Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Question Answer.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Join Telegram channel

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Chapter – 9


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What is the importance of male sterility in plant breeding? 

Ans : This help in reducing the inbreeding depression which in due to the interbreeding process and increases fertility and productivity in plants.

Q.2. What do you mean by emasculation? 

Ans : If the female parent bears bisexual flowers, removal of anthers from the flower bud before the another devises using a pair of forceps is known as emasculation. 

Q.3. Define somaclonal variation. 

Ans : Somaclonal variation is a method used in the process of plant breeding. 

Q.4. Name the animals from which mule is produced. 

Ans : Mule is produced from the hybridization between male horse and female ass. 

Q.5. What do you understand by gene plantation? 

Ans : The transfer of gene of one or more desired character from one organism to another with the help of biotechnological techniques is known as gene plantation. 

Q.6. What are germplasm and gene pool. 

Ans : The total genetic information of an organism which is present in the protoplasm is known as germplasm.

The total genetic information present in a group of interbreeding organism is known as gene pool. 

Q.7. What is totipotency? 

Ans : The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell of an organism is called totipotency. 

Q.8. What strategy is used to increase homozygosity in cattle for desired traits? 

Ans : Interbreeding. 

Q.9. What is cloning? 

Ans : The process in which an organism can be produced by taking a cell from another individual and the newly formed or developed organism is exactly similar with the parent individual. 

Q.10. What are the three main approaches of animal breeding? 

Ans : The main 3 approaches of animal breeding are : 

(i) To increase the productivity. 

(ii) To improve quality.

(iii) To produce desired quality and disease resistant. 

Q.11. Define hybridization. 

Ans : Hybridization can be defined as the process where the best male and female individuals of the same or related species are.mated. 

Q.12. What is inbreeding? 

Ans : In breeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations. 

Q.13. What is meant by biofortification? 

Ans : Biofortification is the process of breeding crops with higher levels of minerals or higher protein and healthier fats which is the most practical mean to improve public health. 

Q.14. What is ‘hidden hunger’? 

Ans : The situation that occurs due to the scarcity of protein and vitamins in the body is known as hidden hunger. 

Q15. What is aquaculture? Give example of an animal that can be multiplied by aquaculture.

Ans : The process by which edible aquatic organism are cultured scientifically in both fresh water and marine water. For example culture of fish is done in fresh water and culture of yeast is done in marine water etc. 

Q.16. What is green revolution? 

Ans : In the first two decades after independence, efforts of achieving food self sufficiency were not totally successful. The rewarding results appeared in the form of green revolution. It occurred between 1960 to 1978. 

Q.17. Name a green algae used in production of single cell protein. 

Ans : Spirulina maxima (Blue green algae) 

Q.18. Why bagging of the emasculated flowers is essential during hybridization experiments? 

Ans : Because it prevents the process of self pollination. 

Q.19. What do you understand by transgenic plants? 

Ans : As a result of crossing of two plants differing from each other genotypically in one or more trait, a new plant is obtained which is called transgenic plants. 

(B). Fill up the Blanks: 

Q.1. Haploid culture technique was developed by____

Ans : Scientists. 

Q.2. Shoot regeneration is promoted by ___ where as root regeneration is promoted by auxin. 

Ans : Gibberellin. 

Q.3.  An _____ is excised from its original location and used for initiating a culture. 

Ans : Plant explant. 

Q.4. A somatic embryo develops from a ____ cell. 

Ans : Somatic. 

Q.5. All hybrids of poultry are produced by _____ inbreed stocks. 

Ans : Superior. 

Q.6. A superior female, in case of cattle, is the cow that produces ____ milk per lactation. 

Ans : More. 

Q.7. Quality of a crop or an animal depends mainly on its ____ and the environment in which it is grown. 

Ans : Breed. 

Q.8. “Gill rot’ disease in fishes is caused by ____

Ans : Bacteria. 

Q.9. ____ is disease in mulberry silk worm caused by Nosema bombycis. 

Ans : Pebrine. 

Q.10. MOET (multiple ovulation embryo transfer) is a method of hybridization of ____ 

Ans : Animal. 

Q.11. The most extreme form of ____ is self pollination. 

Ans : Sexual reproduction.

Q.12. An autotriploid has _____ Copies of a single genome.

Ans : Three.

Q.13. Phenotype is the ____ features where as genotype is the _____ of an organism. 

Ans : External(Expressive), Genetic. 

(C). Select True and False: (1 Mark) 

Q.1. Micropropagation is the production of small plants. 

Ans : False. 

Q.2. The source of single cell protein is microbes. 

Ans : True. 

Q.3. An explant is a dead plant. 

Ans : False. 

Q.4. Honey the products of apiculture is used in cosmetics. 

Ans : True. 

Q.5. Catla, Rohu. and Common carp are the fresh water fishes. 

Ans : True. 

Q.6. Selection is the oldest breeding method employed in living bodies. 

Ans : False. 

Q.7. Gene flow is the loss of genes from a genepool. 

Ans : True. 

Q.8. New castle disease is a viral disease of poultry. 

Ans : True. 

Q.9. Milk contains lactose sugar. 

Ans : True. 

Q.10. Inbreeding is carried out in animal husbandry because it increases vigour. 

Ans : True. 

Q.11. Embryo culture is used for recovery of interspecific hybrids. 

Ans : False. 

Q.12. Single cell protein refers to a specific protein extracted from a single cell. 

Ans : True. 

Q.13. Protoplast is the another name of protoplasm. 

Ans : False. 

Q.14. Important characters of Bt. Cotton are high yield and resistance to Boll worms. 

Ans : True.

II. Short Questions for (2 marks) : 

Q.1. Give any two major aspects of biological science which play an important role in enhancing food production. 

Ans : The two major aspects of biological science are : 

(a) Dairy form management. 

(b) Bee keeping.

Q.2. Why conservation of germplasm is important for plant breeders to develop new varieties? 

Ans : Plant breeders give importance to conserve germplasm to develop new varieties because collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of cultivated species is a prerequisite for effective exploitation of natural genes available in the population. 

Q.3. What is selection? Name the two methods of selection.

Ars : The process of selecting two organisms of desired characters among the progeny is known as selection. 

The two methods of selection are : 

(a) Natural selection. 

(b) Artificial selection.

Q.4. What is interspecific hybridization? Explain briefly by taking an example of animal. 

Ans : In this method, male and female animals of two different related species are mated. Here the progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents, and may be of considerable economic value. 

In this method the semen is collected from the male that is chosen as a percent and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder. For example : As a result of reproduction between horse and ass mule is produced. 

Q.5. What is the difference between pisciculture and aquaculture? What are the benefits of both kinds of cultures? 

Ans : Pisciculture : Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish. For example : Rohu, Hilsa etc. 

Aquaculture : Here shellfish or other aquatic animals are cultured. For example : lobestar. prawn, crab etc. 

Fisheries has an important place in Indian economy. It provides income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers, particularly in the coastal states. Moreover the introduction of different techniques in these culture has led to the development and flourishing of fishery industry and it has brought a lot of income of the farmers in particular and the country in general. 

Q.6. Differentiate between callus culture and suspension culture. 

Ans : In callus culture technique an explant from a plant is allowed to grow by applying auxin hormone and this grown portion is known as callus. From a portion of this callus many new plants can be grown and this callus can be kept for so many days. The damaged part of a tree also can be recultured by this technique.On the other hand suspension culture includes separation of a cell from the callus produced in the callus culture process. The separated cell in then kept in liquid medium and technically and with the help of enzymes used to produce embryo. 

Q.7. What is inbreeding depression? Why do the self pollinated crops not show the ill effects in inbreeding depression? 

Ans : Continued inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even producțivity. This is known as inbreeding depression. 

Self pollinated crops not show the ill effects in inbreeding depression because in self pollination harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection. It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of desirable genes. So in this approach there is selection at each step, increases. The productivity of inbreed population. 

Q.8. What is breed? According to you which one is the best method employed in animal breeding? 

Ans : A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, size, feature, morphology, etc. are said to belong to a breed. I think inbreeding is the best method for animal breeding. 

Q.9. State the way to improve the success rate of fertilization during artificial reproduction in animal husbandry programmes. 

Ans : To improve the success rate of fertilization during artificial reproduction in animal husbandry programme – Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is employed. Here Hormones like ESH is administered to induce follicular maturation and super ovulation instead of one egg. By this technique herd size can be increased within a short period of time.

Q.10. “Give me a living cell of any plant and I will give you a thousand plants of the same type.’ Is it scientifically possible? Write your comment and justify the statement. 

Ans : Yes, by the process of tissue culture from a living cell of a plant many new plants of the same type can be developed. It is significantly possible. 

Q.11. What do you mean by gene plantation? Explain very briefly. 

Ans : When a gene is planted on a new gene producing organisms having transgenic in nature is called gene plantation. 

Q.12. Define with examples 

(a) somatic hybrid.

(b) somatic embryo. 

Ans : (a) Sematic hybridization or parasexual hybridization has the advantage that it can produce plants with combination of characters eg. pomato (potato and tomato), an hybrid between potato and tomato. 

(b) Sematic embryo is the process of embryo formation from sematic cells. It is also called as sematic embryogenesis. The embryos thus developed are called embryoids. 

Chapter 1Reproduction in Organisms
Chapter 2Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Chapter 3Human Reproduction
Chapter 4Reproductive Health
Chapter 5Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Chapter 6Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 7Evolution
Chapter 8Human Health and Disease
Chapter 9Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Chapter 10Microbes in Human Welfare
Chapter 11Biotechnology: Principles And Processes
Chapter 12Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter 13Organisms and Populations
Chapter 14Ecosystem
Chapter 15Biodiversity and Conservation
Chapter 16Bioresources of Assam
Chapter 17Environmental Issues

Q.13. What is polyploidy? Give the name of a chemical used for induction of polyploidy in plants? 

Ans : The plant with more than 3 set of chromosomes are called poly plaidy. It can be obtained treated with colchicine. 

Q.14. What is quarantine? Give one example of it? 

Ans : Quarantine is a method to regulate or check the diseases or germs to spread from one place to another. 

Due to failure of quarantile some diseas like AIDS all spreading.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top