Class 12 History Chapter 7 Bhakti – Sufi Traditions

Class 12 History Chapter 7 Bhakti – Sufi Traditions The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 7 Bhakti – Sufi Traditions Question Answer.

Class 12 History Chapter 7 Bhakti – Sufi Traditions

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 History Chapter 7 Bhakti – Sufi Traditions Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Write a Short Essay on the Following

Q.6. Discuss the major beliefs and practices that characterised Sufism. 

Ans: Sufism was a reform movemnet within Islam and started as a reaction against the constant fights between the Shias and Sunnis, the two sects of the muslim community. They believed in one God, equality and brotherhood of all irrespective of any distinctions. They also believed that one could reach God through personal devotion and not through meaningless rituals. They were opposed to distinctions based on caste, creed or religion. They believed that all religions are but different paths for reaching the same god. 

The sufis favoured religious toleration and were opposed to forcible conversion to Islam or persecutions in the name of religion. Sufi saints were organised into twelve orders called silsilas. Each silsila was generally led by a mystic called a pir who used to live with his followers known as murids. Every pir nominated a successor or wali to carry on his work. The word silsila literally means a chain, signifying a continuous link between a master and disciple stretching as far back to the prophet Mohammad. Through this channel spiritual power and blessings were given to the devotees. Those who wished to join the silsila had to perform certain rituals like taking an oath of allegiance, wearing a patched garment and shaving their hair, When the shaikh or pir died, his tomb (dargah) attracted a lot of followers. 

This resulted in the practice of pilgrimage or Ziyarat to his grave particularly on his death anniversary. This was because the people believed that in death, the saints had greater power as they were now united with God. An essential part of the Ziyarat was the use of music and dance. This included mystical chants performed by qawwals. The sufis remember god by either reciting the Zikr or evoking his presence through sama (performance of mystical music). The sufi saints thus spread the spirit of tolerance, peace and harmony and played a major role in bridging the gap between the Hindus and Muslims. They mingled freely with people of the lower castes of both communities. Their dargahs became sacred shrines for members of both communities. 

Q.7. Examine how and why rulers tried establish connections with the traditions of the Nayanars and the sufis. 

Ans : Nayanar and Alwar saints had a lot of respect among Vellal peasants. So many rulers tried to get their support. For example, the chola kings got built magnificent temples to seek divine support. The stone and metal status or idols adorned these temples. They gave a concrete shape to the imagery of saint-poets who composed hymns in the language of the common people. The Chola rulers also started the singing of Shiva hymns in the Tamil language. They also took the responsibility of compiling a new book of bhakti songs. An inscription of 945 tells us that chola king parantaka I got built metalled statue of saint – poet Appa Sambandar and Sundarar in the Shiva Temple. These idols were shown to the people in a procession. 

Sultan : The Sultans knew that most of his people belonged to Islam. So when the Turks established the Delhi Sultanate, they rejected the demand of Ulma to introduce Shariat. They did so to avoid any kind of opposition from their people who were mainly non- Muslims. So they took the help of Sufi Saints who considered their spiritual authority as the blessing of Allah. They were not dependent on the explanation of Shariat by Ulma. Some people believed that the Auliya could intercede with God in order to improve the material and spiritual conditions of the common people. That is why, the kings often wanted to have their tombs in the vicinity of the Sufi Shrines. 

They used to visit the dargahs of Sufi saints. The king who first visited the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin chishti at Ajmer was sultan Muhamad-bin-Tughlag (1324-51). However the first monument on the tomb of Shaikh was got built by king Giasuddin Khalji in the fifteenth century. As this dargah was on the road that linked Delhi with Gujarat, it was visited by many travellers. 

Akbar : This dargah at Ajmer had become quite popular in the 16th century. The devotional hymns of those travellers who visited this dargah over the years inspired the Emperor Akbar to visit this shrine. Akbar came to this dargah fourteen times. Sometimes he visited this place twice or thrice new victory and sometimes he came to seek the fulfilment of his desires. He also visited this holy place on the birthday of his son. Akbar kept this tradition till 1580. He donated a lot on all such occasions. For example in 1568, he donated a big cauldron (degh) so that food may be prepared for all the pilgrims. He also got built a mosque in the compound of the dargah. 

Q.8. Analyse with illustrations, why bhakti and sufi thinkers adopted a variety of languages in which to express their opinions. 

Ans : Sanskrit was used by traditional Bhakti saint to sing hymns at different occasions, places of worship and ceremonies. The alvars and Nayanars of Tamil nadu travelled from place to place singing hymns in tamil in praise of their God. These developed as centres of pilgrimage. Singing compositions of these poet-saints became part of temple rituals in these shrines, as did worship of the saint images. The importance of the traditions of the Alvars and Nayanars was sometimes indicated by the claim that their compositions were as important the Vedas. For instance, one of the major anthologies of compositions by the Alvars, the Nalayira Divya Prabandham was frequently described as the tamil Veda. 

Thus claiming that the text was as significant as the four Vedas in Sanskrit that were cherished by the Brahmanas. Kabir’s poems have survived in several languages and dialects and some are composed in the special language of nirguna poets, the sant bhasha. 

Other, known as ulat bansi (upside down sayings), are written in a form in which everyday meanings are inverted. These hints at the difficulties of capturing the nature of the ultimate Reality in words expressions such as the lotus which blooms without flower or the “fire raging in the ocean” convey a sense of kabir’s mystical expressions. Baba Guru Nanak, Baba farid, Ravidas, composed their hymns in various languages such as punjabi and Hindi etc. Mirabai compose her Bhajans, devotional songs in Brij Bhasha or in Hindi. 

Amir Khusrau wrote and sang in Hindi or persian, panjabi, urdu and some other from of languages. It was not just in same that the chishtis adopted local languages. In Delhi, those associated with the Chishti silsila conversed in Hinadavi, the language of the people. Other sufis such as Baba Farid composed verses in the local language, which were incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib. Other writers, thinkers saint etc. composed long poems or masnavis to express ideas of divine love using human love as an allegory. For example, the prem-akhyan (love story) padmavat composed by Malik Muhammad Jayasi revolved around the romance of padmini and Ratansen, the king of Chittor. 

Their trails were symbolic of the soul’s journey to the divine. Such poetic compositions were often recited in hospices, usually during sama. A different genre of Sufi poetry was composed in and around the town of Bijapur, Karnataka. These were short poems in Dakhani (a variant of Urdu) attributed to chishti sufis who lived in this region during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These poems were probably sung by women while performing household chores like grinding grain and spinning. Other compositions were in the form of lurinama or lullabies and shadinama or wedding songs. It is likely that the Sufis of this region were inspired by the pre-existing bhakti tradition of the Kannada Vachanas of the Lingayats and the Marathi abhangs of the saints of pandharpur. It is through this medium that Islam gradully gained a place in the villlages of the Deccan. 

Q.9. Read any five of the sources included in this chapter and discuss the social and religious ideas that are expressed in them. 

Ans : The Chaturvedi Brahmans were well versed in four vedas. They did not keep a devotion of service towards Lord Vishnu. That’s why Lord Vishnu loved those servants who expressed their love for their feet. Servants or Dasas were not included in Varna system. Brahmanas used to pour milk on a serpent carved in stone. But if a real serpent came they tried to kill him. This thing was also evident in serving food. They used to offer dishes of food to the images of God which cannot eat but they clearly denied to give food to the servant of God who could eat. Mughal rulers, especially Akbar, used to respect all the religions and used to protect and patronage them. People of all the religions were allowed to construct their places of worship. Aurangzeb also used to help religious teachers of different sects. 

Map Work

Q.10. On an outline map of India, plot three major sufi shrines, and three places associated with temples (one each of a form of Vishnu, Shiva and the Goddess) 

Ans :                    

Class 12 History Chapter 7 Map 1

C. Passage Based Question & Answers:

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions given after it. 


Here is an excerpt from a letter written by Aurangzeb to a Jogi in 1661-62 : 

The possessor of the sublime station, Shiv Murat, Guru Anand Nath Jio! 

May your Reverence remain in peace and happiness ever under the protection of Sri Shiv Jio! 

…. A piece of cloth for the cloak and a sum of twenty- five rupees which have been sent as an offering will reach (your Reverence) Your Reverence may write to us whenever there is any service which can be rendered by us. 


Q.1. Identify the deity worshipped by the Jogi.

Ans: The deity Shiv Murat is worshipped by the Guru Anand Nath Jogi. 

Q.2. Who was Aurangzeb? 

Ans: Aurangzeb was the last great Mughal emperor, who ruled from 1658 to 1707. After his death the other Mughal rulers are called the Later Mughals (from 1707-1857).

Q.3. Describe the attitude of the emperor towards the Jogi.

Ans: The emperor had shown very good, positive and helpful attitude towards the Jogi. First of all, he wishes him peace and happiness for ever, under the protection of his deity, Sri Shivji. 

The emperor sends a piece of cloth for the clock and a sum of twenty- five rupees as an offering. 

Aurangzeb also expresses his desire through the letter that the Jogi is free to write to the royal court whenever there was any service which could be rendered by the Mughals.

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