NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence

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NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Psychology Notes Paper 328.

NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Psychology Chapter 15 Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Understanding Individual differences: the case of Intelligence

Chapter: 15

PSYCHOLOGY

Intext Questions & Answers

Q.1. Choose the correct alternative:

(i) Scores of a large group of persons on intelligence test will show distribution in which majority will get:

(a) Low scores.

(b) Moderate scores.

(c) High scores.

(d) Extremely high scores.

Ans. (b) Moderate scores.

(ii) The first test of intelligence is associated with:

(a) Binet.

(b) Spearman.

(c) Terman.

(d) Raven.

Ans. (a) Binet.

(iii) Who has stated that intelligence consists of multiple factors?

(a) Thurstone.

(b) Guilford.

(c) Vernon.

(d) Sternberg.

Ans. (a) Thurstone.

(iv) The view which conceptualises intelligence in terms of operations, contents and products is known as:

(a) Systems model.

(b) Structure of intellect.

(c) Hierarchical model.

(d) G factor model.

Ans. (b) structure of intellect.

Q.2. Choose the correct alternative:

(i) Which one of the following does not deal with non cognitive aspect of intelligence:

(a) Practical intelligence.

(b) Social intelligence.

(c) Emotional intelligence.

(d) Process model of intelligence.

Ans. (d) process model of intelligence.

(ii) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is derived using the following formula:

(a) MA/ CA+ 100

(b) MA/ CA x100

(c) CA/ MA x 100

(d) CA/ MA+ 100

Ans. (b) MA/ CA ×100

(iii) Wechsler test provides a measure of:

(a) Specific abilities.

(b) Verbal ability.

(c) Processes of intelligence.

(d) General ability.

Ans. (d) General ability.

(iv) An intelligence test must have the following-

(a) Norms.

(b) Validity.

(c) Reliability.

(d) All of the above.

Ans. (d) all of the above.

(v) Intelligence tests do not help in:

(a) Guidance.

(b) Personal selection.

(c) Measurement of learning.

(d) Measurement of problem solving ability.

Ans. (c) measurement of learning.

Terminal Exercises

1. Show your acquaintance with the different ways in which the concept of intelligence is used by psychologists.

Ans. The composition of intelligence whether it is unitary or multi componential has been a matter of curiosity. Using a correlational technique called factor analysis several researchers have tried to uncover the structure of intelligence.

Intelligence as a General (G) Factor 

Spearman proposed that we possess one general intelligence factor (g) and many specific factors (s) which are specific to particular abilities. The g factor runs across all types of abilities. It is expressed in the ability to understand abstract relations.

Multiple Factors of Intelligence

Thurstone proposed that intelligence consists of 7 factors namely, verbal comprehension, word fluency, number, space, associative memory, perceptual speed and induction (or general reasoning). He developed a test of perceptual speed and induction (or general reasoning). He developed a test of Primary Mental Abilities (PMA) to measure these factors. 

2. Describe the properties of a psychological test used in assessing intelligence. 

Ans. With a view to provide a comprehensive measure of intelligence Guilford has proposed another view point. He terms it as the structure-of-intellect (SI) model. This model classifies intellectual traits along the main three dimensions.

Operations: What a person does? Operations include cognition, memory, divergent production (creativity), convergent production, and evaluation.

Contents: This refers to the nature of the materials or information on which operations are performed. These include visual, auditory, symbolic (e.g., letters, numbers), semantic (e.g., words) and behavioural and Figural (information about person’s behaviour, attitudes, needs etc.) 

Products: This refers to the form in which information is processed by a person. Products are classified into units, classes, relations, system transformations and implications.

Thus it is clear that the factorial viewpoint presents a view of intelligence in terms of trait organisation. The variety of traits thus identified is perplexing. Here, the readers should remember that the traits identified through the technique of factor analysis are simply an expression of the degree of relationship among behavioural measures. They are descriptive categories. The trait organisation is influenced by the experiential background of the people who are performing the task. 

The differences found across groups, socio-economic levels and types of school curricula in trait organisation lend support to this view. Looking at the plethora of research using factor analysis Anastasi has rightly concluded that human intelligence consists of “that combination of cognitive skills and knowledge demanded, fostered, and rewarded by the experiential context within which the individual functions.”

3. Describe one test of intelligence and indicate its possible uses. 

Ans. This view point is related to cognitive science tradition. In particular the information processing model is very relevant to it. It traces the processes of acquisition, representation and use of information in undertaking intellectual activities. Let us learn about some of the models emphasising the process view of intelligence.

Triarchic Theory: 

After rejecting the factorial or psychometric approach Robert Sternberg analysed intelligence in three aspects i.e. componential, experiential and contextual.

The componential aspect includes those processes which are employed by a person taking a test in responding to the items of standardised intelligence tests. Its constituents include meta component or higher order control processes, performance component, acquisition component and transfer component. The second aspect namely experiential one refers to the way people’s mental world and the outer or external world are related to each other. It adds creativity to the notion of intelligence. In reality a person’s intelligence shapes his or her experiences. Also, the experience which one has influences intelligence. The third aspect of intelligence is contextual. It refers to the way individuals share their environments, adapt to them and try to get maximum from the available resources. It is also called practical intelligence.

Theory of Multiple Intelligences: 

Howard Gardner has argued that there are multiple intelligences. He says that intelligence is not a single entity, rather there are multiple intelligences each distinct from others. He has so far identified eight types of intelligence: linguistic, logical, mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and natural. The value of these is determined by their relevance to culture in which people live. Different cultures assign different degrees of importance to each of these intelligences.

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