at only personal welfare. (iii)It involves the good of all. 

7. Mention the Concept of Rights which has been used broadly in Political Theory.

Aas : The Political theory, the concept of right has been broadly used in there different ways.

These are as follows:

(a) To describe a type of institutional arrangement in which interests are guaranteed legal protection, choices are guaranteed legal effect, or goods and opportunities are provided to individuals on a guaranteed basis.

(b) To express the justified demand that such institutional arrangements should be set up, maintained and respected.

(c) To characterise a particular sort of justification for this demand, namely a fundamental moral principle that accords importance to certain basic individual values such as equality, autonomy or moral agency.

The first use is understood as legal right, while the other two as moral or natural right.


1. Give an account of classification of rights.

Ans : Rights are classified into two types:

(a) Moral Right: Rights which we have due to one moral sense are known as moral rights e.g. our parents have a right to be helped by their children when they are old. Moral rights cannot be demanded or it cannot be forced. If moral rights are violated no legal action can be taken.

(b) Legal Rights: A legal right is her right recognised by the states. Legal right are the product of law. Legal right, are always enforceable.

The legal Rights can be divided further in to three rights:

(i) Civil Rights: Civil Rights are given only to the citizens of the country like right to life and educational right

(i) Political Rights: Political rights are given only to the citizens of the country like right to vote, rights to contest any election like legislative, local bodies, rights to petition come under this rights. 

(iii) Economic Right:

  • Right to work. 
  • Right to rest. 
  • Right to an adequate standard of living including food clothing and housing. 
  • Right for buy own property in any part of the country.
  • Right to take jobs any where in the country etc. 
  • Right to physical and mental health. 
  • Right to social security. 
  • Right to social security. 
  • Right to education.

2. Write a note on natural rights theory. 

Ans : The theory of natural rights originates in the seventeenth century, and remains the dominant theory in the eighteenth century rejects the idea of natural hierarchy and the notion of absolute. It found its ramifications in the writings of Locke who rejects the idea of divine right of kings and natural arrangement of political authority, and instead advances the notion of human equality. Locke’s theory rests on a firm and explicit moral relationship between the individual and god. 

From the laws of nature, individuals derive and enjoy the natural rights to life, liberty and property. Everyone has an equal right to one’s natural freedom. Locke, unlike Hobbes, regards natural rights as derived from natural law. Besides rights, an individual has duties derived from the laws of nature. The most important being the right to hold others responsible for the breach of law and to punish offenders. 

In Locke’s theory, natural rights have three political implications. Those are: 

(i) since human beings derive and equal rights under the law of nature. None are under the political authority of another without his consent. 

(ii) the maintenance and protection of these rights is the primary function of the government. 

(iii) rights set and define the limits of the government authority. 

Locke also shows that parental authority like political authority has its limits. According to the Christian dictum that children have to obey their parents, Locke argues that his obedience is temporary, till the child becomes morally responsible. The rights of parents are natural not because they have given birth to their children as the patriarchists contended but because it is their right to take care of them and educate them till they become independent; a right could be revoked in case parents neglect their duties. 

The natural rights theory provides a powerful case for the existence of rights. First, it simply assumes that human beings are born with these rights which are as intrinsic as the colour of one’s skin or our innate, inalienable and inviolable features. McCloskey (1976: 127-128) attempts to identify the human features-rational, autonomous, emotional, imaginative and creative to support the contention that human rights are self-evident. 

The assertion that rights are inalienable is done so as to protect the characteristics of human rationality. It acknowledges that a person is the best judge of his own interests, important at a time when an idea of individuality, autonomy, personal choice and equality has to gain prominence to dilute and eliminate the hierarchical feudal mindset. It is for this reason that rights are described as indefeasible in order to restrain the individual from harming others. Second, natural rights are absolute and non-negotiable. Third, natural rights are pre-social and are not an outcome of any social organisation, historical growth or political authority. The reverse is true since political society is created to recognise, protect and enforce them. 

3. What do you understand autonomy and rights. Discuss briefly. 

Ans : Some have tried to derive rights from the idea of autonomy associated with the moral philosophy of Kant. Accordingly, rights are viewed as necessary preconditions for moral thinking and are not the fundamental principles of our moral system. Though autonomy and respect for human agency are freedom-related values, they regard moral autonomy in a more positive light, as something to be nurtured and attained rather than being taken for granted in human life. Theories like that of Rawls and Dworkin claim to revive Kantian liberalism and reject utilitarianism in its description of a just society. They advocate a moral theory that stresses the equal worth and moral autonomy of all human beings and then use this theory to justify a political society that recognizes rights of autonomy and equality. This is called rights-based liberalism, for it invokes the moral idea of right in order to define and legitimatise political authority and power. 

It uses rights as a theoretical medium for expressing and requiring respect for each individual’s freedom and equality. Many of these theories also like liberty with equality as is clearly discernible in Rawls’s theory. Dworkin recommends that if utilitarian calculations accommodate the principle of equal concern then it has to leave out what he calls ‘external preferences’, i.e., preferences that some people have about the treatment that others should receive. He described rights as ‘moral trumps’. This conception of liberalism explicitly incorporates moral ideas in its foundations and welcomes the idea that the liberal state has a certain kind of moral role to play in the community. So far as it must respect and promote individual rights while simultaneously remaining committed to toleration. 

4. What do you understand term “Rights”? Mention its features. 

Ans : Features/Nature of Rights:

(a) Rights exist only in society. These are the products of social living. 

(b) Rights are claims of the individuals for their development in society. 

(c ) Rights are recognized by the society as common claims of all the y. 

(d) Rights are rational and moral claims that the people make on their society. 

(e) Since rights are here only in society, these cannot be exercised against the society. 

(f) Rights are to be exercised by the people for their development which really means their development in society by the promotion of social good. Rights can never be exercised against social good. 

(g) Rights are equally available to all the people. 

(h) The contents of rights keep on changing with the passage of time. 

(i) Right are not absolute. These always bear limitations deemed essential for maintaining public health, security, order and morality. 

(j) Rights are inseparably related with duties. There is a close relationship between them “No Duties No Rights. No Rights No Duties.” “If I have rights it is my duty to respect the rights of others in society”. 

(k) Rights need enforcement and only then these can be really used by the people. These are protected and enforced by the laws of the state. It is the duty of a state to protect the rights of the people. 

5. Write a brief note on nature of Rights. 

Ans : It is rather easy to identify as to what lies at the roots of rights on the basis of what has been hitherto discussed. The nature of rights is hidden in the very meaning of rights. Rights are not only claims, they are in the nature of claims. Rights are claims but all claims are not rights. Rights are those claims which are recognised as such by the society. Without such recognition, rights are empty claims। Society is organised in character and an individual obviously cannot have any right apart from what the society concedes. Rights are social. 

They are social in the sense that they emanate from society at any given point of time, they are social because they are never and in fact can never be, anti-social, they are social because they had not existed before the emergence of society and they are social because they can not be exercised against the common good perceived by the society. Rights, as social claims, create conditions necessary for the development of human personality. These conditions are created, they are made and they are provided. The state, distinct  from society, creates and provides and makes these conditions. The state, by creating conditions, makes rights possible. It, therefore, lays down a ground where rights can be enjoyed. It is not the originator of rights, but is only the protector and defender of rights. It is not within the jurisdiction of the state to ‘take’ away the rights of the individual. If the state fails to maintain rights in the sense of conditions necessary for individual’s development it forfeits it’s claim to their allegiance. 

Rights are response to the society where they exist. The contents of rights are Very largely dependent upon the custom and ethos of society at a particular time and place. As the society and it’s conditions change, so change the contents of rights. It is in this sense, that we say that rights are dynamic. No list of rights which are universally applicable for all times to come can ever be formulated. 

Rights are responses to what we do. They are in the nature of ‘returns’ or ‘rewards’. They are given to us after we have given something to the society, to others. It is after, owing, that we ‘own’. Rights are not only the returns of our duties, but also they correspond to what we perform. Rights are the rewards given to us by others in response to the performance of our duties towards others. 

Rights are not absolute in character. The welfare of the individuals as members of society lies in a compromise between their rights as individuals and the interest of the society to which they belong. A list of rights must acknowledge the fact that there cannot be such a thing as absolute as uncontrolled, for that would lead to anarchy and chaos in society. 

6. What are the economic rights. Explain

Ans : Right to Work: Right to work is essential for the good living and the fulfilment of the various needs of the person. Every modern state tries to give the right to work to its people. 

Right to Adequate Wages: A person has the right not only to work but also the right to be paid Adequate wages for his labour. For this purpose. state fixes minimum wages according to the quality and quantity of work. Wage is always regarded as a reward for the work done. 

Right to Property: Right to property is as natural to man as family. It means the right to retain the surplus wealth or money and purchase immovable or movable properly. Property contributes towards the growth of culture and civilization. Right to properly is a natural corollary of right to adequate wages. 

Right to Rest and Leisure: After working for some hours and days man needs rest because he is not a machine which can work continuously. Therefore, the state gives the right to rest and leisure which enables the workers to protect their health. For this purpose state fixes working hours, makes provisions for a break or interval between the working hours, establishes rest houses etc. 

Right to Economic and Social Security: In a modern welfare state, citizens are also given the right to economic and social security. State provides security in case of old age, sickness, unemployment etc. Most of the states give old age pensions. Unemployment allowances, benefits of provident fund, financial helps during illnesses or accidents or natural calamities. 

Right to fixed hours of work: The modem state also fixes the hours of work per day. No one can be forced to work for more than fixed hours. 

7. What is civic rights? Mention any four civic rights. 

Ans : These are the rights which are necessary for an individual to lead a happy, contented and progressive life in society. 

Some of the civic rights are given below: 

(a) Right to Life: Right to Life is a basic civic right. It implies the protection of the life of a citizen against an assault by other citizens and against an external aggression. The right to life carries with it the right to use force in self-defence. One may even kill another person in self-defence provided the force used is necessary and reasonable. Certain philosopher even challenge the validity of capital punishment on the basis of this right. 

(b) Right to Liberty: This implies that every citizen has complete freedom of action within the limits of law. One should not be arrested,imprisoned,detained or deported without proper cause and a fair and open trial in a court of law. 

(c ) Right to Family: It means that a person has a right to marry, to beget children and to be protected in the enjoyment of his family life. 

(d) Freedom of Conscience: Citizens in a modern secular state enjoy the right to profess, practice and propagate any religion. The state takes the responsibility regulate the relations between man and man and not those between man and God. The recognition of this right by a state pre-supposes complete religious toleration. 

(e) Freedom of Speech: This is one of the most valued rights in a democratic state. A citizen should have freedom to express his views in any way he likes. He may openly criticize the ruling authority. 

In the absence of this right, democracy loses its spirit and essence. According to prof. Laski, “man who are prevented to think as their experience teaches them will soon cease to think at all. “Men who cease to think cease also to be, in any genuine sense, citizens. 

(f) Freedom of Association: Formation of Association is instinctive to man. The social instinct impels him from within to lead a gregarious life. It is, therefore, in the best interests of human beings that they should be allowed to form associations, groups or organizations for the pursuit of common purposes. 

(g) Freedom of Press: Freedom of speech and press aims at one and the samething. This right implies that a citizen should have the liberty to publish his opinion in a book, journal, pamphlet or newspaper. The press has been called the watchdog of democracy. It criticizes the ruling authority and keeps alive to its flaws and failings. 

Although the rights to speech, association and press are the core of civil liberties yet they have not been guaranteed by any state in absolute terms. They have been restricted in various respects. These tights are generally denied to those who try to overthrow the existing social order by preaching violence and breach of law. 

PART – III: Gender


1. How do you define gender?

Ans : The World Health Organization states, refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women,” and “gender’ refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for man and woman.”

2. Is gender determined by biology?

Ans : In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth.  the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, the type of gonads, the sex hormones, the internal genitalia. 

3. What does gender mean in psychology?

Ans : Gender is generally conceived as a set of characteristics or traits that are associated with a certain biological sex (male or female). The characteristics that generally define gender are referred to as masculine or feminine. The formation of gender is controversial in many scientific fields, including psychology. 

4. What is the type of gender?

Ans : Traditionally, most societies have only recognized two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, masculine and feminine, that correspond with the biological sexes of male and female. People who are non-binary (or genderqueer) have gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine. 

5. How do you define gender?

Ans : The World Health Organization states, sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women, and ‘gender’ refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. 

6. Who determines the gender of a child?

Ans : The “default sex,” in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female-like. This is because of the presence of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome, also known as the SRY gene. Thus, male mammals typically have an X and a Y chromosome (XY), while female mammals typically have two X chromosomes (XX).   

7. What is Gender?

Ans : As an example, we consider Spanish, a language with two noun genders: masculine and feminine. Among other lexical items, the definite article changes its form according to the gender of the noun. In the singular, the article is: el (masculine), and la (feminine). 

8. What is a hijra third gender?

Ans : Hijras are officially recognized as third gender in countries in the Indian subcontinent, being considered neither completely male nor female. 

9. What are gender roles?

Ans : A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviours and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality. 

10. What do you mean by gender equality?

Ans : UNICEF says gender equality means that women and men, and girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protections. It does not require that girls and boys, or women and men, be the same, or that they be treated exactly alike. 

11. What is gender discrimination definition?

Ans : Gender inequality is the idea and situation that men and women are not equal. Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. It arises from differences in gender roles. 

12. What are the differences between male and female?

Ans : Often only the mean or mean differences between sexes is given. This may or may not preclude overlap in distributions. For example, most males are taller and stronger than females, but an individual female could be taller and stronger than an individual male. 

13. What are feminine qualities?

Ans : While the defining characteristics of femininity are not universally identical, some patterns exist: gentleness, empathy, sensitivity,caring, sweetness, compassion, tolerance, nurturance, deference, and succorance are traits that have traditionally been cited as feminine. 

14. Is male a gender?

Ans : Although a person’s sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a person’s gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross culturally according to what things are considered to be masculine or feminine. 

15. What do you mean by feminism?

Ans : Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes. 

16. What is mean to be masculine?

Ans : Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviours, and role associated with boy and men. As a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across different cultures and historical periods. 

17. What is the meaning of gender mainstreaming?

Ans : Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and man of any planned policy action, including legislature and programmes, in all areas and levels. Mainstreaming essentially offers a pluralistic approach that values the diversity among both man and woman. 

18. What is masculinity associated with?

Ans : Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviours, and roles associated with boys and men. Traits traditionally viewed as masculine in Western society include strength, courage, independence, violence, and assertiveness. 

19. What is the most common gender?

Ans : Therefore parents genetically disposed to produce males tend to have more than average numbers of grandchildren born to them. Therefore the genes for male-producing tendencies spread, and male births become more common. As the 1:1 sex ratio is approached, the advantage associated with producing males dies away. 

20. Is gender an identity?

Ans : Gender identity is the personal sense of one’s own gender. Gender identity can correlate with assigned sex at birth, or can differ from it. All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of the formation of a person’s social identity in relation to other members of society. 

21. What is gender dichotomy?

Ans : However, the sex/gender distinction, also known as the Standard Model of sex/ Gender, is criticised by feminists who believe that there is undue emphasis placed on sex being a biological aspect, something that is fixed, natural, unchanging, and consisting of a male/female dichotomy. 

22. What is a social dichotomy?

Ans : In biology, a dichotomy is a division of organisms into two groups, typically based. 


1. What called gender? How is gender determined?

Ans : Gender expression (also called,” gender presentation”) means how a person dresses, looks, and acts, in ways that might affect how other people view their gender. Someone who wears men’s clothes and acts in a masculine way has a male gender expression. 

Chromosomal sex is determined at the time of fertilization. A chromosome from the sperm cell, either X or Y, fuses with the X chromosome in the egg cell. Gonadal sex refers to the gonads, that is the testis or ovaries, depending on which genes are expressed. 

2. What is gender discrimination? Briefly discuss the types of gender discrimination. 

Ans : Gender Discrimination is the type of discrimination which is based on the gender of the person. Usually women are treated differently and unequal than men in their education, career, economic advancement and political influences. It is a common type of discrimination that is happen-ing throughout the world, even in the developed countries. 

The question of concern is why does this discrimination happen? The root cause seems to be the culture. It is through culture that we come to know who men and women are and what kind of relationship do the two have with each other. According to culture, the work of a woman is home and the work of a man is community. Women are not just considered to be physically weak, but are considered to be weak in everything when compared with men and that’s how the society treats them.

The sexual discrimination exists in many different types all over the world. Most common types that we experience on daily basis have been discussed below:

(a) Discrimination in Education: Women are treated unequally when it is matter of admissions, recruitments, financial aid, grading, housing, classroom assignment, counselling, guidance, academic programs, vocational education, and discipline. 

(b) Discrimination in Employment: This is a major problem women have to face in workplace. They are deprived of the basic rights at the workplace and often harassed by the co-workers. Just because they are females, they are not assigned jobs which they are capable of doing. Even bosses sometimes treat women unfairly. In many workplaces, women are a minority. Therefore, females are always under the pressure from the work environment. Sometimes, even customers Target the female employees.

(c) Wage Discrimination: There have been many situations in which men and women perform the same type of work and they probably have the same education too, but still employers don’t give equal pay for women. This difference is merely because of gender inequality. 

Maternity and Pregnancy Discrimination at Work: In case a woman is pregnant, some employers do not even like to interview them. Many females at their workplace hide their pregnancy just because of the fear of getting fired. Sometimes, they are even demoted. 

3. Write a easy on gender based division of labour. 

Ans : Division of labour on the basis of sex has been a universal feature of the human society. Women and men have been assigned different works and responsibilities everywhere. This division of labour is of more right and structured type especially in ancient and traditional societies. In most of the traditional societies, child rearing and home maintenance are normally regarded as woman’s task, while hunting and fighting are always reserved for man. Sexual division of labour seems to have a biological base especially in simple primitive societies. Thus, men are generally given tasks that require vigorous physical activity such as hunting, fishing in the deep sea, or herding. Women, on the other hand, are assigned tasks that do not require much of physical strength and can be performed close to home. Thought this is a typical scene found in most of the societies, there is great cross-cultural variation in the kind of labour that is considered appropriate for men and women. 

Cooking the manufacture and repair of clothing, pottery making, and fire making and tending are predominantly female activities। Agriculture, on the contrary, which includes the preparation, planning, and cultivation of the soil, is an activity shared almost equally by the two sexes. It provides a cross-cultural comparison of the division of labour based on sex. 

(a) Cross-cultural variations in division of labour by sex: It makes it clear that there is great cross-cultural variation in the tasks that are considered appropriate for men and women. In many societies, the division of labour is completely different from that of the one that we find in the modern societies. The general tendency, however, is for man to be responsible for tasks involving strenuous effort or great hard work and for women to be responsible for tasks that can be performed near the home. Gender roles are not inborn. 

Further, gender roles are not wholly determined by a society’s relationship to its environment. Although all hunting-gathering societies sent men out to hunt while women cared for the home, in early agrarian societies there was a less rigid division of labour. 

(b) Influence of culture on gender roles: The cross-cultural study of division of labour by sex makes it evident that gender roles are highly influenced by culture. Male and female roles are not necessarily fixed for all time even though the relationship of earlier societies to their natural environment often required a division of labour by sex. They can and do change as cultures adapt to new environmental and social conditions. 

(c) The Impact of Technology: As a result of advances in technology, the greater strength of males becomes less important, and it makes less sense to maintain the earlier divisions of labour. In fact, the modern societies have demanded more involvement of women in a broader range of tasks. This has given rise to a demand that women should not be excluded from access to any roles, including those that are associated with hight levels of power and prestige. 

4. Is sex the same as gender? What is the difference between male and female?

Ans : The distribution between sex and gender differentiates a person’s biological sex (the anatomy of an individual’s reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person’s gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one’s own. 

Sexual dimorphism is a term for the phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Direct sex difference follow a bimodal distribution. For example, most males are taller and stronger than females, but an individual female could be taller and stronger than an individual male. 

5. What does being masculine mean? What are the characteristics of masculinity?

Ans : Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviours, and roles associated with boys and men. As a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. 

However, alongside this trend of men embracing their softer side seems to be an omission, dismissal, and (at times even) demonising of traditionally masculine or male traits, e.g. protectiveness, competitiveness, aggressiveness, assertiveness, sexual appetite, deference to truth over feeling, passion, confidence. 

6. What is femininity and masculinity? What is masculinity and femininity culture?

Ans : The terms masculinity and femininity refer to traits or characteristics typically associated with being male or female, respectively. In other words, people can be classified as either masculine or feminine. A masculine culture is made up of male gender roles that focus on values such as money, success, and competition. These cultures consists of a need for power, assertiveness, dominance, and wealth and material success.


1. Briefly explain the distinctions between sex and gender. 

Ans : The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person’s biological sex (the anatomy of an individual’s reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person’s gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one’s own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity). In this model, the idea of a “biological gender” is an oxymoron. The biological aspects are not gender-related, and the gender-related aspects are not biological. In some circumstances, an individual’s assigned sex and gender do not align, and the person may be transgender. In other cases, an individual may have biological sex characteristics that complicate sex assignment, and the person may be intersex. 

The sex and gender distinction is not universal. In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some dictionaries and academic disciplines given them different definitions while others do not. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distribution has to be made through context. On occasion, using the English word gender is appropriate. 

Among scientists, the term sex differences (as compared to gender differences) is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual selection. Anisogamy, or the size differences of gametes (sex cells), is the defining feature of the two sexes. By definition, males have small, mobile gametes (sperm); females have large and generally immobile gametes (ova or eggs). In humans, typical make or female sexual differentiation includes the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, the type of gonads (ovary or testes), the balance of sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen), the internal reproductive anatomy (emg. uterus or prostate gland), and the external genitalia (e g. penis or vulva). People with mixed sex factors are intersex. People whose internal psychological experience differs from their assigned sex are transgender, transsexual, or non-binary. 

The consensus among scientists is that all behaviors are phenotypes-complex interactions of both biology and environment-and thus nature vs. nurture is a misleading categorization. The term sex differences is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual selection. For example, the human “sex difference” in height is a consequence of sexual selection, while the “gender difference” typically seen in head hair length (women with longer hair) is not. Scientific research shows an individual’s sex influences his or her behavior. 

Sex is annotated as different from gender in the Oxford English Dictionary, where it says sex “tends now to refer to biological differences”. The World Health Organization (WHO) similarly states that “sex’ refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women” and that “male’ and ‘female’ are sex categories’. 

The American Heritage Dictionary (5th ed.), however, lists sex as both “Either of the two divisions, designated female and male, by which most organisms are classified on the basis of their reproductive organs and functions” and “one’s identity as either female or male,” among other definitions. 

2. Write a note on Dichotomy. 

Ans : Dichotomy, form the Greek word dikhotomos, ‘divided in two’, is used in social sciences to describe something that is divided into two opposing categories. One example is the so-called gender binary, where women and men are viewed as two categories with traits (masculine and feminine) that are opposites and mutually exclusive. With this perception of gender, there is no room for nuances or hybrids, and the model excludes individuals who identify themselves as neither women nor man. 

In a worldview characterised by dichotomies, it is common not only to see categories as opposites, but also to create hierarchies between them. This can be illustrated by means of the gender system theory, according to which each society creates and maintains a system in which women and men are assigned different tasks, roles and positions. The gender system is based on two Principles: separation of the sexes and make superiority. This is expressed in for example a gender-segregated labour market, where woman and man operate in separate sectors, areas such as health and human care have a large proportion of female workers, while for example construction is heavily make dominated. In addition, the things men do are considered more valuable, which is expressed in the observations that men earn more money than women and are also more likely to be found in powerful positions in society, for example as professors in academia and as chairs of corporate boards. 

Both ecofeminist and postcolonial researchers have shown how a worldview characterised by dichotomies has legitimised domination and oppression. Humankind’s dominance of nature, a patriarchal social order where women are subordinated to men, and the colonialism and racism when the white Europe has conquered other countries and ethnic groups. Throughout history, one part of each of these opposites (dichotomies) has been places above the other, so that association chains of super and subordination are formed. Men, white Europeans, humankind, reason and Western science have been assigned superior value and a central position whereas women, racialised people regardless of gender, animals, nature, bodies, emotions and local forms of knowledge have been subordinated and marginalised.

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