Class 11 Political Science Chapter 12 Freedom The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 11 Political Science Chapter 12 Freedom and select need one.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 12 Freedom
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Chapter – 12
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – B
Q.1. Define freedom and explain its value for human Progress?
Ans : The term liberty is derived from the Latin Word “Liber’ Liber means . Thus Liberty means freedom. Thus liberty means freedom from raints. It implies complete freedom to do anything one desires to do. ere must not be any limitations on individual actions. But it is the negative aspect of Freedom. The advocates of the concept of positive freedom that individual should be free to act only to the extent that his or her busties do not curtail the freedom of others. The freedom if many requires saints of law on the freedom of some. For human progress, his freedom essential.
Q.2. Discuss the positive concept of Liberty.
Ans : There are two forms of Liberty –
(i) Negative Liberty. and
(ii) Positive Liberty.
Positive concept of Liberty :- According so prof. Laski “Liberty means e absence of restraint upon the existence of those social conditions tach in modern citizens are the necessary guarantee of individual happiness”
Liberty means the attainment of those opportunities available to all citizens equal measures according to the law of the state so that all restrictions in the way of the developments of in individual are removed and the damental rights are protected.
It can be discussed briefly as follows :
(i) If liberty is to be given a real character, than adequate have to be given for the freedom of citizens.
(ii) There is no conflict between the interest of individual and that of society.
Q.3. Explain the negative concept of liberty.
Ans : According to J.S. Mill, “Liberty is protection against tyranny of political rulers.” According to prof Border, “Liberty is immunity from interference”
(i) The champions of negative liberty want to limit state interference If law interfere with the life of an individual, his liberty is destroyed For them, that government is the best which govern the least,
(ii) Liberty means absence of restrictions. Open competition is the best means of developments. The protection policy of governments is not right.
There are certain drawback in it e.g.
(a) It can only be possible in a hypothetical “State of nature” not in “civilized life”.
(b) Liberty is a relative.
(iii) In the real sense, negative concept of liberty means absence of all restraints as it is neither practical, nor desirable.
Q.4. What are different kinds of liberty?
Ans : Liberty means – ‘true’/freedom. The various kinds of liberty are as follows
(i) Natural liberty.
(ii) Individual liberty.
(iii) Political liberty.
(iv) Economic liberty.
(v) Religions liberty. and
(vi) Civil liberty.
Q.5. What are the elements of liberty?
Ans : According to Herbert Spencer, “Liberty is the freedom for every man to do that which he wills, provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other man.”
The important elements of Liberty are following-
(i) Liberty is not the absence of all restraints :- only in an environment of peace and order, the individual can enjoy liberty. To maintain peace and order, reasonable restrictions are imposed on the actions of the individuals through laws and it helps in extending liberty is every body.
(ii) Liberty is the maintenance of atmosphere of developments si personality :- Liberty is that atmosphere in which the individual can calize his best self. For full development of personality of in individual freedom is essential.
(iii) Liberty means power to do Something Worth doing :- something which is good and desirable or which is not desirable in the st society should be done.
(iv) Liberty is given to all alike :- Liberty does not mean to give freedom to a particular person but is given to all alike on equal basis.
(v) Liberty exists only in a State :- Liberty exists and can be enjoyed in only in society and State. It has to be enjoyed within the framework of the law. There can be no liberty outside the state.
Q.6. What do you mean by economic liberty?
Ans : Economic liberty :- It includes those rights that are enjoyed by man concerning his livelihood. Economic liberty implies absence of unemployment exploitation, unfair wage, standard living insecurity etc. Thus when states ensure employment to all citizens and make them free rom the tyranny of the employers, we say that the citizens enjoy economic liberty. Significance of economic liberty cannot be under estimated. Political liberty or civil liberty becomes meaning less the absence of economic liberty.
Q.7. Describe main two types of liberty.
Ans : There are many kinds of liberty. The main two kinds of liberty are give below-
(i) Political liberty :- Political liberty exists only in democracy. In this form of government, citizens have full freedom so participate is the government. They can elect their own representatives. They themselves save the right to be elected in the government services.
(ii) Economic liberty :- It includes those rights that are enjoyed by man concerning his livelihood. Economic liberty implies absence of unemployment exploitation, unfair wage, standard living insecurity etc. Thus when states ensure employment to all citizens and make them free rom the tyranny of the employers, we say that the citizens enjoy economic liberty. Significance of economic liberty cannot be under estimated. Political liberty or civil liberty becomes meaning less the absence of economic liberty.
Q.8. Write short note :
(a) Religious liberty.
(b) Personal liberty.
(c) Legal liberty.
(d) Natural liberty.
(e) Economic liberty.
(f) Moral liberty.
(g) Individual liberty.
(h) Political liberty.
Ans : (a) Religious liberty :- According to this type of liberty even citizen of state gets the freedom of religion. The citizens have the right to adopt and preach any religion of then choice. The religion of the citizens is considered a personal matter and the states mostly do not interfere in religions affairs of the people until and unless it is necessary on the broader interest of the nation and the individuals.
(b) Personal liberty :- Personal liberty means that the human being should have complete freedom in their personal and individual matters For example food, clothing, marriage, religion, customs, traditions etc all are personal matters of the human beings. The state or the government should not interfere in these matters of the individual. A great scholar of political science John Stuart Mill was prominent supporter of individual liberty. According to him-“A person should get the liberty up to that extent where no other individual has any harm.
(c) Legal liberty :- In every country, citizens should have the right w own their administrative system according to circumstances prevailing there. In independent India our constitution making assembly prepared draft giving the outlines of the new constitution. It was introduced in 192 This freedom to prepare their own contribution is known as legal freedom
(d) Natural liberty :- The concepts of natural liberty owes its origin the famous philosopher Rousseau’s. In his ‘State of Nature’ men enjoy natural liberty Idea of natural liberty is based upon the thesis that liber is natural to man. He is born with it. In modern times theory of natural liberty bears no significances. Liberty is modern times is considered as a civil society. Our liberty arises out of the membership of civilized of society.
(e) Economic liberty :- It includes those rights that are enjoyed by man concerning his livelihood. Economic liberty implies absence of unemployment exploitation, unfair wage, standard living insecurity etc. Thus when states ensure employment to all citizens and make them free rom the tyranny of the employers, we say that the citizens enjoy economic liberty. Significance of economic liberty cannot be under estimated. Political liberty or civil liberty becomes meaning less the absence of economic liberty.
(f) Moral liberty :- Moral liberty implies personal autonomy for individual is the master of itself. Individual can attain it through a process of self sacrifice and self purification inherent in what the Ancient Indians called the satvik way life. Moral liberty is beyond the scope of the state. The state can provide all the necessary conditions for moral life; but can not make a human being moral if the doesn’t desire to be moral.
(g) Individual liberty :- Individual liberty means that the human being should have complete freedom in their personal and Individual matters. For example food, clothing, marriage religion, customs, traditions etc. are the personal matters of the human beings. The state or the government should not interfere in these matter of the individual. A great scholar of political science John Stuart Mill was a prominent supporter of individual liberty. According to him “a person should get the liberty up to that extent where no other individual has any them”
(h) Political liberty : Political liberty exists only in democracy. In this form of government, citizens have full freedom so participate is the government. They can elect their own representatives. They themselves save the right to be elected in the government services.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.9. Give two arguments in favour of positive liberty.
Ans : There are two forms of liberty
(i) Negative liberty.
(ii) Positive liberty.
Two arguments in favour of the positive liberty are give below.
(i) Positive liberty means absence of unjust and oppressive restring as Prof Sealey remarks “Liberty is opposite to over governments.”
(ii) It means ample and equal opportunities to all for self development, realization of one’s own “intellectual, emotional and sensuous potentialities
What do you understand by freedom of speech his ideas freely. This can be done in to two ways
(a) speaking. and
(b) writing. Therefore, the freedom of speech and expression has been guaranteed. One can speak before the public to express his ideas or one can write and express his ideas through papers, journals of books etc. There are the following Imitations of this freedom
(i) Security of the state.
(ii) Friendly relations with the foreign countries.
(iii) Contempt of court.
(iv) Defamation of any citizen.
Q.10. Discuss any two devices to protect liberty Or What are the safeguards of liberty?
Ans : The main devices which can be used for the protection of liberty are the following
(i) Decentralization of power :- concentration of the power of the government leads to dictatorship. Which is the negation of liberty distribution of power between the centre and state and making them independents of each other assures that there is no undue interference in the lives of the people.
(ii) Fundamental rights :- In the modern ages, the constitution is normally written and contains bill of rights. Government cannot violate or take away the right easily.
(iii) Separation of power :- According to Montesquire, the best safe guard of liberty is separation of powers. Each organ of the government will be allotted its work and there will be no undue interference in each other’s sphere, and people will safely enjoy their liberty.
(iv) Independence of judiciary :- Honest impartial and independent judiciary is the guardian of the rights of the people and the projector of their liberty.
Q.11. Suggest some of the safeguards which are essential for maintaining liberty?
Ans : In a modern society, it is essential to provide certain safeguards . These safeguards which usually provide are
(i) Separation of power :- There should be absolute separation of powers because without that there is every likelihood of its being misused. Power corrupts man and absolute power. So in the interest of liberty it is essential to have separation of powers.
(ii) Rigid and written constitution :- To safeguard the individuals liberty it is essential that constitution should be both written as well as rigid. A written constitution shall avoid vagueness whereas rigid constitution of law. rights of citizens. It keeps the individuals and various organs of state
(iii) Independence of judiciary :- Judiciary in the watch dog of the within their respective jurisdictions. It can declare laws as unconstitutional and ultra virus, if these rights go against the provisions of the constitution. certain fundamental rights. These are the minimum rights which each
(iv) Fundamental Rights :- Each state should guarantee its citizens citizen is sure to enjoy in all circumstances and which if denied either by the state or any other competent authority, can be challenged in the courts of law.
(v) Rule of Law :- There should be rule of law which implies that the citizens in a state, whether high or low should be treated by the same set up rules. There should be no separate codes of rules for the rich and the poor. In addition to this, every citizen should be given an opportunity to approach the counts when he feels that he is being denied certain right.
(vi) No Discretion :- To safe guard the liberty it is essential that executive government should not be vested with any discretion.
(vii) Absence of Privileges :- There should be no privileged classes in the society.
(viii) Democracy :- Democracy checks the authorities from becoming because persons in authority are bound to take the electorates at .
(ix) Vigilance :- It has been said that eternal vigilance is the price of . If the people are not vigilant their liberty can’t be safeguard.
Q.12. Describe the relation between liberty and authority.
Ans : Liberty and Authority: Modern society is sharply divided on the conception and interpretation of the term liberty and its relation with the sovereign authority of the state. Those who believe that liberty. The former view that liberty is absence of sovereign authority is very much condemned because it is argued that authority not only guarantees for all for expressing what is best in an individual.
It is therefore generally felt that basically it is wrong to believe that liberty of individual and authority of state are contradictory to each other but on the other hand, absolutely necessary and essential for one another. But there is a note of caution as well which is absolutely essential. Both liberty and authority must remain within their limits. As soon as one crosses the limitation one is bound to destroy the purpose for which it was being maintained.
Q.13. Explain the significance of the freedom of speech democracy.
Ans : There is no doubt that freedom of speech plays an important role in the process of democratization. Freedom of speech is a guarantee to citizens to participate effectively in the working of democracy. Likewise, a democracy is not viable and stable if individuals, including the leading rivals of the administration in power, lack the rights to free speech. When studying the relationship between democracy and freedom of speech, two questions that need to be asked, however, are whether it is democracy that justifies freedom of speech or it is freedom of speech that serves democracy? However, the ‘servant’ theory of freedom of speech has been subjected to considerable criticism.
The only decisive fact is that freedom of speech and democracy promoted and combined with each other during the process of democratic development. Further, the subtle relationship between freedom of speech and democracy is flexible. With the different models of democratic process that are adopted.
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