Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts

Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts Question Answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter SEBA Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts Notes Pdf Download and select needs one.

Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts

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Also, you can read SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given SEBA Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

The Rise of Neo-Religious Thoughts

Chapter – 4

Exercise

1. Answer the following questions:

(a) What does the term Bhaktism mean?

Ans: Bhaktism refers to a devotional movement within Hinduism that emphasises loving devotion towards a personal god. This movement focuses on the idea that personal devotion (bhakti) to a deity is the path to spiritual liberation (moksha). Bhaktism often involves practices such as singing hymns, chanting the names of deities, and engaging in rituals that express love and devotion to God.

(b) What are the two reasons that gave rise to the Bhakti Movement?

Ans: The two reasons that gave rise to the Bhakti Movement are:

(i) Reaction to Orthodox Hindu Practices: The Bhakti Movement emerged as a response to the rigid caste system and ritualistic practices of orthodox Hinduism. It sought to provide a more personal and direct form of worship, emphasising a personal relationship with God that transcended social hierarchies.

(ii) Influence of Sufism: The interaction with Islamic mysticism, particularly Sufism, which also emphasised personal devotion to God and love as the path to spiritual enlightenment, significantly influenced the Bhakti Movement. The ideas of universal brotherhood and devotion found in Sufism resonated with many Hindus, inspiring a similar devotional approach in Hinduism.

(c) What is the Divya Prabantham?

Ans: ​Nalayira Divya Prabandham is a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses (params) composed by 12 Alvars.

(d) Write the names of four persons who led the Bhakti Movement in North India?

Ans: The names of four persons who led the Bhakti Movement in North India are:

(i) Ramananda.

(ii) Kabir.

(iii) Guru Nanak.

(iv) Vallabhacharya.

(e) According to Sankardeva, how can one achieve salvation?

Ans: (i) The method for works, the method for information, or the method for commitment.

(ii) The Way of Works-karma marga, is the way to salvation through strict obligation.

2. Fill up the blanks by referring to your lesson:

(a) Sankaracharya believe in ______________.

Ans: Advaita Vedanta.

(b) From the to India ___________ century A.D.The Muslim Turks  Afghans  had begun to migrate to india.

Ans: 10th.

(c) Ramananda was the wondupper of _______________.

Ans: Lord Rama.

(d) Tulsidas was regarded as _____________.

Ans: Incarnation of Valmiki.

(e) The religious poems composed by Kabir are called __________.

Ans: Doha or Sakhi.

3. Write short note on:

(a) Sankaracharya.

Ans: Shankara claimed that although the individual Atman and Brahman appear to be distinct at the level of empirical reality, this distinction is really an illusion, and at the greatest level of truth, they are actually the same. The Atman-Brahman, also known as Sat, is the true self. While the distinction between Atman and non-Atman is acknowledged to be self-evident, the shruti, particularly the Upanishadic declaration tat tvam asi, reveals the identities of Atman and Brahman.

(b) Gyandes.

Ans: (i) Historical Significance Gyandes boasts a history that reflects the broader historical narrative of the Charente- Maritime area. This region has seen various influences over centuries, from Roman times to the medieval period and beyond. The village architecture often includes elements from different historical eras, providing a glimpse into its past.

(ii) Cultural and Natural Attractions While Gyandes is a small village, it is surrounded by the natural beauty typical of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. Rolling hills, vineyards, and charming rural landscapes make it an attractive spot for visitors seeking tranquillity and scenic views. The local culture is deeply rooted in the traditions of southwestern France, with local festivals, cuisine, and community events reflecting the region’s heritage.

(c) Ramananda.

Ans: Ramananda was a significant figure in the Bhakti movement in medieval India. He is known for spreading the philosophy of devotion (bhakti) to a personal god, which was accessible to all regardless of caste or creed.

(d) Nank.

Ans: Do yourself.

(e) Meerabai.

Ans: Meerabai was the princess who was born in 1498 to Rajput King Ratan Singh, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Meerabai was the only child. When Meera was only two years old, her mother died. So his grandfather Rao Duda brought him to Merta and brought him up under his care, who was also a devotee of Lord Vishnu and warrior as well.

4. Who were the Alvary? What was their main religious belief?

Ans: Alvar, any of a group of South Indian mystics who from the 7th to the 10th century wandered from temple to temple singing ecstatic hymns in adoration of the god Vishnu.

The Nayanars and Alvars led religious movements in south India during the seventh to ninth centuries. The Nayanars were devotees of Shiva while the Alvars were the devotees of Vishnu. They came from all castes including those considered ‘untouchable’ like the Pulaiyar and the Panars. They preached the love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path to salvation. They went from place to place composing beautiful poems in praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they visited and set them to music. There were 63 Nayanars who belonged to different caste backgrounds. There were 12 Alvars who came from equally divergent backgrounds.

5. What was the fundamental tenet of lattes Sufism in India. Wore the names of was Kalne popular among both the Hindu and and the Mediose.

Ans: The fundamental tenet of Sufism in India is the emphasis on a personal, direct connection with the Divine, characterised by love, devotion, and inner purity. Sufism focuses on the inner, mystical dimension of Islam, advocating for an experiential understanding of God through spiritual practices, meditation, and ethical living. 

The names of was Kalne popular among both the Hindu and and the Mediose.

(i) Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti: Known as “Gharib Nawaz” (Benefactor of the Poor), his shrine in Ajmer is a major pilgrimage site for people of all faiths.

(ii) Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya: Based in Delhi, he was renowned for his teachings of love and compassion, transcending religious boundaries.

(iii) Baba Farid: His poetry and spiritual teachings have had a significant influence on Punjabi culture and the Sikh religion.

6. Why was Kabir popular among both the Hindus and the Muslims.

Ans: Kabir’s popularity among both Hindus and Muslims stemmed from several factors are mentioned below: 

(i) Universal message of devotion: Kabir’s teachings emphasise a single, supreme God and the importance of devotion (bhakti) to reach the divine. This resonated with the Bhakti movement in Hinduism and the Sufi tradition in Islam, which both focused on personal connection with God.

(ii) Rejection of rituals and social hierarchies: He criticised rigid rituals and social hierarchies like the caste system in Hinduism. This appealed to those seeking a simpler, more egalitarian spiritual path.

7. Why did the preachers of Bhakti Movement try a religious precepts?

Ans: The Bhakti movement was a significant religious movement in medieval Hinduism that sought to bring religious reforms to all strata of society by adopting the method of devotion to achieve salvation.

8. What do you think are the reasons behind the popularity of the Bhain Movement in India.

Ans: The reasons behind the popularity of the Bhain Movement in India are mentioned below: 

(i) Social Equality: The movement emphasised devotion to a single deity, promoting a sense of spiritual equality regardless of caste, gender, or social status. This was a significant departure from the rigid caste hierarchy prevalent at the time.

(ii) Personal Connection with God: Bhakti saints advocated a personal, direct relationship with God, which resonated with the masses. This personal devotion was accessible to all, without the need for intermediaries like priests.

(iii) Use of Vernacular Languages: Bhakti poets and saints composed their works in regional languages, making religious and philosophical ideas accessible to common people who did not understand Sanskrit.

(iv) Simple Practices: The Bhakti Movement simplified religious practices, focusing on love and devotion rather than elaborate rituals, making spirituality more attainable for ordinary people.

(v) Inclusivity: Bhakti saints often criticised social injustices and orthodox practices, advocating for a more inclusive and compassionate society. This attracted followers from various strata of society.

9. Write within fifty words the made by society. contribution Srimanta Sankardeva to the Assamese.

Ans: Srimanta Sankardeva (1449–1568) was a pivotal figure in Assamese society, leaving a lasting legacy through his multifaceted contributions. As a spiritual leader, he propagated the Bhakti movement, emphasising devotion to a single god, Vishnu (Krishna), which fostered social unity and moral upliftment. He introduced and popularised the Eka Sarana Nama Dharma, a monotheistic belief system that transcended caste barriers and promoted equality.

Sankardeva’s literary genius enriched Assamese literature with his numerous works, including the “Kirtan Ghosa” and various plays and poems. His innovative creation of Ankiya Naat, a form of one-act plays, laid the foundation for Assamese drama and theatre. He also developed the classical dance form Sattriya, now one of the eight classical dances of India, integrating music, dance, and drama into religious practice.

Moreover, Sankardeva established Satras (monastic institutions), which became centres of religious, cultural, and educational activities, preserving and propagating his teachings and arts. His contributions have profoundly shaped Assamese culture, instilling a sense of identity and unity among the people.

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