Class 11 Political Science Chapter 11 Introduction to Political Theory The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 11 Political Science Chapter 11 Introduction to Political Theory and select need one.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 11 Introduction to Political Theory
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Introduction to Political Theory
Chapter – 11
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – B
Q.1. Define Politics.
Ans : For a long time politics has been regarded as a study of the state Garner says that “politics begins and ends up with the state.” There are traditional scholars who regard politics as the study of government. Seelay says that politics “investigates the phenomena of government as political economy deals with wealth, Biology deals with life, Algebra with numbers and geometry with space and magnitude. Gilchrist lays that polities deals with the state and government.
Q.2. Write the meaning of modern politics.
Ans : If the traditional meaning of polities as the study of the state or government or both is incomplete. The modern meaning of politics is the study of power or the struggle for power.
Q.3. Write the characteristics constituting the meaning of politics?
Ans : Some of the characteristic features which may be found in any meaning of politics are as follows-
(i) Politics is about power.
(ii) Politics involves an activity.
(iii) Politics as the study of political system, itself a part of social system.
(iv) Politics is found in a system which is ‘political in nature.
(v) Politics is related to what is political or what influences.
(vi) Politics includes government and its institutions.
(vii) Politics involves a pattern of political relation ship those who command on the one hand and those who command on the one hand and those who obey on the other.
Q.4. What is the meaning of the theory of class struggle?
Ans : The opposing classes have to oppose each other. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle freemen and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild master and journeyman oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another. The unity of both the classes separately resulted in the war. The actors, change but the war always has the same character. The class struggle is of positive character in so far as it launches the beginning of a new era from primitive communist society to the slave – owning society from the salve – owning society to the feudal society, from the feudal society to the capitalist society and from the capitalist society to the socialist society and then to the communist society.
Q.5. What are the characteristic features of class struggle?
Ans : The following characteristic features can be seen in class struggle.
(i) The common interest is nothing more than the interest of economically dominant class.
(ii) The conflict among the Individuals and groups are not natural. They are the result of the class society.
(iii) Classes originate because of the origin of private ownership of the means of production.
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.6. What is the significance of political theory? Or Why do we need political theory?
Ans : A theory is described as one that enables us to organise our knowledge, orient our research and interpret our findings. But it is theory seen as a science, as a methodology and as a technique for reaching goal seen as a philosophy a theory is the enunciation of general rules and laws as to how a man must live, a state be ordered and a society be organized, so seen, a theory is an end in itself in itself Political Theory as a philosophy of attempts to find out what the truth is in a particular situation to generalize or an from that what the truth would be in different state of circumstances a then to advocate views with all the passion at its command. Accordingly political theory would continue to be needed as is needed science As a science political theory can perform certain useful functions. David Easton mentions some such functions.
(i) The existence and wide acceptance of consensus by workers in the field, on a theoretical frame workers in the field, on a theoretical frame work, would enable the results of the various researchers be compared. It would help in the verification of conclusions draw by the earlier researches and may also reveal the areas of research which require more empirical work.
(ii) To identify the significant political variables and describe the mutual relations. To ensure this, an analytical scheme is essential This would render research meaningful and arrange facts leading to generalizations.
(iii) Finally the existence of a theoretical frame work or at least , a relatively consistent body of concepts making research more reliable Political theory serves as a teacher, a guide and a philosopher of men in general and in their attempts to comprehend and control the whole environment both social and natural. If is worth nothing the significance of political theory as indicated by Wright and Mills.
(a) Political theory is itself a social reality. It is an ideology in terms of which certain institutions and practices are justified and others attacked it provides the phrases in which demands are raised, proclamations formulated and at times, policies determined.
(b) It contains theories of man, society and history, or at least assumptions, about what are held to be its most important elements and how these elements are typically related; its major points of conflict and how these conflicts are resolved. It suggests the methods of study appropriate to its theories. From these theories and with those methods expectations are desired.
(c) It is an ethic, an articulation of ideals which at various levels of generality and sophistication is used in judging man, events and movements and as goals and guidelines for aspirations and policies.
(d) It designates agencies of action, of the means of reform, revolution and conservation. It contains strategies and programmes that embody sis and means. It designates in short, the historical levels by which are to be won or maintained often they have been won.
(e) It contains theories of man, society and history or at least eins about how society is made up and how if works, about what it to be if most important elements and how these elements are y related; its major points of conflict and how these conflicts are livet . If suggests the methods of study appropriate to its theories. se these theories and with those methods expectations are desired.
Q.7. What is a class?
Ans : Lenin has defined classes “as large groups of people which differ each other –
(i) By the place they occupy in a historically determined system of social production.
(ii) By their relation to the means of production
(iii) By their role in the social organization of labour, and consequently.
(iv) By the dimensions and mode of acquiring the share of social wealth.
So understood, they are either
(i) Master or Slaves
(iii) Owners or non-owners
(iv) Non-doers or doers Profiteers or wage earners
Q.8. How do the classes originate?
Ans : According to Marx when the means of production did not exists, here were no classes. But with the gradual development of productive the forces the people began to identify the means of production, to produce more than what was needed. As a result accumulation of material, wealth appropriation of the means of production became possible. This was beginning of private properly, owning class and the exploitation of those who did not own. That is how that the masters exploited feudal lords, coercing the serfs in the feudal society, and the capitalists oppressing the proletariat.
Q.9. Write the characteristics of politics as the pursuit of common Goods.
Ans : The following characteristics of politics as the pursuit of com good are notable
(a) Politics is not merely an agency for reconciling the conflict interest of the individuals. The emphasis is not on the individ but on what is common’ for all the individuals. Politics disun what is common for all and thereafter, promotes the Spire commonalty.
(b) Politics is not class struggle’ as the Marxists insist. If it were then dictatorship of the proletariat, however traditional it mighty would not have been, as Lenin said, better mean the bourge A state quantitatively as well as qualitatively class permeation, not class conflict, is the essence of the state.
(c) The idea of common good presupposes a state that serves end fre the one that orders. Benn and Peters say that the state alone peculiarly fitted to achieve common good.
(d) Polities exists to pursue common good. The range of common lies between protection on the one end and development conservation on the other. It begins with the establishment of so order and ends up in e state that serves all. act
Q.10. Write the relationship between Economics and Politics Science.
Ans : Economics is a social science the seeks to describe the factors An seek to determine the factors of production, distribution, and consumption) of goods and services. It was earlier known as Political economy but the name was later changed during the 19th century. Its primarily focuses on the interaction between the economic agents , large and small economies.
Political Science is however at the other end of the spectrum its a son wh science discipline that deals with systems of government the analysis political activity and political behavior. It deals with the practice of pola However political science does draw upon a vast number of other : like economics law anthropology etc
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