Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Question Answer.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter – 12


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What is transgenic organism? Give example each of transgenic plant and animal. 

Ans : When gene taken from other species (foreign gene is inserted into the genome of an organism through genetic engineering the organism becomes transgenic. It then contains some special ability which was not there. 

Example of transgenic plant : Bt cotton (contain gene from Bacillus thuringiensis) 

Q.2. What is gene therapy? Give one example of its application? 

Ans : Gene therapy is a collection of methods that allows correction of a gene defect that has been diagnosed in a child or embryo. 

Q.3. Give the name of the vaccine which is obtained from transgenic yeast. 

Ans : Hepatitis B virus. 

Q.4. What is biopiracy? 

Ans : Taking away of any bioresource surreptitiously from a country without permission is called biopiracy. 

Q.5. How many polypeptides are found in human insulin? 

Ans : Two. 

Q.6. Name a popular technique, which is used for detecting the presence of pathogen or virus in an organism. 

Ans : ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay)

Q.7. Name two drugs that were earlier produced by sacrificing animals but are now produced using biotechnology. 

Ans : Insulin and bovine serum.

Q.8. What is DNA deficiency? Which disease is associated with it? 

Ans : When the number of chromosome (DNA) is less than normal certain genetic disease occurs. Monosomy 21 is such a genetic disease in which 21st set of chromosome is absent. 

Q.9. What is probe? 

Ans : Prove are DNA or RNA having small nucleotide sequences. These are used to determine whether the nucleic acid has complete sequence. 

Q.10. Expand GEAC to full form. 

Ans : Genetic Engineering Approval Committee. 

Q.11. What is transgenic animal? 

Ans : Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra gene are known as transgenic animals. 

Q.12. Give any two benefits that can be acquired from transgenic animals. 

Ans : (i) These animals can be used for various experiment concerning the effect of various genes and genetic experiments, pharmaceutical tests etc. 

(ii) For obtaining drugs, organic substances, meat and milk having better nutrition. 

Q.13. What is chemical safety testing? 

Ans : Transgenic animals are more sensitive to chemical toxicity and therefore these animals may be use to test about the chemical safety of foods and drugs etc. 

Q.14. What was the speciality of the milk produced by transgenic cow ‘Rosie’? 

Ans : A transgenic can named Rosie created in 1997 produces milk that contain alpha lactalbumin, a protein required by human body –

Q.15. How are two short polypeptide chains of insulin linked together?

Ans : The A-chain and B chain of human insulin is linked together by two disulphide bonds. 

Q.16. What is Golden Rice? 

Ans : Prof. Ingo Potrykus and Dr. Peter Beyer developed genetically engineered rice called golden rice which is enriched in vitamin A by introducing three genis involved in biosynthetic pathway for carotenoid, the precursor of vitamin A. The colour of Golden rice in yellow due to synthesis of pro vitamin A in entire grain. 

(B). Fill up the Blanks : 

Q.1. ELISA test is based on the principle of ____ interaction. 

Ans : Antygen-antibody. 

Q.2. Fruit softening in tomato is promoted by the enzyme  _____ which degrades pectin. 

Ans : Pectate lyases. 

Q.3. A soil bacterium _____ produces, a crystal (cry) protein. 

Ans : Bacillus thuringiensis. 

Q.4. Theft, robbery and unauthorised exploitation of bioresources of a country is ____ 

Ans : Biopiracy. 

Q.5. ____  is a set of standards that may be used to regulate our activities in relation to biological world. 

Ans : Ethics. 

Q.6. In mammals, including human insulin is synthesized as a _____

Ans : C-peptide. 

Q.7. Fusion of Lymphocytic and tumour cells are called____

Ans : Polyclonal antibody. 

Q.8. Molecular analysis’ of profiles of DNA samples is called ____

Ans : PCR.

Q.9. First hormone produced: artificially by culturing bacteria is ____

Ans : Insulin. 

Q.10. Antibiotics are drugs commonly used to cure diseases of ____

Ans : Bacteria.

Q.11. In Transgenic cow the milk contains human. 

Ans : Protein. 

Q.12. Recovery of products, it’s refining and  processing is called _____processing.

Ans : Bioreactor.

Q.13. A biomolecule is a compound produced by____

Ans : Genes.

Q.14. The first transgenic crop was ____

Ans : Basmati rice 

(C). Select true and false experiments : 

Q.1. Brazzein and the gene encoding for it have been patented in USA. 

Ans : True.

Q.2. Bt cotton contains two transgenes. 

Ans : False. 

Q.3. Biopiracy is the legal use of bioresources. 

Ans : False. 

Q.4. India holds the patent for Neem. 

Ans : True.

Q.5. Insulin for curing diabetes could be obtained from 6M or- ganisms. 

Ans : True.

Q.6. Vitamin B₁₂ and Vitamin B₂ are two vitamins manufactured biotechnologically. 

Ans : True. 

Q.7. The term antibiotic was coined by Alexander Fleming. 

Ans : False. 

Q.8. Tissue culture is the main technique involved in agricul- tural biotechnology. 

Ans : True. 

Q.9. Plasmid called ‘genetaxi’ is used during gene cloning. 

Ans : True. 

Q.10. Golden rice is a wild variety of rice with yellow coloured grains. 

Ans : False. 

Q.11. Anticoagulant hirudin is produced by transgenic Brassica napus seeds. 

Ans : True.

Q.12. In Bt cotton, a transgenic plant, Bt refers to Biotechnology. 

Ans : False.

Q.13. A protoxin is a toxin produced by protozoa. 

Ans : True.

II. Short Questions 2 Marks : 

Q.1. What are transgenic bacteria? Illustrate using any one example. 

Ans : The bacteria in which genes taken from other species have been inserted are called transgenic bacteria. Example : Transgenic E coli has been created by inserting gene that codes for insulin secretion taken from mouse is a transgenic bacterium. This bacteria can secrete insulin. 

Q.2. Which two patents on Indian biological resources have been revolted? 

Ans : Basmati Rice and Neem. 

Q.3. What is meant by genetically modified crops? How does a genetically modified food primarily differ from the produce of conventionally developed varieties. 

Ans : The crop which has been modified by inserting gene from other source to impart it with certain added character is called genetically modified crop. Such modification is done through recombinant DNA technology. 

GM crops differ from conventional types because such crops contain added qualities such as specific disease resistance, pest resistance, insect resistance draught resistance etc. In some cases the foods contain added nutrition, increased shelf life, increased flavour and test etc. than the conventional types. 

Q.4. What is transgene and what are transgenic plants? 

Ans : A recombinant DNA in which gene from DNA of other species has been inserted is called transgene. 

Genetically modified plants which carries transgenes are called transgenic plants. 

Q.5. What are bioreactors? List at least two growth conditions that a bioreactor provides for obtaining the desired product. 

Ans : Bioreactors are large vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into useful products like enzymes, acids, antibiotics, alcohol etc. using microbes, plant or animal cells. These also facilitate production of large volume of microbial cells for use as single celled proteins or for other purposes. Optimal conditions of temperature, moisture, acidity, substrate, salt, vitamıns etc. are provided in it. 

Q.6. How does transgenic crops technique differ from normal breeding activities. 

Ans : In normal breeding technique the process of emasculation and dusting of desired pollen grains is followed to impart desired quality to the plants. In transgenic technique a suitable part of DNA drawn from another species that codes for specific character is inserted into the genome of the crop to impart the desired character. 

Q.7. Suggest any two techniques which can help in early detection of bacterial/viral infections much before the symptoms ap body. 

Ans : (a) PCR : Polymerase Chain Reaction 

(b) ELISA : Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 

Q.8. Give the full form of ELISA. Name two diseases for the detection of which ELISA is used.

Ans : ELISA : Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) and Hepatitis can be detected even before the diseases symptom appears. 

Q.9. What is molecular diagnostic technique? advantages of this technique over conventional methods. 

Ans : For any disease, an early diagnosis by kneeling symptoms, pathophysiology etc. is required. Recombinant DNA molecules and some techniques like polymerase chain reaction have prove very rewarding in this regard. In ELISA cloned genes are expressed to produce recombinant proteins help in developing sensitive diagnostic techniques. 

The main advantages of this method over the earlier conventional method that easy to detect and very specific with the symptoms.

Q.10. Define antigen and antibody with a suitable example from each of them. 

Ans : The foreign protein particles coming to contact are called antigens and in response to the antigen, the cell produce a protein which is called antibody. 

For example vims, bacteria are called antigen when they cause a number of diseases in our body. In response to those bacteria, virus a number of proteins are formed by WBC to protect the infection of these germs, those are called antibodies.

Q.11. Write a short note on transgenic animals. 

Ans : Definition: The organisms (animals)which have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express and extra (foreign) gene are known as transgenic animals.

Introduction : Conventional animal husbandry involves the proper feeding, caring, management and breeding methods for the increased production of their yield which may be in the form of meat, milk, eggs, etc. In animal husbandry, selective breeding aims to increase the frequency THO of desired genes and the desired phenotype. For many farm animals the conventional breeding has already achieved high yielding animals but by this procedure, it seems that the productivity would soon be approaching a plateau. To sustain an ever- increasing world population, new methods must be developed to meat this increasing demand for animal products. Secondly, selective breeding is a painfully slow process and especially with larger animals with long gestation period, can take many years to establish desired phenotypic changes.

The advent of technology of transgenesis also called transfection and its application to anímal breeding programmes may greatly increase the speed and range of selective breeding. The transgenesis involves the transfer of desired isolated gene or gene fragments or individual chromosome or chromosomal fragments, or isolated nuclei from one organism to another organism. 

The first recorded examples of the transfer of a foreign gene into animal by recombinant DNA technology was the insertion and expression of a rat gene for growth hormone (rGH)into the mouse metallo-thionein (mMT) gene in 1882. The subsequent progeny were all much larger than the parents and the transgenic mouse was called “super mouse” Since then, many transgenic animals including cattle, goats, pigs, rabbits, chickens and fish have been produced.

III. Short Questions 3 Marks : 

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