NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Psychology Notes Paper 328.

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 18 Personality Theories, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Personality Theories

Chapter: 18


Intext Questions & Answers

Q.1. Fill in the blank with suitable words: 

1. Freud has likened mind with an _____________.

Ans. iceberg.

2. In Psychoanalytic theory personality has three and structures, namely _____________, _____________ and _____________.

Ans. id, ego, superego.

3. Children repress their sexual impulses during _____________ stage.

Ans. latency.

Q.2. Match the names given in column A with concept given in column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Freud(i) introverted – stable
(b) Jung(ii) Need hierarchy 
(c) Eysenck(iii) Sublimation
(d) Bandura(iv) Collective unconscious
(e) Maslow(v) self efficacy


Column AColumn B
(a) Freud(iii) Sublimation
(b) Jung(iv) Collective unconscious
(c) Eyesenck(i) introverted-stable
(d) Bandura(v) self efficacy
(e) Maslow(ii) Need hierarchy

Q.3. State whether the following statements are True or False:

(a) Projection is failure to acknowledge the existence of unpleasant event information. True/False

Ans. False.

(b) Sublimation is canalization of sexual urge into productive, non sexual activities. True/False

Ans. True.

(c) Cattell has proposed 16 core traits of personality. True/False

Ans. True.

(d) Rogers has developed the concept of self efficacy True/False

Ans. False.

(e) Humanistic perspective is also called the third force in psychology. True/False

Ans. True.

Q.4. Name the guans mentioned in the Indian approach to personality.

Ans. Satva, Rajas, Tamas.

Q.5. Name the three categories of personality assessment. 

Ans. (i) Observational.

(ii) Self report.

(iii) Projective.

Q.6. Name two important projective tests of personality. 

Ans. Rorschach; TAT.

Q.7. What are the factors that influence personality?

Ans. Genetic factors, Early experience, Primary groups, culture.

Terminal Exercises

1. Describe the concept of personality. 

Ans. The term personality is used in a number of ways including the apparent features of a person. However, psychologists use it to refer to the characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. By characteristic pattern we mean the consistent and distinctive ways our ideas, feelings and actions are organised. When we talk about personality we usually refer to the totality or whole of the person. Thus, the enduring pattern expressed by the person in various situations is the hallmark of personality. Interestingly the theories of personality go beyond the literal meaning of “personality” which stands for large masks used byactors in ancient Greek drama. Contrary to this the personality theorists view ‘personality’ as the essence of the person. It is a person’s “true” inner nature. The unique impression that a person makes on others is equally important in understanding personality. However the concept of personality has been defined by psychologists in many ways and it is the theoretical perspective or position which directs our attention to particular aspects of personality.

Understanding personality has proved to be a difficult and challenging task. It’s so complex that no single theory is able to cover the total personality. The different theories approach the structure and functioning of personality from different positions. There are many theories of personality each providing different answers about the way they treat the issues about personality functioning. In particular, they provide different explanations about the role of conscious/unconscious factors, determinism/ freedom in functioning, role of early experience, role of genetic factors, uniqueness/universality etc. In the present lesson you will learn about four major theoretical perspectives of personality. They include psychoanalytic, trait, humanistic and social-cognitive perspectives. 

2. What are main four perspectives to understand personality? 

Ans. (a) Genetic factors:

Almost all theorists consider heredity as a major determinant of personality. Some like Freud, view personality as purely biological. However, others the value of social and cultural factors. In fact it would be wrong to view the question in either or manner and give more emphasis to heredity or environment. Studies of behaviour genetics suggest that most personality variables are 15 to 50 percent inheritable.

(b) Early experience:

Most of the theorists of personality think that personality development is a continuous process. The early years play very important role in the shaping of personality. However, the immediate environment and experiences are also found to be of immense value.

(c) Primary groups: 

While explaining personality development family is found to play a critical role. The early relationships with family members of family are particularly important. Freud thought that many of the problems during adult life are due to problematic child rearing practices leading to emotional disturbances. The sense of identity and relevance of appropriate modelling has been emphasised.

(d) Culture: 

living in one culture often share similar practices, beliefs and values. The child is expected to learn to behave in the manner expected by the culture. For instance boys and girls are expected to show different sets of personality characteristics. The various occupational roles are also shaped by culture. However, the effect of culture may not be uniform for everyone belonging to that culture because they are transmitted through different ways and persons and people also have certain unique experiences.

3. What is meant by need hierarchy? List all these needs. 

Ans. These theories propose that within each individual is an active creative force, often called “self”. This force seeks expression. It develops and grows. This perspective, also known as the third force, emphasizes human potential and characteristics like self-awareness and free will. It views human beings as innately good. The conscious and subjective perception of self is considered very important. Carl Rogers and Abraham

Maslow are the main proponent of the humanistic perspective. Abraham Maslow proposed the idea of self actualized people. He proposed that human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of needs. As shown in figure 18.2 human needs are organised from physiological needs to self transcendence.

Maslow notes that the self actualized people have realistic perception, are spontaneous, easily accept self and others, are creative, and enjoy and appreciate positive aspects of life, like privacy and independence.

Carl Rogers thinks that the basic human motive is actualizing tendency. It is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism. Rogers observed that people are motivated to act in accordance with their self concept. They deny or distort the experiences that are contrary to their self-concept. The ideal condition for development is unconditional positive regard. His notion of a fully functioning individual is that the self-concept is flexible and evolving. It holds an optimistic view of human beings.

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