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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 36 Public Grievances And Redressal Machinery
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Public Grievances And Redressal Machinery
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 36.1
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The grievances of citizens against government machinery needs to be heard and …………. (redressed / investigated)
(b) Every ………… sets up appropriate machinery for the redressal of citizen’s grievances. (dictatorship / democracy)
(c) The institution of …………. is typically scandinavian. (Lokpal / Ombudsman)
(d) A citizen in India can move to the ………… to seek remedy against any wrong done to him by a public servant or public agency. (President / Court)
(e) Questions can be raised ………… in by the elected representatives concerning their Constituencies. (Court / Parliament)
(f) To deal with public complaints, complaint …………. have been set up. (forums / booth)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 36.2
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The Administrative Reforms Commission recommended the setting up …………. and ……….. to deal with complaints against administrative acts of ministers or secretaries to government. (Lokpal / Ombudsman, Lokayukta, Parliamentary Committee)
Ans. Lokpal, Lokayukta.
(b) In ………… a Lokayukta has been appointed. (Maharashtra / TamilNadu)
(c) The ………… Committee recommended setting up of Central Vigilance Commission. (Santhanam / Radha Krishnan)
(d) The role of CVC is …………… (extensive / limited)
Q.1. Why is redressal of public grievances very important for a democracy?
Ans. Importance of Redressal of Public Grievances in a Democracy:
1. In a democracy for most things in life,citizens depend on the services and facilities provided by government agencies. It is common experience that the citizens generally face various problems and hardships in dealing with government agencies (corrupt officials, carelessness of bureaucrats and so on) for example if a citizen needs a ration card,he/she has to face to many problems even to obtain a card.’Babu’ has the same mentality which the ‘Babu’ of the colonial rule had.The quality of services is far from satisfactory due to corrupt public representative.To levy rice,wheat and sugar from a government ration shop is open proof their corruption.
2. Too many rules and regulations are there,resulting in unnecessary delay.Trains or buses may not run on time. The banks,the hospitals,the police are often not co-operative.
3. Delay and harassment and noncooperative attitude of government departments and agencies create a bad image of government.The poor people suffer most.They badly require government support and services,but they are the ones who are generally harassed and turned down. This is obviously bad for healthy democracy.
4. The average citizen desires sympathetic, courteous and helpful public administration. If there are too public grievances against the government agencies, corrective measures have to be taken redress those grievances.
Q.2. What are various instruments of redressal of public grievances?
Ans. Instruments of Redressal of Public Grievances:
1. Simplification of Rules and Procedures: To deal with administrative corruption and to redress citizens grievances, simplification of rules and procedures has been suggested and carried an in practice.
2. Set up new institutions: New institutions have also been recommended and actually set up in many countries. India should also copy good things of other countries.For example created for the redressal of public grievances, the institution of ‘Ombudsman’ is typically Scandinavian.. The office of Ombudsman has been in existence in Sweden since 1809 and Finland since 1919.
Denmark introduce the system in 1955. Norway and New Zealand adopted it in 1962 and the United Kingdom appointed the Parliamentary Commissioner for administration in 1967.
In short,we can say that many countries in the today world have since adopted the Ombudsman like institution.
3. Ombudsman,a Swedish word,stands for an officer appointed by the legislature to handle complaints against administrative and judicial action.As an impartial investigator,the Ombudsman makes investigations, receives at the facts (or truth) objectively and reports back to the legislature.
4. The complaint has simply to write to the ombudsman appealing an administrative decision.
The ombudsman system has ben popular because of its simple and speedy nature.It is a cheap method of handling appeals against administrative decision.
5. When a citizen or consumer finds good (or good) and service (or services) defective he/ she can take the shelter of Consumer Protection Act enacted in 1986.
6. The RTI (Right to Information) has also been passed by the Indian Parliament, to know what has happened in regard to his/her complain.
Q.3. What is the role of Lokpal and Lokayukta?
Ans. I. The Role of Lokpal:
1. Inspite of several attempts till date the Lokpal Bill has against only and again fallen through the Parliament. It appears that all big political parties (or leaders of the political groups or very small parties) have not been sincere and serious enough about the enactment of the Lokpal Bill.
2. Lokpal should be such powerful authority to deal with complaint against the administrative acts of ministers or secreta.ies to government both at the centre and the states.
3. The citizen is interested in redressal of his little problems and individual grievances but the exiting avenues do not provide him easy, speedy and cheap redressal. Hence, what is required is an agency, independent of government control, to redress the common grievances of people.
II. Role of the Lokayukta:
1. There are states like Maharashtra,Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,Karnataka,Bihar,Orissa,Himachal Pradesh and National Capital Territory of Delhi which have appointed Lokayukta for dealing with the public grievances on the lines suggested by the Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC, 1966).
2. Maharashtra was the first state to enact such legislation in 1971.The other state legislations were based more or less on the Maharashtra lines which provide the Lokayukta with exclusive powers to look into complaints against state minister,secretaries and other senior officials.
3. Section 12 of the Himachal Pradesh Lokayukta Act, 1983,provides,’If after enquiry in respect of a complaint,the Lokayukta is satisfied that all or any of the allegations made in the complaint have or have been substantiated either or wholly or partly,he/she shall be report in writing communicate his/her findings and recommendations to the competent authority and intimate the complaint and the public servant concerned about his/her having made the report.’
4. The competent authority examines the report and has to communicate to the Lokayukata within a period of three months of the receipt of such report,the action taken thereon.
5. It may be noted that the Lokayukta is only a recommending authority.Its recommendations have no legal sanctity,nor are there binding.The final judgement in respect of the offence lies with the competent government authority.
Q.4. What is the role of Central Vigilance Commission?
Ans. The Role of Central Vigilance Commission:
1. Background: (a) Being alarmed at increasing rate of corruption;a high power committee was set up by Government of India in 1962 under the chairmanship of K.Santhanam.
(b) The Santhanam Committee recommended,setting up of Vigilance Commissions at the centre and in the different states (provinces).
(c) Vigilance cells have been created in several government departments and public sector undertakings.
(d) At the highest level there is a Central Vigilance Commission (CVC).
2. The CVC is headed by the Central Vigilance Commissioner,appointed by the President of India,for a period of six years or until he/she attains the age of 65 years, which ever is earlier.
3. The Commission’s office is located at the Ministery of Home Affairs having an autonomous status.
4. In addition to the Commission,it consists of a secretary, one officer on special duty,one chief technical commissioner,3 commissioners for departmental enquiries,2 under secretaries and 6 technical commissioners.
5. Its jurisdiction extends to all employees of the central government and the employees in public undertakings, corporate bodies and other organisations dealing with matters falling within the executive powers of the central government.However,it cannot probe cases of corruption against ministers and members of parliament.
6. The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) receives complaints directly from the aggrieved party. It also gathers information about corruption and malpractices or misconduct from other sources such as press reports, audit objections, information through parliamentary debates and other forms etc.
7. The complaints about Central Government employees received by the State Vigilance Commission are forwarded by them to the CVC.On receiving complaints, the commission may ask:
(i) the concerned ministry/department to inquire into them.
(ii) the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to make inquiry. and
(iii) the CBI direction to register a case and conduct an investigation.
Prosecution, however, depends on the approval by the appropriate sanctioning authority.
8. The CVC has laid down procedures to be followed by the administrative ministeries/departments in the case of complaints received by them.These complaints are to be dealt with by the ministeries/departments concerned.
9. The CVC may advise the ministeries/ departments in respect of all matters relating to integrity in administration.
10. It may call for reports,returns or statements from all ministeries/departments so as to enable it, to exercise a general check and supervision over vigilance and anti-corruption work in the ministeries/departments.It can take over under its direct control any complaint or case for further action.
11. Besides these works,functions and responsibilities,the CVC has a role to play in the case of appointment of chief vigilance officer of each ministry/departments. The CVC is to be consulted before giving such an appointment.
12. Moreover,the CVC has ben empowered to assess the work of the chief vigilance officer.This assessment is recorded in the character rolls of the officials.
13. Finally,all proposals for re-organising or strengthening the vigilance organisation by the chief vigilance officers are to be referred to the CVC for scrutiny.
Conclusion: The role of CVC is,however,limited because it is not a statutory commission and has only advisory role.Further,the procedure of investigation is so vexations that people do not desire to be involved in long and unpleasant proceedings.
Thus it has been commented that the Central Vigilance Commission is not at all a substitute for an Ombudsman. As it is constituted, the commission is virtually an extension of the bureaucratic apparatus of the Central Government and its operations are very much hedged in by the overpowering ministeries/departments and the political forces at the centre.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct answer:
Q.1. In a ……………. the citizens make the government accountable.
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (a) democracy.
Q.2. The CVC is headed by the Central Vigilance Commissioner appointed by the President of India,for a period of ………….. years.
Ans. (a) six.
Q.3. The Administrative Reforms Commission was set up by the Government of India in ………….
Ans. (b) 1966.
Q.4. Which country adopted the Ombudsman like institution since 1809 …………?
Ans. (b) Sweden.
Q.5. The Consumer Protection Act enacted in which year in India?
Ans. (a) 1986.