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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 18 Secularism
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Chapter – 18
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PART – B
Q.1. Define Dharma According to Dharmashastras.
Ans : According to dharmashastras dharma can be defined as the basis of the Vedic traditions “Dharma of each person determined by the position one occupied the society system of varnas. Dharma is accepted as a set of prescriptions and prohibitions. The Buddhist literature highlights it as the basic feature of conscience.
Q.2. What do you mean by a secular state?
Ans : The secular state is a state which guarantees individual and corporate freedom of religion, deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion, is not constitutionally connected to a particular religion nor does it seek either to promote or interfere with religion upon closer examination it will be seen that the conception of a secular state involves three distinct but interrelated sets of relationship concerning the state, religion and the individual.
Q.3. What is the meaning of the term secularism?
Ans : Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided by religion. According to a New English dictionary, secularism denotes the absence of connection with religion. Secular literature mean literature that is not concerned with or devoted to the service of religion. Likewise secular education means a curriculum where religious education is excluded. In very simple words secularism signifies the separation of the state and the religion.
Q.4. Examine the importance of dharma in our social, Political and civil life.
Ans : Dharma has a significant role in our social, political and civil life Dharma subscribes to the moral actions. A person takes responsibility, one’s motives and intentions. It is assumed that one can’t be he accountable for the consequences of one’s actions. Dharma prepares the individuals to know the truth and to know the real or right course of action It also refers to the highest virtue and spiritual efforts. It also talks about what one should do or should not do.
Q.5. What is the meaning of the term Satya?
Ans : Satya means that one should adhere to truth. That is each and every individual should follow the rules of dharma. Those acts which ar done by the spiritual power or by the will of soul, are right. We have to for ourselves but we should be aware that the act should not be harmful for others.
Q.6. What do you mean the term Ahimsa.
Ans : Ahimsa means non-violence i.e. not kill any one. Gandhiji wanted to follow Ahimsa in thought, speech and action. To mould one’s mind i should in such a fashion that one did not think in terms of injuring feeling of anybody else and resistance of evil by love is called Ahimsa.
Q.7.Is India a secular State?
Ans : India is a secular State. The term secular means that the state has no religion of its own. The state is neither religious nor anti religious. The Constitution from Articles 25 to 28 the Right to Freedom of Religion state observes complete neutrality in religious matter. In the Indian been granted to all the persons residing in India. Accordingly all the person are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to free progress, practise and propagate the religion of their choice.
Q.8. What do you man by word secular?
Ans : The ‘term’‘Secular’ means non-spiritual having no concern religious or spiritual matters.
Q.9. What are the characteristics secularism?
Ans : The most important characteristics of Indian Secularism are-
(i) Indian Secularism is not a static but is dynamic affair. It is not blind but an enlightened one in the sense that, while it disallows the religion to interfere in the sphere of the former.
(ii) Indian Secularism not merely looks to the religion in keeping it off from the sphere of state, it goes ahead in the direction of combating communalism.
(iii) It is owing to the actual Practice of dynamic secularism in our country that special sears are reserved for the members of the back ward and depressed classes not only in matters of their admission into public institutions but also in respect of public employments and elections. Special care is given to the upliftment of the weaker sections of the people of our country.
(iv) The union and the state governments may be seen to have been given due representation to the minority communities of the country. The election of Dr. Zakir Hussain, Fakruddin Ahmed and Dr. A. P. J. Abdul kalam as the President of India are the examples of secularism similarly our prime minister Dr. Manmohan Singh is also well taken as the triumph of secularism in our country.
Q.10. Describe the main points of secularism embodied in the constitution of Indian.
Ans : The ideal of secularism, as embodied in the constitution is based on the principle to which the congress under Mahatma Gandhi remained so irrevocably wedded; it also indicates that our founding father furnished a brilliant example to under the of two-nation theory of Jinnah that become the basis of our country’s partition. Thus, a leading member Shri Anantha Sayanam Ayyanger Stated in the constitution Assembly on 7 Dec. 1948, “We are pledged to make the state a secular one. I do not by the world secular mean that we never-believe in any religion, and we have nothing to do with it in our day to day life. It only means that the state or the Government cannot aid one religion as against another. Therefore, it is obliged to be absolutely secular in character.
Our constitution like the Turkish constitution of 1945, for example, now where uses the word “secular’ in quite direct and unambiguous terms, its secular character is traceable in these important directions :
(i) The preamble to the constitution speaks of the liberty to all citizens in relation to various important matters that include faith, belief and
(ii) Article 14 says that the state shall not deny to any person before law of equal protection of law within the territory of India equality .
(iii) Article 15 says that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on various grounds in which religion, race and their conspicuous place. It is further provided that on caste have several grounds no citizen be subjected to any liability or disability regard to access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainments and the Use of wells, tanks, bathing roads, places of public resort wholly or partly maintained by the state funds.
(iv) Article 16 says that no citizens on several around like those of religious race or caste among others, shall be intangible for, or employment, not shall the be denied admission it so any educational institution wholly or partly maintained by the state.
(v) Article 17 says that untouchability is abolished and its practice in (v) any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of untouchability shall be an offence punishable under the la
(vi) Article 25 Provides that every religious denomination or any sections there of shall have the right to profess, practice or propagate an religion.
(vii) Article 26 Provides that every religions denomination or any section of shall have the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious purposes, to manage its own affairs in matters of religion to own acquirers movable and immovable property and to administers such property in accordance with law.
(viii) Article 27 Says that no person shall be compelled to pay any taxes the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religious denomination
(ix) Article 28 provides that no religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly or partly maintained by the state
(x) Finally, Article 29 provides that the state shall not impose upon it any culture other then community’s own culture and that every community shall have the right to establish and administer educational management institution by a minority community on the ground that it is under the management of a religions community. these provisions of the constitution boldly declare that India is a secular . As Basu says, “The sum total of the above provision makes our more secular then even the united state of America,
|Unit 1||PART – A|
|Chapter 1||Constitution: Why and How?|
|Chapter 2||Rights in the Indian Constitution|
|Chapter 3||System of Representational Democracy|
|Chapter 8||Local Government|
|Chapter 9||Constitution as a Living Document|
|Chapter 10||The Philosophy of the Constitution|
|Unit 2||PART – B|
|Chapter 1||Introduction to Political Theory|
|Chapter 4||Social Justice|
Q.11. Explain the ancient Indian concept of Dharma Or Explain the meaning of Dharma according to Mahabharata.
Ans : Dharma is widely discussed in Shanti Parva of Mahabharata. The view propounded were is a combination of theoretical and practical considerations. The basic view of Dharma is that it subscribes to a moral action. The concept lays stress upon the fact that each individual has his own nature and temperament and dharma’ for one consists in realisation of his/her potential in the context of place one occupies in society. An individual should fulfil its duty to work for others that is Nishkarma. Dharma is related to four ends of life.
These are dharma, anth, Kama and moksha. Dharma is the controlling factor to the other ends.
Q.12. Is India a secular state? Give reason in support of your answer.
Ans : India is a secular state originally it was not declared a secular state though the preamble of the constitution but later an vide 42nd Amendment has also been added.
Secularism means that the political system and running of administration should be based upon a civil secular rational ideology and the state should have leave the task of coordination among different religious and being about unity among them into the hands of voluntary social organization. It is the duty of a secular state to have a neutral impartial and judicious out took in the matters of religion. This point of view of secularism lays emphasis on the following things should be considered a personal matter of the
(i) Religion and beliefs should be considered a personal matter of the individual.
(ii) Civil administrative set-up should be free from influence of religion dominated parties and religious organizations.
(iii) Only those laws, which have been made and amended by the elected representative of the people should be enforced in the society.
(iv) Democratic setup should be adopted which is based not on any based on any religion particular ideology based on any religion. It means the political system should not be a theocratic.
(v) Society should accept a temper and inquiry involving rejection of dogma and the affirmation of programme.
(vi) There should be recognition of equality of status and opportunity for men and women irrespective of caste, colour and Creed.
(vii) There should be recognition to fraternity of citizens and not as members of some religious or linguistic or ethnic groups.
Q.13. What are the factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India?
Ans : Following are the factors responsible for the growth of Communalism in India:
(i) Divide and Rule Policy of the British:- The British rulers adopted the policy of “Divide and Rule’ to strengthen their roots while living in India. They divided the people of various communities of India and spread the feeling of distrust among them and hence they sowed the seeds of communalism in India.
(ii) Political Organisations:- Different communal organisations are found in India which have created hatred among the people of various religious communities by propagating, and hence they are the root cause of communalism.
(iii) Inertia indifferent Government:- When the government does not take proper action at the proper time, communalism spreads among the subjects. Sometimes the government favours on the religion and leave others which create differences.
(iv) Ineffective Handling of Communal Riots :- Sometimes as the state governments have been proved ineffective to curb the communal riots in their respective states. It also results in spreading communalism. As a result of the above factors, communalism is raising its ugly face in India after the Independence and also creating great problems even in the working of Indian political system.
Q.14. Discuss the Indian model of secularism.
Ans : Sometimes it is said that Indian secularism is an imitation of western secularism. But a careful reading of our Constitution shows that this is not the case. Indian secularism is fundamentally different from Western secularism. Indian secularism does not focus only on church-state separation and the idea of inter-religious equality is crucial to the Indian conception. Let us elaborate this further. What makes Indian secularism distinctive? For a start it arose in the context of deep religious diversity that predated the advent of Western modern ideas and nationalism. There was already a culture of inter-religious “tolerance’ in India. However, we must not forget that tolerance is compatible with religious domination. It may allow some space to everyone but such freedom is usually limited. Besides, tolerance allows you to put up with people whom you find deeply repugnant. This is a great virtue if a society is recovering from a major civil war but not in times of peace where people are struggling for equal dignity and respect. The advent of western modernity brought to the fore hitherto neglected and marginalised notions of equality in Indian thought.
It sharpened these ideas and helped us to focus on equality within the community. It also ushered ideas of inter-community equality to replace the notion of hierarchy. Thus Indian secularism took on a distinct form as a result of an interaction between what already existed in a society that had religious diversity and the ideas that came from the west. It resulted in an equal focus on intra-religious and inter-religious domination.
Indian secularism equally opposed the oppression of Dalits and women within Hinduism, the discrimination against women within Indian Islam or Christianity, and the possible threats that a majority community might pose to the rights of the minority religious communities. This is its first important difference. from mainstream western secularism. Connected to it is the second Influence. Indian secularism deals not only with religious freedom minority communities. Within it, an individual has the right to profess the religion of his or her choice. Likewise, religious minorities also have a right to exist and to maintain their own culture and educational institutions. A third difference is this. Since a secular state must be concerned equally with intra-religious domination, Indian secularism has made room for and is compatible with the idea of state-supported religious reform. Thus, the Indian constitution bans untouchability. The Indian state has enacted several laws abolishing child marriage and lifting the taboo on inter-caste marriage sanctioned by Hinduism.
It should be clear by now why the complexity of Indian secularism cannot be captured by the phrase with “equal respect for all religions”. If by this phrase is meant peaceful coexistence of all religions or inter-religious toleration, then this will not be enough because secularism is much more than mere peaceful coexistence or toleration. If this phrase means an equal feeling of respect towards all established religions and their practices, then there is an ambiguity that needs clearing. Indian secularism allows for principled state intervention in all religions. Such intervention betrays disrespect to some aspects of every religion. For example, religiously sanctioned caste-hierarchies are not acceptable within Indian secularism. The secular state does not have to treat every aspect of every religion equally disrespect some aspects of organised religions.
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