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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 35 Political Executive And Bureaucracy
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Political Executive And Bureaucracy
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 35.1
Q. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The parliamentary system rests on two Pillars of ………… and ………… executive. (social / political / economic / administrative)
Ans. political, administrative.
(b) The Prime Minister and the Council of fall under the ………….. category. (social / economic / political)
(c) Main function of the political executive is …………… (decision making / film making)
(d) Main function of the administrative executive is ………….. (policy implementation / lection campaigning)
Ans. Policy implementation.
(e) Bureaucracy is selected on the basis of …………. (wealth / merit)
(f) Concept of bureaucracy was first developed by German philosopher ………….. (Karl Marx / Max Weber).
Ans. Max Weber.
(g) Max Weber described bureaucracy as the ………… and most ………. form of government. (rotten / efficient / slow / rational)
Ans. Rational, efficient.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 35.2
Q. Fll in the blanks:
(a) ………. is the main mechanism through the state implements its development programmes.
(b) Bureaucracy no longer performs only …………… functions. It performs ……….. functions to.
Ans. regulatory, welfare.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 35.3
Q. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Conventional view of public administration is based upon the dichotomy of …………. and ………..
Ans. Administration, politics.
(b) The doctrine of ……….. insulates the civil service from any …………
Ans. Neutrality, politicisation.
(c) In India,Civil Service Conduct Rules ………….. government employees to participate in politics.
(d) It is now an accepted fact that bureaucracy contributes to both, policy ………… and policy ………….
Ans. Making, implementation.
(e) Minister is rarely an expert in his field so he is forced to rely on the ………… for facts and advice.
(f) ………… referred to Indian Bureaucracy as a major stumbling block and reiterated the necessity of creating a ………… bureaucracy.
Ans. Indira Gandhi, committed.
(g) Bureaucracy was criticised for not demonstrating enough ………… to development needs and programmes.
Q.1. Define Bureaucracy.
Ans. Bureaucracy with such formal characteristics is considered essential for running any large organisation.To quote Max Weber “the decisive reason for the advance of Bureaucratic organisation has always been its Purely technical superiority over any other form of organisation precision,speed,unambiguity,reduction of friction and of material and personal costs-these are raised to the optimum level in the structurally bureaucratic administration”.
Q.2. Explain the role of bureaucracy in development.
Explain the role of bureaucracy in the development of a nation.
Ans. Role of bureaucracy in development:
(i) Bureaucracy has become a universal phenomenon. It is a prerequisite of modernization of every society. Most developing countries are engaged in the process of nation building and bringing about rapid socio-economic development, i.e. providing social services such as health, education, infrastructure like roads, electricity, productive activities in agriculture, industry, etc.
(ii) The complex of such formidable activities connected with the development enterprise is essentially government’s responsibility.Here,public administration becomes the key agency of development.Bureaucracy can immensely contribute to development by serving as an adviser,as an inventor,and a decision-maker.
(iii) It can vitalize administration by building a social environment emphasising responsibility by creating incentives,by encouraging healthy competition and self development,by organising institutional management under competent and progressive leadership and by delegating authority to lower levels for maximising development.
(iv) Bureaucracy constitutes the apparatus and mechanism through which the state realises its purposes.It has been rightly said that a country’s life is largely shaped by the quality of administration.A plan can succeed only if its administrative implications have been worked out in detail.
(v) A high degree of bureaucratic competence is essential to push through speedy development measures. In most developing countries the problem is not the inability of the governments to devise rational programmes for development, but their incapacity to carry them out.
Q.3. What are the major characteristics of Weber’s model of bureaucracy?
Ans. Max Weber,the German social scientist who was the first to make systematic study of bureaucracy described it as the rational and the most efficient form of organisation.He described an ideal-type of bureaucracy as one characterised by:
1. Officials organised in fixed jurisdictional areas.
2. A hierarchical arrangement of offices (organised in a pyramid-like structure with each lower office under the control of a higher one).
3. Written documents (files) that contain rules to be applied in every case.
5. Impersonality in applying the rules uniformly.
6. Political neutrality.
Q.4. Explain the principle of politics-administration dichotomy.
Ans. principle of Politics-administration dichotomy:
(i) The conventional view of public administration is based upon the dichotomy of politics and administration, i.e. administration and politics should be kept separate.
(ii) Politics or policy-making is the proper activity of the legislative bodies and administration is the proper activity of administrators who carry out policies. It is opposed to any political role of the civil servants. It visualises the relationship between the administrator and the politician in terms of a neat division of labour the politician formulates the policy and the administrator executes it.
(iii) The bureaucrat acts as pure adviser to his political master,presents facts of the case, suggests lines of action and implications of alternative policies.
(iv) It is the prerogative of the political master to decide the policy.
(v) The bureaucrat is expected to implement the policy faithfully, whatever the decision.He is to be anonymous and neutral in the discharge of his duty.He is expected to render impartial advice without fear or favour.
(vi) The doctrine of neutrality and anonymity has been one of the fundamental the Weberian model of bureaucracy. It insulates the bureaucrat from any politicisation and makes him professional in his tenets outlook.
(vii) The planners in India too subscribed to the Weberian ideal of neutral civil service. In our country, the Civil Service Conduct Rules prohibit the government employees from active participation in political activities.
(viii) Except for the limited right of voting in secret,a government employee cannot participate in any way in any political movement or activity including election campaigns.He cannot join a political party even as an inactive member or contribute financially to its funds;he cannot express any opinion on political issues;and he cannot stand for election to any legislature.
(ix) An impersonal,strictly rule-bound, neutral bureaucracy was expected not only to provide the necessary administrative objectivity but also enhance the democratic principle of equality and provide protection from arbitrary rule.
Q.5. Enumerate the factors responsible for the breakdown of the concept of neutrality.
Ans. I. Decline of Neutrality Concept: The traditional concept of neutrality,however,has been challenged on many grounds.The earlier concept of separation of politics and administration in watertight compartments is considered no more valid. The role of the Civil Service has been changing from being a mere agent of the political executive to that of collaboration with it.The involvement of bureaucracy in political arena is now widely prevalent.The breakdown of the theory of neutrality has come about because of a number of reasons.
II. Responsible factors:
1. Firstly, (a) the processes of policy-making are no longer confined to the political executive.The truth is that the bureaucrats play an important role in policy-formulation, perceived to be the exclusive preserve of elected politicians.This has happened because the statutes passed by the parliament are not clear enough.
(b) The legislative behaviour follows no consistent pattern whereas,some measures are too detailed,some only identify the problem.The minister is rarely an expert in the work of his department or the techniques of public administration.He merely has general ideas in line with the political ideology of his party,but he often is not sure what is the best solution to a particular problem.He is, therefore,forced to rely on his permanent staff for facts and advice.In effect then,it is the administrator who has a major role in framing the policy.
2. Secondly, (a) the decline of neutrality can be attributed to the demands and pressures of coalition politics.In coalition governments,ministers are busy in the power game and manoeuvring for their survival,and have neither time nor inclination to guide,direct and control their department or bureaucracy.Also at times,the legislative process is so stormy and full of diverse views that a statute passed incorporates a number of a contradictory policy guidelines.
(b) The necessity of reaching a compromise solution to hold the coalition together leads the legislators to use vague language and the administrator has to use his own judgement to interpret the policy. Therefore, bureaucracy has clearly made inroads in policy-making and despite the regulations governing the civil servants they have been politicised considerably.
3. Thirdly, (a) according to some political commentators, the classical theory of civil service neutrality presupposes agreement on principles fundamental to democracy. In other words,neutral,value-free bureaucracy is possible only in a society where consensus exists on values; but in transitional societies like India,where dissent and conflict exist it is too much to expect anyone to be neutral.
(b) For a developing country like India where speedy socio-economic development has to be steadily pushed through,the nature and character of bureaucracy assume special significance.
4. The involvement of civil servants in numerous decisions be it the location of a steel plant or a school building in a village,makes them partners in development along with the politicians.Their value preferences get inextricably mixed up with technical advice.
5. In the context of large-scale welfare programmes, therefore, neutrality is not possible.In fact a certain commitment to the goals and objectives of the state on the part of bureaucracy is inescapable.Neutrality cannot be allowed to degenerate into disinterestedness.
6. The successful carrying out of developmental tasks requires on the part of administrators not only qualities of initiative and leadership but also a sense of emotional integration with the policies and programmes and identification with the interests of the common man. The idea of bureaucracy as a neutral instrument in the conduct of public affairs thus stands refuted.
Q.6. What do you mean by ‘Committed Bureaucracy’? Is it desirable for India?
Ans. I. Meaning of Committed Bureaucracy:
(i) Weber’s model of bureaucracy was found inappropriate to effect the social transformation in many developing countries.In India,it received a good amount of criticism for its failure to meet the growing demands of social legislation.
(ii) After two decades of independence,Mrs.Indira Gandhi,the then Prime Minister,advocated the concept of committed bureaucracy.Not only did she express her dissatisfaction with the performance of bureaucracy,she expressed doubt about the relevance of the basic assumptions underlying the Indian bureaucracy that of neutrality,impartiality,anonymity,etc.and she alleged that the bureaucrats lacked commitment.She disgustingly referred to the administrative machinery as ‘the stumbling block in the country’s progress’ and reiterated the necessity of creating an administrative cadre committed to national objectives and responsive to Indian social needs. She found in ‘committed bureaucracy’ the answer to the ills of neutrality that crippled the development process in India. She had an earnest belief that only a committed bureaucracy can bring about the desired change.
II. Need of Committed Bureaucracy for India:
(i) The concept of ‘committed bureaucracy’ was much contested in the political and administrative circles.It was alleged that it would permanently damage the fabric of the services. It would create a breed of pliable civil servants who would always say “Yes Minister and would be ready to crawl when asked to bend by their political masters.
(ii) It was also alleged that in the name of commitment the ruling party was seeking bureaucracy’s alignment with the party’s ideology in order to perpetuate its rule.
(iii) However, it was later clarified by the government that commitment did not mean attachment to the ideology of the party in power,but a commitment to the development of the country and personal involvement of bureaucracy in the tasks as opposed to ostrich like withdrawal and isolation from politics.
(iv) Thus, if committed bureaucracy stands for a non-partisan, socially sensitive civil service, which can empathies with the politician who is genuinely, interested in progress and development of the country, then a committed civil service is more appropriate for a developing nation than having an insensitive neutral one.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with suitable word choosing from the given words with in brackets:
1. …………. is associated with red tapism, delay and wastefulness. (Bureaucracy / Democracy)
2. Most …………. countries are engaged in the process of nation building and bringing about rapid socio-economic development. (developing / developed)
3. Administration and …………. should be kept separate. (Politics / Economics)
Q.2. Match the contents of the following columns:
|(i) India||(a) Developed|
|(ii) Britain||(b) Developing|
|(iii) Prime Minister||(c) Administrative and Permanent Bureaucracy|
|(iv) Chief Secretary||(d) Political Executive|
|(i) India||(b) Developing|
|(ii) Britain||(a) Developed|
|(iii) Prime Minister||(d) Political Executive|
|(iv) Chief Secretary||(c) Administrative and Permanent Bureaucracy|