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Class 10 Computer Science Chapter 1 Introduction To Computer Network
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Introduction To Computer Network
Chapter – 1
Key Terms (Basic Concepts)
● PAN: PAN is defined as the network that describes two or more devices that are connected to one another via Bluetooth.
● LAN: A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network contained within a small geographic area, usually within the same building.
● MAN: A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a computer network that connects computers within a metropolitan area.
● WAN: A Wide Area Network (WAN) have a large capacity. Connecting a large number of computers over a large area.
● NIC: A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component without which a computer cannot be connected over a network.
● Access point: An access point is a network device that creates a wireless network.
● Host: A host is any computer connected to a network.
● IP Address: it is a series of numbers that identifies any device on a network.
● MAC: A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a hardware identifier that uniquely identifies each device on a network.
● Router: A router is a type of network device which are used to interconnect two or more heterogeneous computer networks.
● protocol: Protocol is a set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices, such as computers.
● Encryption: Encryption is the process by which a readable message is converted to an unreadable form to prevent unauthorised person from reading it.
● ARP: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used to find the MAC (Media Access Control) address of a device from its IP address.
● DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that is used to configure network devices to communicate on an IP network.
● SSID: Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name of our wireless network, also known as Network ID.
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
I. FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1. The hostname command is used to display_____.
Ans. Name of the computer.
2. The length of a IPv4 and a IPv6 is____and___.
Ans. 32 bit; 128 bit.
3. An access point is used to connect_____.
Ans. Wireless network.
4. The ping command is used to verify____.
Ans. The connectivity between two computers.
5. HTTPS transfer______data.
II. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:
1. Which device is required to connect multiple heterogeneous networks?
(D) Access Point
Ans. (C) Router.
2. Which is the largest type of computer network?
Ans. (D) WAN.
3. Which protocol transfers encrypted data instead of plain data?
Ans. (B) HTTPS.
4. How many bytes are reserved for OUI in a MAC address?
Ans. (C) 24.
5. IP address can be automatically assigned if the network is connected with
(A) Access Point
(B) Mail Server
(C) Web Server
(D) DHPC Server
Ans. (D) DHPC Server.
III. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:
1. Mention the name of components required to set up a MAN network. Draw a block diagram of a MAN network labeling name of each component.
Ans. A MAN may use a local exchange carrier (LEC) to provide the connections between LANs and may connect to an internet exchange point for high-speed communication between the MAN and the public internet.
2. Why hostname should not be used to identify a computer in a computer network?
Ans. Hostname may not be unique always. There is a possibility that two or more comments in a computer network may have the same hostname. That is the reason, hostname should not be used to identify a computer in a computer network.
3. Give five examples of valid and five examples of invalid IPv4 addresses.
Ans. A valid IPv4 address must be in the form of A.B.C.D, where A,B,C and D are numbers from 0-255.
Examples of valid IPv4 addresses are:
Examples of invalid IPv4 addresses are:
● 0.168.120.26 (Any address that begins with 0 is invalid).
● 184.108.40.2060 (Any address with a number above 255 in it is invalid).
● 220.127.116.11.12 (Any address that has more than 3 dots is invalid).
● 18.104.22.168 (The number 255 should not appear in any of the octets. The number 255 is reserved for broadcast addressing).
● 2001.162 (A valid IPv4 address must consists of 4 octets).
4. Can we compare HTTP and FTP protocols? Mention their functionality.
Ans. Comparison between HTTP and FTP:
|Full – form||The term HTTP is a short form for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.||The term FTP is a short form for File Transfer Protocol.|
|Meaning||HTTP refers to a set of rules that determines the process of transfer of various web pages over various computers present on the internet.||FTP refers to the set of rules that basically allows the process of uploading and downloading files from a computer to the internet.|
|Uses||We use HTTP for providing various web pages from the web browser to the web server.||The URLs that use the HTTP protocol begin with HTTP.|
|Nature of URLs||The URLs that use the FTP protocol begin with FTP.||We use FTP for downloading as well as uploading files between a server and a client over the internet.5. How many 16 port switches are required to connect 31 computers in a network?|
5. How many 16 port switches required to connect 31 computers in a network?
Ans. A 16 port switch can connect 16 computers together. To connect 31 computers in a network, we need either a larger switch or 2 numbers of 16 port switches.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What is computer network?
Ans. Computer networking refers to interconnected computing devices that can exchange data and share resources with each other.
2. What are the different types of networks?
Ans. The different types of networks are:
PAN – Personal Area Network.
LAN – Local Area Network.
MAN – Wide Area Network.
3. What is PAN?
Ans. A personal Area Network (PAN) is a computer network for interconnecting electronic devices within an individual person’s workspace. A PAN provides data transmission among devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets and personal digital assistants.
4. What is LAN?
Ans. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network contained within a small geographic area, usually within the same building. Home Wi-Fi networks and small business networks are common examples of LANs.
5. What is MAN?
Ans. A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a computer network that connects computers within a metropolitan area, which could be a single large city, multiple cities and towns, or any given large area with multiple buildings.
6. What is WAN?
Ans. A Wide Area Network (WAN) have a large capacity, connecting a large number of computers over a large area. The best example of a Wide Area Network is the Internet.
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of computer network?
Central Storage of Data – Files can be stored on a central node (the file server) that can be shared and made available to each and every user in an organization.
Anyone can connect to a computer network – There is a negligible range of abilities required to connect to a modern computer network. The effortlessness of joining makes it workable for even youthful kids to start exploiting the data
Faster Problem-solving – Since an extensive procedure is disintegrated into a few littler procedures and each is taken care of by all the associated gadgets, an explicit issue can be settled in lesser time
Reliability – Reliability implies backing up information. Due to some reason equipment crashes, and so on, the information gets undermined or inaccessible on one PC, another duplicate of similar information is accessible on another workstation for future use.
It lacks robustness – If PC system’s principal server separates, the whole framework would end up futile. Also, if it has a bridging device or a central linking server that fails, the entire network would also come to a standstill.
It lacks independence – PC organizing includes a procedure that is worked utilizing PCs, so individuals will depend on a greater amount of PC work, rather than applying an exertion for their jobs that needs to be done.
Virus and Malware – On the off chance that even one PC on a system gets contaminated with an infection, there is a possibility for alternate frameworks to get tainted as well.
Cost of the network – The expense of executing the system including cabling and equipment can be expensive.
8. Define hostname.
Ans. A hostname is a label assigned to a device (a host) on a network. It distinguishes one device from another on a specific network or over the internet.
9. Define IP address. What is the use of IP address?
Ans. An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label that is assigned to network devices to identify them uniquely. In other words, it is a series of numbers that identifies any device on a network.
The purpose of an IP address is to handle the connection between devices that send and receive information across a network.
10. Can 2 devices have the same IP address?
Ans. An IP address conflict occurs when two or more devices on the same network are assigned the same IP address. Thus , no two devices can have the same IP address on one network.
11. What are the different types of IP address? Define them.
Ans. There are two types of IP address –
● Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) – They are used to identify machine connected to a network. IPv4 is a 32-bit binary number. IPv4 addresses are separated by periods.
● Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) – They are used to identify machines connected to a network. IPv6 is a 128-bit binary number address. IPv6 addresses are separated by colons.
12. Write the full form of:
Ans. (a) PAN – Personal Area Network.
(b) LAN – Local Area Network.
(c) MAN – Metropolitan Area Network.
(d) WAN – Wide Area Network.
(e) NIC – Network Interface Card
(f) IP – Internet Protocol.
(g) GUI – Graphical User Interface.
(h) DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
(i) MAC – Media Access Control Address.
(j) TCP – Transmission Control Protocol.
(k) POP – Post Office Protocol.
(l) SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
(m) HTTP – Hyper Text Control Protocol.
(n) HTTPS – Hyper Text Control Protocol Secure.
(o) HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language.
(p) SSID – Service Set Identifier.
(q) OUI – Organizational Unique Identifier.
(r) FTP – File Transfer Protocol.
13. Compare PAN, LAN, MAN and WAN.
|PAN is defined as the network that describes two or more devices that are connected to one another via Bluetooth.||LAN is defined as a computer network that links the local areas like schools, universities, organizations, etc||MAN is defined as a computer network that links the metropolitan areas.||WAN is defined as the telecommunications network that covers a large geographical area.|
|The full from of the PAN is Personal Area Network.||The full form of the LAN is Local Area Network.||The full form of MAN is Metropolitan Area Network.||The full form of WAN is a Wide Area Network.|
|A perfect example of a PAN is a cell phone connecting to a mobile computer connecting to a portable Bluetooth thermal printer.||LAN is a wired network, i.e., all the computers and printers are connected through wires.||The connections in MAN are connected through modem or cables/wires.||The network of WAN is connected through broadband services, 3G or 4G or 5G internet services, etc.|
14. Mention some uses of MAN.
Ans. Some of the Uses of MAN are:
● Digital cable television.
● Used in government agencies.
● Cable broadband.
● A network of fire stations.
● In airports.
15. What is the function of SSID?
Ans. SSID stands for Service Set Identifier which is 32 characters consisting alphanumeric letters. It acts as password to allow mobile or other computing devices to connect with the Wi-Fi network.
16. Define MAC.
Ans. MAC stands for Media Access Control. It is a unique identifier for network interfaces.
17. Distinguish between IP address and MAC.
Ans. The IP address of a device mainly helps in identifying the connection of a network (using which the device is connecting to the network).
The MAC Address, on the other hand, ensures the computer device’s physical location. It helps us to identify a given device on the available network uniquely.
18. How do we write MAC address?
Ans. The MAC address is a 12-digit hexadecimal number that is most often displayed with a colon or hyphen separating every two digits (an octet), making it easier to read.
An example of MAC Address: 2C:54:91:88:C9:E3 .
19. What are access point used for?
Ans. An access point is a device that creates a wireless local area network, usually in an office or large building.
20. What is another name of access point?
Ans. In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP), or more generally just access point (AP), is a networking hardware device that allows other Wi-Fi devices to connect to a wired network.
21. What is router and switch?
Ans. Router and Switch are both networks connecting devices. A router is a type of network device which is used to interconnect two or more heterogeneous computer networks whereas Switch connects various devices in a network. Router connects devices across multiple networks.
22. What is hub and switch?
Ans. A switch transmits data from one device to another in form of frames whereas a hub transmits data from one device to another in form of binary bits.
23. What is the difference between TCP and IP?
Ans. TCP and IP are two separate computer network protocols. IP is the part that obtains the address to which data is sent. TCP is responsible for data delivery once that IP address has been found.
24. What is the difference between POP and SMTP?
Ans. The difference between POP and SMTP are:
|SL. No.||Basis of difference||POP||SMTP|
|(i)||Full from||POP stands for Post Office Protocol.||SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.|
|(ii)||Uses||It is used for accessing messages.||It is used for sending messages.|
|(iii)||Architecture||It is implied between receiver and receiver mail server.||It is implied between sender mail server and receiver mail server.|
|(iv)||Application||POP is designed for receiving incoming emails.||SMTP is designed to send outgoing emails.|
25. What is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS?
Ans. The difference between HTTP and HTTPS are:
|SL. No.||Basis of difference||HTTP||HTTPS|
|(i)||Full from||HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.||HTTPS for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure.|
|(ii)||Structure||In HTTP, URL begins with “http://”.||In HTTPs URL starts with “https://”.|
|(iii)||Security||It is implied between receiver and receiver mail server||HTTPs is considered as secure.|
|(iv)||Security||In HTTP, Encryption is absent.||Encryption is present in HTTPS.|
26. What is FTP?
Ans. FTP servers are the solutions used to facilitate file transfers across the internet. If you send files using FTP, files are either uploaded or downloaded to FTP server.
27. What is the difference between FTP and HTTP?
Ans. FTP is used to upload or download files between client and server whereas HTTP is used to provide the web pages to the web browser from the webserver.
28. What is the IP ping command used for?
Ans. The ping command sends packets of data to a specific IP address on a network, and then lets you know how long it took to transmit that data and get a response.
29. How is ipconfig command useful?
Ans. The ipconfig command is a fast way of determining your computer’s IP address and other information, such as the address of its default gateway.
30. What is an arp command?
Ans. The arp command corresponds to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). ARP is a protocol for mapping an IP address to a physical MAC address on a local area network.