Concept & Debates in Political Theory Unit 4 Concept in Political Theory – III

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Concept & Debates in Political Theory Unit 4 Concept in Political Theory – III

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Concept in Political Theory – III

PART – I: Citizenship


1. Describe the meaning and definition of Citizenship. 

Ans : It is defined as full and equal membership of a political community. 

2. What is meant by full membership of community?

Ans : Full membership of a political community means that he/she enjoys all civil as well as political rights under the protection of the state in return of his/her loyalty to the state. 

3. What is meant by equal membership of citizenship?

Ans : Equal membership means that all citizens have got equal rights. nobody is discriminated on the basis of caste, religion, region and gender. 

4. Do tribals share the same equal rights?

Ans : Tribal people do not  share equal rights. Their forests are being cut by rich people for their own commercial interests. They build hotels, play-grounds and their own beautiful locales. and destroy the tribal people’s area of living. They have been rendered homeless and been rooted out from their traditional place. 

5. Do slumdwellers share the equal rights?

Ans : Slumdwellers don not share the equal rights. They come from poorer parts of the country like Bihar and UP and settle in towns to earn a living for them. So they migrate from their villages and land up in metropolitan areas like Delhi and Mumbai. These poor migrants do not get basic housing and they live in slums areas in one small room with no clean drinking water, sanita s they do not have access to basic necessities. 

6. How is Citizenship acquired? 

Ans : Citizenship can be acquired by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and inclusion of territory. 

7. What do you mean by Naturalised Citizenship?

Ans : Naturalised citizenship is a process of acquiring foreign citizenship. It is process by which foreigners acquire citizenship of any other state in which they wish to settle permanently. Naturalised citizenship is acquired after birth. 

8. What is global citizenship?

Ans : Global citizenship means granting human rights to every individual. 

9. Who was T.H. Marshall?

Ans : T.H. Marshall was a British Sociologist. 

10. Which rights are considered most important by T.H. Marshall in his idea of citizenship?

Ans : Civil Rights, Political Rights and Social Rights. 

11. What is meant by full membership of community?

Ans : Full membership of a political community means that he/she enjoys all civil as well as political rights under the protection of the state in return of his/her loyalty to the state. 

12. What is meant by equal membership of citizenship?

Ans : Equal membership means that all citizens have got equal rights. nobody is discriminated on the basis of caste, religion, region and gender. 

13. When the citizenship of a person in India can not be terminated? 

Ans : At the time of war. 

14. What are the three types of citizenship?

Ans : Three types of citizenship are:

(a) Grant, birth and descent.

(b) Register your baby.

(c) Dual citizenship. 

15. What is the importance of citizenship?

Ans : Civil knowledge is important because: Nigerian students understand the political and social context. They are aware of their social and economic rights, as well as political and civil rights. They also understand their roles, rights and responsibilities associated with citizenship. 

16. What do you mean by citizenship?

Ans : Citizenship is the status of being a citizen. If you have citizenship in a country, you have the right to live there, work, vote, and pay taxes! Citizenship comes from the Latin word for city, because in the earlier days of human governments, people identified themselves as belonging to cities more than countries. 

17. What is difference between citizen and citizenship?

Ans : Citizen is a person, citizenship is that persons status or relationship to a nation, state, or other body. A United States citizen is a person who enjoys citizenship in the United States, either by birth or naturalisation. 


1. Distinguish between citizens and aliens. 

Ans : Citizens and aliens are differ from the following:

(i) Citizens of a state are the permanent residents the state, on the other hand, aliens are temporary sojourners. While the citizen lives in the state through our his life. 

(ii) There are two classes of citizens of a country-natural and naturalised. On the other hand, no classification is made among the aliens. 

(iii) The citizen of a state enjoy the political rights but not the aliens. 

(iv) The citizen are bound to fulfil their obligations to the state but aliens or the foreigner has no obligations. 

(v) Every citizen is loyal to his own state but the aliens do not show the allegiance to state v

(vi) No citizen can be driven out from the state but a foreigner can be whenever his visa expire. 

2. What are the positive aspect of citizenship?

Ans : Citizenship implies four things:

(a) Civil and political rights which citizens enjoy under the protection of the state. 

(b) Duties which citizens render to the state including the duty to promote general welfare. 

(c) The allegiance, i.e. loyalty of the sentiment of patriotic devotion, and

(d) Contribution to wards the advancement and welfare of the whole community. 

3. What are the three dimensions of citizenship?

Ans : Bryan’s Turner holds that in contemporary times citizenship has three dimensions: 

(i) Civil Citizenship: Civil citizenship means equality of all citizens before law and the enjoyment of equal civil rights and liberty by them. 

(ii) Political Citizenship: Political citizenship means enjoyment of equal political rights by the citizens and equal opportunities for participation in the political process.

(iii) Social Citizenship: Social citizenship means equal guarantee of a basic minimum level of economic and social welfare. 

4. What is the Greek view of citizenship?

Ans : In the ancient times the Greek defined citizenship in terms of participation in the public life. Aristotle held that a citizen is a man who participated in public life by acting as jurors or taking part in deliberation in public assemblies or participated in the activities of polis (state). “Citizens are those share the civic life or ruling and being ruled in turn. “Slaves were not citizens and so way the case of persons who did not participate in the deliberative, legislative or judicial activity of the state. 

5. What are the Roman view of citizenship?

Ans : For the Romans, citizenship involved six privileges or services in the state: 

(i) Service in the army.

(ii) Voting in Assembly.

(iii) Eligibility to hold public life.

(iv) Legal right of action and appeal.

(v) Inter marriage.

(vi) Trading activity.

The Romans expanded the concept of citizenship to include under privileged aliens living in Rome traders and merchants. At the same time it was held that such citizenship enjoyed lesser priviledges than native citizens of Rome. The Roman rulers extended citizenship to loyal male inhabitants of the captured territories. However, the slaves were not accepted as citizens. The principle of equality of all citizens before law was accepted by the Romans. 

The concept of citizenship under event a change after the collapse of the Roman Empire. 

6. What are the different ways for acquiring citizenship?

Ans : (a) Marriage: A foreign woman may marry an Indian man and can then acquire Indian citizenship. In Japan the citizenship laws are entirely different. If a Japanese woman marries an Indian or any other nationality man, that man can acquire Japanese citizenship.

(b) Appointment as Government official: if a foreigner is appointed to a government office then he or she can acquire citizenship of the country, where she/he become government servent. 

(c) Purchase of Immovable Property: In some countries, if a person is allowed to buy immovable property, for example land or house, then he/she can acquire citizenship too. 

(d) By Acquisition of Territory: If a territory becomes part of another country, than all the people of that Territory acquire citizenship of the country. For example in 1961, when Goa was liberated from Portugal and become a part of India, all the people living in Goa become Indian citizens. 

7. How can a citizen loss his/her Citizenship?

Ans : A person may loss his or her citizenship in the following ways:

(a) Marriage: It is the most common reasons for loss of citizenship. If an Indian woman marries a foreigner, She can surrender her Indian Citizenship and acquire the citizenship of her husband’s country. 

(b) Residence: A person may decide to settle down in another country and he or she may therefore give up or lose the citizenship of his/her original state b

(c) Appointment as a Government official: When persons enter the service of a foreign governments they can lose their original citizenship. 

(d) Service in defence force: The defence forces are sensitive organs of a country. If persons take up service of foreign defence forces they can lose his original citizenship. 

(e) Criminal Acts: People’s citizenship may be taken a way from them, if they commit a serious crime, prove disloyal to the country or have acquired citizenship by fraud. 

8. What are the different qualities that make a good citizen? Explain Giving at least two examples? 

Ans : Qualities that make a good citizen: 

(i) You are a good citizen if you have cast your vote wisely, keeping the Interests of the country in mind. 

(ii) A Good citizen mast be conscious of his duties. 

(iii) A Good citizen must pay their taxes honestly regularly and contribute to the states funds 

(iv) A Good citizen obeys the laws of the state and respect the rights of his/her fellow citizen

(v) Besides high character, a good citizen should also be disciplined

Example: (a) Persons should be able to control their emotions and think of the consequences before they act. 

(b) Good citizen must help the state to function smoothly. In order to do all this, citizen should process a high moral character. 

9. Explain the role of a citizen in a democracy. 

Ans : Democracy means, government of the people, by the people and for the people. Hence it is the duty of every citizen to take active part in democracy and make it successful In democracy every body have political rights. In democracy the citizenship have the right to express himself/hersey. The people not only enjoy rights but perform certain duties. He has duties towards his nation, other citizen, his family, etc. to maintain the democracy the citizen must be conscious. To strengthen the democracy citizens most have clear idea about his own rights and others rights. 

10. What is citizenship at the commencement of the constitution?

Ans : At the commencement of the constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and 

(a) Who born in the territory of y, or 

(b) Either of whose parents was born in the territory of India, or 

(c) Who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less then five years immediately preceding such commencement  shall be citizen of India. 

11. What are the qualities of a good citizen?

Ans : The qualities of a good citizen are:

(i) You are a good citizen if you have cast your vote wisely keeping the Interests of the country in mind. 

(ii) The right to vote is also a sacred duty of every citizen but a good citizen is one who exercise the right to vote honestly, one should not be influenced by narrow loyalties of caste religion or region. 

(iii) Beside voting a good citizen must be conscious of his duties. 

(iv) We must all remember that the state spend large amounts of welfare activities for its citizens like hospitals, educational institutions, housing public transportation. So, it is the duty of every citizen to protect and maintain the public property. 

(v) Good citizens must pay their taxes honestly and regularly and contribute to the state’s fund only then can the state discharge it’s responsibilities affectively. 

(vi) A part from his a good citizen obeys the laws of the state and respect the rights of his/her fellow citizens. Good citizens must help the state to function smoothly. 

(vii) In order to do all this a citizen should possess a high moral character. 

(viii) A person who breaks laws or is anti social cannot be a good citizen. 

(ix) A Good citizen should also be disciplined. Persons should be able to control their emotions and think of the consequences before they act. 

12. What is the need for global citizenship?

Ans : We require global citizenship because:

(a) We are living in an interdependent so our problems are common. 

(b) World is affected by global problems like war, hunger, devastation and weapons and environmental problems. 

(c) We need an inclusive idea of citizenship so that everybody is respected only because they are humans. 

(d) Boundaries have been redefined by advancement in technology and communication. 


1. What do we mean by Citizenship?

Ans : More often than not, citizenship is seen in terms of a legal or formal status-having a specific nationality, holding a passport, and deriving from this status, entitlements and claims, rights guaranteed by the constitution, as well as specific duties and responsibilities which the constitution may lay down. The idea of citizenship, however, goes beyond the legal-formal framework to denote substantive membership in the political community. The commonly accepted definition of citizenship by T.H Marshall in Citizenship and Social Class (1950) as ‘full and equal membership in a political community’ holds the promise of equality and integration within the political community. 

While citizenship may be identified with an ideal condition of equality, it may actually remain elusive and fettered, as societies are always marked by hierarchies of class, caste, sex, race, and religion, rather than equality of status and belonging. Equality and integration as constitutive elements of citizenship give it. At different moments in history ‘becoming a citizen’ has involved either an extension of the status to more persons, or a liberatory dismantling of hitherto existing structures of oppression. 

The constituent elements of citizenship have been uncertain and often contradictory, making it difficult to outline a precise notion of citizenship. There are divergent responses. For example, to questions pertaining to whether rights or duties are the defining elements of citizenship, or whether the arena of politics or skate activities is its rightful domain as opposed to the spheres of culture, economy, and society. Again, there is no consensus whether citizenship is only a status or a measure of activity, or what is of primary significance for citizenship. 

The autonomy of the individual or the community and societal contexts that shape the needs of the individual. Even on questions pertaining the legitimate unit of citizenship identity, viz., the nation-slate, or the global civil society, there is a lock of consensus. In order to understand why these contradictions co-exist in the conceptual framework of citizenship, it is important to see them in terms of historically emergent strands. It is important, moreover, to explore these various strands in their specific historical contexts. Keeping in mind, however, that at each historical moment the earlier strands co-existed, keeping alive the tensions and uncertainties over the form and context of citizenship. 

2. Write a note on historical development of the concept of citizenship. 

Ans : The word ‘citizenship’ is derived from the Latin civis and it’s Greek equivalent polities, which means member of the polis or city. The manner in which citizenship is understood today as a system of equal rights, as opposed to privileges ascribed by conditions of birth, took roots in the French Revolution. With the development of capitalism and liberalism, the idea of the citizen as an individual bearing rights irrespective of her or his class, race, gender, ethnicity, etc., became further entrenched. Since the 1980s, globalization and multiculturalism have provided the contexts within which this notion of citizenship has been challenged. Thus, the development of ideas that surround the concept of citizenship can be attributed to four broad historical periods like (a) classical Greco-Roman period (4th century B.C. onwards), (b) late mediaeval and early modern period including the period of the French and American Revolutions, (c) the developments in the 19th century corresponding to the growing influence of liberalism and capitalism and (d) the contests over the form and substance of citizenship in the late 20th century with an increasing preoccupation with multiculturalism and community rights. 

Two dominant strands or traditions of rights and citizenship can be seen to have developed over these period: 

(a) civic republicanism, characterised (b), the ideas of common good, public spirit, political participation and civic virtue; and liberal citizenship with an emphasis on individual rights and private interests. The Marxists and feminists have criticised both these traditions as exclusionary and have suggested radical changes in the theory and practice of citizenship Similarly. cultural pluralists, radical pluralists and civil society theorists have offered alternative ways of thinking about citizenship and rights. 

3. How Aristotle define term citizenship? Explain briefly. 

Ans : Aristotle provides the earliest discussion of citizenship. Citizenship is of pivotal importance to him, as with his practical sense, he easily perceives that ideal governance is possible only by a law-based state, in which citizens abide by laws. 

Aristotle defines a state as a collective body of citizens. He rules out citizenship on the basis of residence since resident aliens and slaves also share a common residence with citizens but are not equipped to be citizens. Citizenship does not refer to the share that one has in civic rights, to the extent of being entitled to due and to be sued in the courts of law, for this right belongs to aliens as well. A citizen is one who enjoys the right to share in the deliberative or judicial offices, is able to exercise his political rights effectively and enjoys constitutional rights under the system of public law. For Aristotle. a citizen is one who shares power in the polis. He does not like Plato. distinguish y, ‘an active ruling group and a politically passive community’ (Wolin 1960:57). He stipulates that the young and the old could not be citizens for the former is immature and the latter infirm. 

He does not regard women as citizens since the lack the deliberative faculty and the leisure to understand the working of politics. A good citizen has the intelligence and the ability to rule and to be rule. He, however. shares with Plato the perception that citizenship is a privilege and a status to be inherited. Aristotle points out that in order to discharge the functions effectively citizens need to inhabit a polish that is compact and close-knit. Aristotle considers a good citizen as someone who could live in harmony with the constitution and has sufficient leisure time to devote himself to the tasks and responsibilities of city. He regards the existence of diversity of interests within a citizen body, as essential to the practice of citizenship for a good government could be attained only through a balance of these interests. A good citizen would possess virtue or moral goodness that would help in realizing  a selfless and co-operative civic life. Aristotle regards citizenship as a bond forged by the intimacy of participation in public affairs. The bond is moreover a relationship which is guarded with some jealousy by those privileged to enjoy. 

4. What are the essential qualities of a good citizen? Explain.

Ans : The essential qualities of a good citizen are:

(a) Sound Health: A good citizen is robust and healthy. He is careful about the rules of health and observes them scrupulously. Only a sound body has a sound mind. 

(b) Intelligence and Education: A good citizen is intelligent enough to shift good from bad and takes a dispassionate view of everything. He is educated. His education enables him to play his part in the society more successfully and usefully. 

(c) Self control and Self confidence: A good citizen is sober in temperament and exercises self-control in his public dealings. He possesses a disciplined character. He does not indulge in vicious habits. He is self confident without being vain. 

(d) Public Spirit: A good citizen is ready to take a living interest in all public affairs. He is prepared to fight for the rights of others and takes an public affairs. He is prepared to fight for the right of others and takes an active part in all public activities. 

(e) Self-sacrifice: A good citizen subordinates his self-interest to the interest of the community. He is imbued with the spirit of service and devotion to the common good. 

(f) Honest exercise of Franchise: A good citizen is supposed to be honest in the exercise of his vote. Self interest or sectional interest of the state, class, religion or community does not prejudice his judgement. 

(g) Sincere performance of Duties: A good citizen performs his duties sincerely and faithfully. He co-operates with the state officials in the discharge of their duties and makes due payment of taxes. 

(h) Right ordering of Loyalties: Good citizenship exists in the right ordering of Loyalties. A citizen is the member of various social groups, i.e., family, locality, city, state and the world. 

A citizen must sacrifice his narrower interest for the sake of wider interests. If there is a conflict between the interests of the family and the locality, one must sacrifice the interests of the family for the sake of the locality because the latter represents larger interests. 

5. What are the differences between citizen and Alien.

Ans : Citizen is one who is a permanent resident of a state, owes allegiance to the state, and enjoys certain civil and political rights. 

The main points of difference between a citizen and Alien are:

(a) A citizen is a permanent resident of a state, while an alien is a temporary resident, who comes for a specific duration of time as a tourist or on diplomatic assignment. 

(b) Citizens enjoy political rights and participate in the functioning of government, i.e., exercise their rights to vote, right to contest elections and right to hold public office. Aliens do not possess such rights in the state where they reside temporarily. They however enjoy certain civil rights, i.e., the rights to life, personal properly and religion. 

(c) Citizenship is the legal bond between the citizen and the state. It is a two way relationship between them. On one hand, the state maintains certain rights and privileges for the individuals, i.e., the citizens. On the other hand, the citizen owes allegiance to the state and performs a number of duties. 

Natural citizenship is determined by two Principles like:

(a) by blood or descent, 

(b) by the place of birth. 

Natural citizenship is automatically gained by birth while naturalised citizenship is acquired after fulfilling certain conditions laid down by the country Rules of acquiring citizenship vary from country to country. 

6. Hindrances to good Citizenship- Explain. 

Ans : There me various hindrances which do not allow the growth of good citizenship. Lord Bryce considers indolence, narrow self interest and party spirit as the main hindrances. In our country, ignorance, poverty, disease, communalism, caste system and social distinctions are equally great obstacles. 

These are discussed as follows: 

(a) Indolence: Indolence, indifference, apathy and inactivity are great enemies of good citizenship. Active interest in public affairs is the foundation stone of good citizenship. 

(b) Ignorance and Illiteracy: According to Laski, citizenship consists in the contribution of one’s instructed judgement to the public good. An ignorant and illiterate person is unable to make any such contribution. A citizen cannot have an enlightened interest in public affairs in the absence of education. Democracy degenerates into a mob rule in the hands of ignorant and illiterate people. 

(c) Poverty: Poverty is the root cause of all evils. Good citizenship cannot develop in a country where gross inequalities of wealth exist. Poverty stems the growth of personality and develops apathy and indifference towards public life. For building up the character of a nation, poverty must be rooted out and some economic minimum must be guaranteed to all. 

(d) Disease: I’ll health is a great weakness in a good citizen. Society expects the contribution of one’s mite to the public good. No contribution of any nature is possible if the citizens are unhealthy. 

(e) Party Spirit: Political parties and democracy go hand in hand. But political parties create rivalries and hostilities among the people. Sometimes the interests of the community are sacrificed for the sake of the party. 

PART – II: Civil Society and State


1. What is civil society in political science?

Ans : A civil society is comprised groups or organizations working in the interest of the citizens but operating outside of the governmental and for profit sectors. 

2. What are the elements of civil society?

Ans : Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary social relationships, civic and social organizations, and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society, as distinct from the force-backed structures of a state, the commercial institutions of the marketprofit sectors. 

3. Why is civil society important?

Ans : They fulfil important duties of checks and balances in democracies, they are able to influence the government and hold it accountable. Therefore, free and active civil societies are an indicator of a healthy participatory democracy. The charter calls on governments to guarantee and protect civil societies. 

4. What are the role of civil society?

Ans : Civil society organizations (CSOs) can play ab important role in enhancing transparency and good governance in developing countries by contributing to increased public debate on issues surrounding the formulation and implementation of government budgets as well as in supporting greater transparency of public revenues.  

5. Why do we need civil society?

Ans : Civil society organisations have an essential role as watchdogs of Governmental institutions. They follow the political processes alertly and interfere where needed. This is how they help ensure that defects are revealed. But while it is necessary to point out problems, solutions are needed too. 

6. What does civil society do?

Ans : The Role of Civil Society & NGOs. Civil society and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) have the power to influence individual behaviour and the institutions that are involved in healthy diet and physical activity promotion. 

7. What is a civil society group?

Ans : A civil society organisation is a group of people which operates in the community, in a way that is distinct from both government and business. Please see: Civil society. Non-governmental organisations. Social movement organisations. 

8. What is state according to Marxist? 

Ans : According to Marx, every state is a class dictatorship. For Marx, the basic units of society, the principal agents of change in human history are social classes, which are defined by their role in human production. Moreover, in every class-divided society, one or more of these classes rules the other classes. 

9. What are the main ideas of Jarl Marx’s theory?

Ans : Marx’s ideas have been thought of as responsible for socialist revolutions (like the Russian Revolution). Marx’s most popular theory was his ‘materialism’. He believed that religion, morality, social structures and other things are all rooted in economics. In his later life he was more tolerant of religion. 

10. What is the goal of Marxism? 

Ans : The aim of Marxism is to force upon the labourers in society an awareness of their exploitation by the bourgeoisie, the managerial class. Once the people become aware of this exploitation, they will be in the position to overthrow the oppressors and bring about a new type of society. 

11. What is the meaning of patriarchal society?

Ans : A patriarchal social system can be defined as a system where men are in authority over women in all aspects of society. In modern American culture and society, idea of patriarchy is not as accepted or practised as it once was decades ago. 

12. What is an example of a patriarchy? 

Ans : An example of a patriarchy society is where men hold the control and make all the rules and women stay home and care for the kids. An example of a patriarchy is when the family name comes from the man in the family. 

13. How does a patriarchal society work?

Ans : Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in role of political leadership, moral authority,social privilege and control of property. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage. 

14. How Civil society is composed?

Ans : Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary social relationships, civic and social organisations, and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society, as distinct from the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state’s political system), the commercial institutions of the market. 

15. What is the difference between the state of nature and civil society?

Ans : A state of nature is when there is no laws or controls, and life would be short, poor, and in solitude. Life in a civil society would have laws, political parties, justice, and a government. 


1. What are the major weaknesses of Marxism?

Ans : Max Lerner has pointed out six main errors of Marxian perspective of state and politics. 

These are:

(i) An underestimation of  the strength of capitalism. 

(ii) An overestimation of the revolutionary character of the protectorate. 

(iii) An underestimation of the strength of the middleless and the misreckoning of its direction. 

(iv) An underestimation of the strength of nationalism and national unity. 

(v) A faulty theory of human nature of politics. 

(vi) Misreckoning of proletarian dictatorship. 

2. Write the main features of the classical liberal view of the nature of state. 

Ans : The main features of the classical liberal view of the nature of state are as follows:

(i) State is the creation of human will: According to Hobbes and Locke, initially people live in a prehistoric state of nature. Later on the state was formed by them through a voluntary social contact. As such state originated as an agency or an organisation. A machine created by man for satisfying some of his needs. It is an artificial institution. 

(ii) State as a means for protection of natural rights: State was created by men for the protection of the rights of life, liberty and property of the individual. It acts only as an agency or organisation of the people. 

(iii) Protection function of state: The primary function of the state is to provide protection from external attacks as well as internal disorders. It acts for providing protection to the life, liberty and property of the people. 

(iv) Individual more important than state: Since state is the creation of man, its basis is human will. It can never be superior to its creator, i.e. individual. 

(v) State is a means: The state is a means to an end, the end being the individual state is to serve the security needs of the individual. 

(vi) State is a necessary evil: Classical liberal view of the state : State is a necessary evil because it is needed for providing protection to the life, liberty and property of the individual. Evil because it’s laws and actions always act as limitations upon individual rights and liberty. 

(vii) Society is a collection of individual: Social development means development of the individual who compose the society. Individual is the centre of all political life. He is fully capable of developing himself. 

(viii) State is basically a negative functioning state: It has little role in the economic role of the society. Unrestrained economic freedom, and free competition is essential for economic progress. 

3. What is Marxist perspective of state?

Ans : Marxian perspective offers a view of state, government, society and man which is totally different from the liberal perspective of the state. 

It regards state as an instrument of exploitation in the hands of the rich i.e. ‘haves’ by which they exploit the poor i.e. have nots. The government of the state is regarded as the handiwork of the rich, which uses state power for serving their interest as well as for exploiting the poor. Society is viewed as a set of two economic classes – the class of haves which owns the means of production or the rich, and the class of have nots or the poor which sell labour for livelihood. Man is regarded by the Marxian view as an economic man always engaged in the process of his material needs. 

Marxian perspective offers a view of the state on the basis of the laws of social development as explained by Karl Marx. 

Marxian perspective seeks to analyse state and politics on the basis of three philosophical doctrines. 

(i) Historical Materialism.

(ii) Economic Determination.

(iii) Class Struggle.

6. Explain the Liberal perspective and Marxist perspective of the state. 

Ans : Against the liberal view of state and politics as natural social institutions, the Marxist adopt a class view of state and politics. The liberal view regards state as the means for resolving conflict. The Marxian view on the other hand, regards state as the manifestation of class struggle which upholds and perpetuates the power of the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. Liberalism holds that struggle for power among groups is the case of all politics in all societies. Marxian view conceives of an ideal society free from class struggle, and the emergence of a class less and stateless society. The former accepts peaceful resolution of conflict through peaceful reconciliations on the basis of the authoritative allocation of valves, i.e. through the making and implementation of laws, policies, and rules by the state for the whole society. Marxian view advocates a revolutionary over through of the bourgeoise state and its associates, which is to be followed by the withering away of the state. 


1. What do you mean the Marxian perspective of the state. Explain the main features of marx’s perspective of state. 

Ans : Marxian perspective offers a view of state, government, society and man which is totally different from the liberal perspective of the state. It regards state as an instrument of exploitation in the hands of the rich i.e. ‘haves’ by which they exploit the poor i.e. have nots. The government of the state is regarded as the handiwork of the rich, which uses state power for serving their interest as well as for exploiting the poor. Society is viewed as a set of two economic classes — the class of haves which owns the means of production or the rich, and the class of have-nots or the poor which sell labour for livelihood. Man is regarded by the Marxian view as an economic man always engaged in the process of his material needs. 

Marxian perspective offers a view of the state on the basis of the laws of social development as explained by Karl Marx. 

Marxian perspective seeks to analyse state and politics on the basis of three philosophical doctrines. 

(i) Historical Materialism.

(ii) Economic Determination.

(iii) Class Struggle.

The main features of Marxian perspective of state are as follows:

(i) Marx regards state is an organised institution of the rich for exploiting the poor. 

(ii) State is  neither natural not an essential institution. 

(iii) Marxian view holds that all political relations in the state are dependent upon economic relation. 

(iv) Since politics has its roots in economics, the study of politics can be done only on the basis of the study of economic relations. 

(v) The economic relation which constitute the fundamental structure of society, has relations between the economic classes – i.e. ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. 

(vi) The conflict between the bourgeoise and the workers is the core of politics. 

(vii) The essence of man is sociality and man losses humanity without it. Man must be understood in the totality of his social relations. 

(viii) Society is a ever-growing and ever-evolving system. It’s final form of evolution is destined to be a class less and stateless society. 

(ix) The evolution of society get manifested through the eternally present class struggle between the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. 

(x) Class Struggle between the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’ determines the working of state. 

(xi) Marxian perspective advocates revolution as the means of political change. It stands for dictatorship of the proletariat for final liquidation of capitalism. 

(xii) Marxism regards the establishment of classless and stateless society as the final aim of social development. 

9. Give a critical appraisal to the Marxist theory of state.

Ans : The Marxist theory of the nature and functions of state proceeds on two basic assumptions. 

(a) The state wherever it exists, is an instrument of the dominant economic class, not of the entire society, and 

(b) The state, so long it exists, is an instrument of repression and exploitation of the dependent class. 

The critics have, however, pointed to some inadequacies of his framework. 

Those are as follow:

(i) No sharp division of society into class: The critics of Marxian argue that no where in society sharply divided into two economic classes-the haves and have-nots as the Marxist hold. 

They alleges that, for the economic point of view between the upper and lower classes these is a very large middle class and constant vertical social mobility through various strata. The Marxist theory of the elimination of the middle class with the advance of capitalism does not seem anywhere near realisation. On the contrary, the size of the middle class has been increasing with the advance of capitalism. 

(ii) Changing nature of capitalism: The critics also argue that the character of capitalism itself has undergone a fundamental transformation since the time of Marx, and that the Marxian analysis of the functions of the state in capitalist society is, therefore, no longer valid. 

This argument refers to several factors, such as: 

(a) increasing replacement of individual ownership by corporate ownership dispersed over thousands of shareholders. 

(b) actual shift of power from the owners industry to the professional, managerial classes and the technocrates etc. and 

(c) adoption of the model of the welfare state by most capitalist states, thus bridging the gap between the rich and the poor.

(iii) Inequalities power is socialist state: The critics of Marxism points out that the will to power, to suppress the antagonist and to secure larger advantages for oneself is so universal and so strong that even after the socialisation of the means of production when wide disparities in personal wealth are eliminated, disparities in power continue to govern the behaviour of man in society. 

(iv) Shift focus from base to super structure: Classical Marxism holds that politics, religion, morals, etc. Prevailing in any society at any point of time, are essentially shaped by the prevailing mode of production. Thus, the mode of production is treated as the base or structure while politics, religion, etc. are treated the super structure. The critics of Marxism believe that this is not validated by experience. 

Conclusion: However, in spirit of some theoretical shortcomings, the establishment of socialist societies on the Marxist model over a large part of the world led to immense development of material resources for human satisfaction. According to social needs, not for the private profit of a handful of capitalists accompanied by tremendous of development of science and technology for stepping up production, which secure freedom from want and freedom from ignorance. 

10. Define state? Discuss the difference between state and government. 

Ans : State is a territory with certain elements comprising population and International recognition. Government is an element of the state. It is based Politically either by elected or selected. 

The following are the differences between the state and government:

Firstly, The state is a permanent institution where as government is temporary. 

Secondly, The state has sovereign power, but the government has no sovereign power. 

Thirdly, State is formed with some population in a territory where those government concerned is formed by the representatives of the people. 

Fourthly, people have no right to go against the state, but they have right to do so against the government. 

Fifthly, The nature of the state is same throughout the word but government may be different state to state. 

11. Discuss the main theories regarding nature of state.

Ans : Political science studies state and defines it as the community of numerous persons, permanently occupying a different territory, possessing an organised government which is the instrument for the exercise of the sovereignty of the state. 

Several theories were propounded for exploiting the nature of state and the relationship between the individual and state. 

(i) The organic theory: The organic theory holds that the state is an organism and the individuals are the parts of the state. In an organism parts are parts of the whole. These develop only as parts of the organism. All the parts stand fully integrated with the whole organism is the whole. It is prior to its parts. It is the end and its parts are the means. Likewise state is also an organism. State is the whole. It is the end, individual are its parts. State is prior to the individual. The development of the individuals is possible only as parts of the state. They can live and develop only in the state. The organic theory gives total primacy to the state and makes the individuals dependents in the state. It is an extreme theory as it gives all importance to the state. 

(ii) The mechanistic theory: As against the organic theory, the machine view or the mechanistic theory holds that state is a machine. Like any other machine, state is created by the individuals for satisfying their needs. State is the means, individuals the end. Every machine is made by men for satisfying their needs. Likewise the purpose of the state is to serve the ends or needs of the individual. The machine theory gives all importance to the individual. It is again an extreme theory as it gives all importance to the individual. 

(iii) Justice Theory: The justice theory or the judicial view of the state advocates the view that state is a legal personality like a corporation or company organised under law. “State is a corporation and creation of law, an artificial personality with sovereign legal powers and functions.” This theory gives importance to law and views the state as a legal personality. 

(iv) Class Theory: State is a class institution is advocated by Karl Marx and his followers. It is held that state is a class institution that created by the rich for serving as the instrument of their will. It is an institution of the rich for exploiting the poor. It is neither natural not permanent and nor even a useful institution. It is an instrument of exploitation and coercion in the hands of the rich for exploiting the poor. Class theory stands for the end of the state and advocates the need for securing a classless and stateless society. 

12. Explain the liberal perspective of the nature of state. 

Ans : Liberal perspective of the nature of state can be discussed in two parts: 

(a) The classical Liberal individualistic view. and 

(b) The modern Liberal Democratic view. 

(a) The Classical Liberal (Individualistic) view of Nature of state: In its traditional form the liberal perspective regards the state as a machine and a creation of human will. State is viewed as an instrument for the protection of life, liberty and property of the individual through the maintenance of law and order. It acts for the dispensation of justice in cases of disputes among the people. The social contractualists like. Hobbes and Locke, the utilitarians like Bentham and J.S. Mill any several others advocate that the state was a mere means to the end. It was an agency or organisation entrusted with the function of providing security to the people from external and internal attacks and disorders. Classical liberal view of the nature of state upholds the ideology of individualisms which regards the state as a necessary evil and individual as the centre of all social life and activity. 

The main features of classical liberal view of the nature of state are as follows: 

(i) State is the creation of human will. 

(ii) State as a means for protection of natural rights. 

(iii) Protection function of state. 

(iv) Individual more important than state. 

(v) State is a means. 

(vi) State is a necessary evil. 

(vii) Society is a collection of individuals. 

(viii) State is basically a negative functioning state. 

The classical view holds that the state is a machine. It is the creation of human will; its purpose is to provide protection to the life, liberty and property of the people. It is a sovereign law-making agency or organisation created by human will; it is a negative functioning state with little role in the economic life of the society and that it is a necessary evil, a police state or laisses fair state. Classical liberal individualistic view gives all importance to the individual and regards the state as a machine designed by the individual for satisfying his needs and interests. 

(b) Modern liberal perspective of state : Positive Liberation: Modern liberal view of the nature of state regards it as a natural and positive institution. Primary function of the state is not only the maintenance of law and order and securing of protection but also the promotion of social welfare, social cohesion, national integration, and orderly social development. It is a natural institution and welfare state. It is to serve the common good or general interest of the society as a whole. Positive liberalism promotes the concept of welfare state and holds that the function of the state is to promote the welfare of its citizens and not merely to protect the life and property of the citizens. 

This view regards politics as a group activity, natural and necessary for the resolution of conflict and for recurring a tolerable harmony in society. Politics is an open and free struggle for power among the people organised in their groups. It is a group phenomenon in which each group seeks to secure the power to make and implement authoritative values for the whole society. 

The modern liberal view holds that each individual is a social being with moral and rational facilities. The development of his personality is the end and for this purpose the state is an instrument of welfare. Individual’s life is a social life which has several dimensions-social, political, economic, religious and cultural. The state has come into existence as a natural institution. It has been the result of a gradual social evolution. It works for providing protection and securing welfare of all. 

The following are the silent features of the liberal perspective of politics: 

(i) State is the instrument of establishing rule of law and order in society. 

(ii) Individual is the centre of all social life. 

(iii) State is the sovereign institution acting for the promotion of common interest. 

(iv) State as the means of conflict resolution in society. 

(v) Open competition, not state ownership and control is an essential condition for promoting common good. 

(vi) Less economic role and free competition essential for increased production and economic development. 

(vii) Open and free struggle for power in the state is the condition for securing popular, responsive and responsible government. 

(viii) Rights and freedom. 

(ix) Civil liberty is essential for individual or social progress. 

(x) Harmony between individual and social interests. 

(xi) Modern liberal perspective of functions of state. 

Liberal perspective holds that state is natural and essential human institution for maintaining law, order and justice in society. It acts for granting and guaranteeing socio-economic-civil-political rights and freedom to the people. Politics is a process of peaceful and orderly conflict resolution in society for securing the objectives of peace, harmony and development. It stands for free and open struggle for power among the people organised in their voluntary groups and parties. 

13. What is the difference between state and Association. 

Ans : The difference between state and Association are:

(a) The State has a definite territory. It may be big or small but it must have fixed boundaries. An association, on the other hand, may be limited to small locality or it may be international in its scope. A badminton club is an example of a local association. While the Red Cross Society is an international association. Associations do not have fixed territory. 

(b) Membership of the State is compulsory but that of an association is optional. A man is born in the State and cannot withdraw from the membership of the State. One can easily withdraw from the membership of any association. 

(c) The membership of the State is singular. One cannot be a member of more than one State simultaneously. However, one may be the member of more than one association. 

(d) The State possesses sovereignty. It’s sovereignty is legally absolute and supreme. It’s laws are obligatory and backed by physical force. No other associations are sovereign. They are limited organisations formed to achieve limited purposes. The State is formed with unlimited purposes. It, on the other hand represents the society as a whole. It maintains law and order and protects individuals from external aggression. 

(e) The State is more or less permanent and is not easily subject to dissolution but an association may be dissolved at any time and on any ground. An association may be dissolved due to internal differences among its members or when its purposes are fulfilled. While associations are temporary, the State continues for all time to come. 

(f) The State is national in character. General principle is “one nation, one State”. But an association may be local, national or international. 

(g) The functions and activities of the State are wider than those of associations are. An association is created for a specific purpose. 

However, the activities of the State are unlimited. The functions of the State are increasing day by day. In a welfare State, the functions of the State are innumerable. While the State is a broad and universal organisation, the associations are limited in their activities. 

(h) Finally, the State is the supreme association in the society. It controls the activities of all other associations. It may impose limitations on other associations. Associations cannot go against the State. The State is like an elder brother to other associations. That is why, it is said that the State is an “association of associations”. Barker rightly observed, “The State, as a general and all embracing institution of life, must necessarily adjust the relations of associations to itself, to other associations and to their own members.”

14. What are the characteristics of the state?

Ans : The characteristics of the state are:

(a) The state is geographically identifiable with distinct boundaries. One definite geographical area belongs to one State only. The same area cannot be claimed by more than two states at a time. 

(b) The state is a human organization. A state has its own population consisting of citizens and non-citizens. The state has full authority over the citizens and has to protect the entire population. 

(c) The state is a legal personality. It can be sued and be sued. 

(d) The authority of the state is legal. It is based on procedural rules which are more acceptable to the society than any other rule. 

(e) State is abstract and government is its concrete form. It acts through the government which may be of different forms. 

(f) Sovereignty is just like the soul of the state. Without sovereignty identity of the state will be lost. 

(g) State is internally supreme over the individuals and associations and externally independent and equal with other states. 

15. What role was played by Religion in the process of the building up of the state. 

Ans : Religion has played a vital role in the process of the building up of the state. Religion gave unity to the people both in the primitive and middle ages. As Gettle observes, “Kinship and religion were simply two aspects of the same thing. Common worship was even more essential than kinship subjecting the primitive man to authority and discipline and to develop in him a keen sense of social solidarities and cohesion.” Those outside were regarded as stranger and even as enemies. People were thus united together under the authority of the same religious sovereign. Religion appeared in the world in different forms at different stages of history. In the very early times, the prevalent religion of mankind was animism-workship of animals, trees and stones. It was later supplemented with ancestral workshop. People descending from the same ancestors were thus united together. Later, religion appeared in the form of nature worship. The Primitive men could not understand such natural phenomena as storms, thunder and lightning, or the change of seasons or the mystery of birth and death. They had implicit faith in the spirits of the nature and the spirits of the dead. They were afraid of the forces of nature. They worshipped them out of awe and reverence. 

In subsequent ages, magician kings made their appearance. The magicians pretended that they could propitiate the evil spirit. Thus taking advantage of the fear, ignorance and superstition of the fellowmen, the magicians established their authority. In course of time, the magician kings gave way to priest kings. The priest kings remained popular till late in the middle ages. Religion came to be organized as a regular institution. The Popes dominated the Christian world, the Caliphs established their authority over the Muslim world, etc. Whatever the form of religion, there is no denying the face that religion gave unity to the people and thus virtually helped in the process of state building. 

16. Write a short note on Kinship. 

Ans : The social instinct of man was supplemented by kinship or blood relationship. The earliest human organizations were based on Kinship or blood relationship. Blood relationship was the most important bond of union among the primitive people. It knit together clans and groups and gave them unity and cohesion. The people who had their origin in common ancestor lived together in separate social units. Those who could not establish any blood relationship were treated as enemies. Even today, we see various castes and sub-castes. In sociological sense they have their origin in common ancestor and caste is still known by the name of that original ancestor. The patriarch or the head of the family forms the government with sovereign power over its members. Hence the justification of Aristotle’s remark “State is the magnified image of the family. 

“The original family gradually expanded and developed into a household or a ‘gan’. The genes by further multiplications developed into clans and clans united to form tribes. The bond throughout was kinship and persons unconnected by blood relationship could not become members of a tribe unless as a special case one was admitted by adoption. In a tribe, the head of the oldest or the strongest clan became the ruler generally called the ‘Chief and his name became the symbol of ‘kinship. ‘In the words of Maclver, ‘Kinship created society and society at length created the state. 

17. Short Note:

(a) Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679).

Ans : Thomas Hobbes, an English thinker, was of the opinion that society came into being as a means for the protection of men against the consequences of their own nature. 

Man in the state of nature was in perpetual conflict with his neighbours on account of his essentially selfish nature. To quote Hobbes, the life of man was “solitary poor, nasty, brutish and short”. Every man was an enemy to every other man. 

Hobbes in his book “Leviathan” has made it clear that man in the state of nature was not at all social. According to him; man found “nothing but grief in the company of his fellows”- all being almost equally “selfish self-seeking, cunning, egoistic, brutal arid aggressive”. Thus, men in the state of nature were like hungry wolves each ready to pounce on the other with all its ferocity. 

Since the conditions in the state of nature were intolerable and men longed for peace, the people entered into a kind of social contract to ensure for themselves security and certainty of life and properly. 

By mutual agreement they decided to surrender their natural rights into the hands of a few or one with authority to command. The covenant or agreement was of each with all and of all with each. The covenant was, of course, a social contract and a governmental contract. The contract became binding on the whole community as a perpetual social bond. Thus, in order to protect himself against the evil consequences of his own nature man organized himself in society in order to live in peace with all. 

(b) John Locke (1632-1704). 

Ans : John Locke, another English political philosopher, believed that man in the state of nature was enjoying an ideal liberty, free from all sorts of rules and regulations. 

The state of nature was a state of “peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation”. But there was no recognised system of law and justice. Hence his peaceful life was often upset by the “corruption and viciousness of degenerate men”. Man was forced to face such an ‘ill condition”. 

John Locke, the British writer who supported the cause of limited monarchy in England, maintained in his “On Civil Government” that the”I’ll condition’ in which men were forced to live was “full of fears and continual dangers”. In order to escape from this and to gain certainty and security men made a contract to enter into civil society or the state. This contract Locke called ‘social contract’. Thus contract put an end to the state of nature and substituted it by civil society. The social contract was no more than a surrender of certain rights and powers so that man’s remaining rights would be protected and preserved. 

The contract was for limited and specific purposes, and what was given up or surrendered to the whole community and not to a man or to an assembly of men (as Hobbes said). Locke made it clear that the social contract later on contributed to the governmental control. 

The governmental contract was made by the society when it established a government and selected a ruler to remove the inconveniences of “ill-condition”. 

(c) Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778).

Ans : J.J. Rousseau, the French writer of the 18th century in his famous book “The Social Contract” (1762) wrote that man in the state of nature was a ‘noble savage’ who led a life of “primitive simplicity and idyllic happiness”. He was independent, contented, self-sufficient healthy, fearless and good it was primitive instinct and sympathy which united him with others. He knew neither right nor wrong and was free from all notions of virtue and vice. Man enjoyed a pure, unsophisticated, innocent life of perfect freedom and equality in the state of nature, Rousseau argued. Men were free from the influence of civilization, and sought their own happiness uncontrolled by social laws and social institutions. 

But these conditions did not last long. Population increased and reason was dawned. Simplicity and idyllic happiness disappeared. Families were established, institution of properly emerged and human equality was ended. Man began to think in terms of ‘mine’ and ‘thing’. Difference between stronger and weaker, rich ypoor, arose. 

18. What do you understand the Patriarchal Theory. Explain briefly. 

Ans : Sir Henry Maine is the chief advocate of the patriarchal theory. He defines it as theory of the origin of society in separate families, held together by the authority and protection of the eldest male descendant. The patriarchal theory traces the origin of the state in a patriarchal family. A patriarchal family is one in which descent is traced through males. Father or patriarch occupies a dominant position in the family. All the members of the family pay due homage to him. His authority is recognized by all of them. A patriarchal family, according to this theory is the most ancient social organizations. 

The primitive men were organised in patriarchal families. Such a family began to expand by the process of marriages and remarriages. It developed into ‘Gen’ or a household. A Gen expanded into a ‘Clan’. A clan expanded in to a ‘Tribe’. All the members of the tribes were united by a sort of blood relationship. The tribes united by ties of blood acted together for common purposes particularly in defending themselves against the aggression of other tribes. This also necessitated the recognition of some common authority which could maintain discipline among the tribes. 

The influential member of the tribe came to be known as the tribal chief. A combination of the various tribes resulted in a commonwealth and a commonwealth was a full fledged state. Maine traces the origin of the state in the following words: “The elementary Soup is the family connected by the common subjection to the highest male ascendant. The aggregation of families forms the Genes or the houses. The aggregation of houses makes the tribe. The aggregation of the tribes constitute the commonwealth. According Edward Jenks the patriarchal society which according to this theory was the foundation of modern state was characterised by three features, viz., male kinship, permanent marriages and paternal authority In other words the descent was traced through the father and not the mother. Permanent marriage implied that one man was permanently married to one or more women as patriarchal society allowed both monogamy and polygamy. The eldest male member of the family. 

The theory also found its support, first of all, at the hands of Aristotle He held that “Just as men and women unite to form families, so many families unite to form villages and the union of many villages forms the state which is a self-supporting unit.”

The theory is further supported by historical evidence and scriptural account The ancient Jews were a nation of twelve tribes which trace their origin to the first father Jacob.

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