NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 9 Establishment and Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 9 Establishment and Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 9 Establishment and Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Establishment and Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

Chapter: 9




Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:

(a) Sultan Muhammad Ghori was the ruler of _____.

Ans: (a) Ghazni

(b) The First battle of Tarain was fought between _____ and Muhammad Ghori.

Ans: Prithviraj Chauhan. 

(c) Muhammad Ghori entrusted his Indian possession to ______.

Ans: Qutbuddin Aibak

Q. 2. When was the Second battle of Tarain fought?

Ans: AD 1192.

Q. 3. What was the one major difference between the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad of Ghor?

Ans: Mahmud Ghazni was interested in plundering the wealth of India whereas Muhammad Ghori wanted to establish Turkish rule in India.


Q. 1. What problems did Iltutmish face on ascending the throne? Mention any two.

Ans: (i) Discontents and revolts of amirs and nobles.

(ii) Unorganised administration.

Q.2. Why was ‘Group of Forty’ (Turkan- i-Chahalgani) formed by Iltutmish?

Ans: ‘Group of Forty’  (Turkan-i-Chahalgani) was formed to support monarchy.

Q. 3. Whom do you consider the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: Qutbuddin Aibak.

Q. 4. What measures did Balban take to emphasise that the Sultan had absolute powers?

Ans: Balban took following measures to emphasise that the Sultan had absolute powers– 

(i) Magnificent court with strict rules.

(ii) Formulated the theory of Kingship’ and redefined the relationship between the sultanate and nobles.

(iii) Introduction of sijda (prostration) and paibos (kissing of monarch’s feet).

(iv) Did not allow any nobles to assume great powers.


Q. 1. Why was the capture of Ranthambore necessary?

Ans: The capture of Ranthambore was necessary to break the power and morale of Rajputs.

Q. 2. Who led the expeditions in the south during Alauddin Khalji’s rule? 

Ans: Malik Kafur.

Q. 3. Mention two places where expeditions were undertaken during Jalaluddin’s reign.

Ans: Devagiri and Bhilsa.

Q. 4. List the four regulations issued by Alauddin to curb rebellions. 

Ans: Following were the four regulations issued by Alauddin to curb rebellions:

(i) Families that had been enjoying free land to support themselves were now required to pay land tax for their holdings.

(ii) The Sultan reorganised the spy system and took measures to make it more effective. 

(iii) The use of wine and intoxicants was banned.

(iv) The nobles were ordered not to have social gatherings or inter marriages without his permission.


Q. 1. Under which title did Ghazi Malik ascend the throne in 1320 AD?

Ans: Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Q. 2. Whom did Ghiyasuddin send to conquer the South?

Ans: Ghiyasuddin sent his son Juna Khan to conquer the south.

Q. 3. What was the political motive of Muhammad’s transfer of capital?

Ans: (a) To maintain control over Deccan. 

(b) To establish a centrally located capital.

Q. 4. What was the concept of Token currency?

Ans: The concept of “Token currency’ was the copper coin (Jittal) introduced by the Sultan was to serve as an equivalent to silver coin (tanka) to tide over shortage of silver.


Q. 1. What policy did Bahlol Lodi adopt to seek the cooperation of Afghan nobles?

Ans: Equality with nobles.

Q. 2. Who founded the Sayyid dynasty?

Ans: Khizr Khan.

Q. 3. Who is the author of Tarikhi-i-Mubarak Shahi?

Ans: Yahya Sirhindi.

Q. 4. What measure did Sikandar take to improve the dignity and status of the Sultan?

Ans: To improve the dignity and status of Sultan Sikandar compelled nobles to stand in the durbar and respect and pay obediencce to Sultan.


Q. 1. Why were Mongols attacking the Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: Mongols were attacking the Delhi Sultanate due to changes in Central Asian politics and to plunder the riches.

Q. 2. What was the main conflict among nobles?

Ans: The main conflict among nobles was the question of succession.

Q.3. What name was given to the rulers of Jaunpur dynasty?

Ans: Sharqi Dynasty.

Q. 4. What steps did Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq take to resolve the problem of Bughra Khan declaring his own independence?

Ans: Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq tried to solve this problem by partitioning Bengal into three independent administrative divisions namely Lakhnauti, Satgaon and Sonargoan.


Q. 1. Who was Mahmud Ghazni? Why did he invade India?

Ans: (i) Mahmud Ghazni was son of Sabuktigin, the founder of Ghazni dynasty and Turkish slave commander. In all he invaded India seventeen times during AD 1000-1026.

(ii) Mahmud Ghazni invaded India only to acquire the famous wealth of India. This wealth would help him to consolidate his vast rule in central Asia.

Q. 2. Who were Mamluk Sultans? How did Iltutmish consolidate his position?

Ans: (i) Mamluk Sultans were rulers of the Slave dynasty. The Mamluk Sultans ruled from AD 1206 to 1290.

(ii) The credit of consolidating the Delhi Sultanate lies largely with Iltutmish.

(iii) Iltutmish took up the task of consolidating his position. He defeated Yaldoz in AD 1213 in the battle of Tarain. In AD 1217, he drove away Qabacha from Punjab.

(iv) In AD 1220, when Chenghiz Khan destroyed the Khwarezm empire, Iltutmish realised the political necessity of avoiding a confrontation with the Mongols. Thus, when Jalaluddin Mangbarane, while escaping from the Mongols, sought selter at Iltutmish’s court, Iltutmish turned him away. He thus, saved the Sultanate from destruction by the Mongols.

(v) From AD 1225 onwards, Iltutmish engaged his armies in suppressing the disturbances in the East. In AD 1226-27 he defeated Iwaz Khan and brought Bengal and Bihar back into the Delhi Sultanate.

(vi) He also launched similar campaigns against the Rajput chiefs. In AD 1226 he captured Ranthambore and in AD 1231 he established his authority over Mandor, Jalore, Bayana and Gwalior.

(vii) The Delhi Sultanate now covered a sizeable territory. He also organised his trusted nobles or officers into a group of ‘forty’.

(viii) Iltutmish effectively suppressed the defiant amirs of Delhi. He separated the Delhi Sultanate from Ghazni, Colhar and Central Asian politics. Iltutmish also obtained a ‘Letter of Investiture’ in AD 1229 from the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to gain legitimacy.

 Thus, Iltutmish adopted all the tactics to consolidate his position in the Delhi Sultanate.

Q. 3. What measures did Balban take to develop a highly centralised system of governance in Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: (i) To consolidate his position Balban organised a strong centralised army. This army had to deal with internal disturbances, and to repel the Mongols who had entrenched themselves in the Punjab and posed a serious threat to the Delhi Sultanate.

(ii) Balban reorganised the military department and developed an army in different parts of the country to put down rebellion.

(iii) He ruthlessly suppressed the disturbances in Mewar, Doab, Awadh and Katihar. He also secured control over Ajmer and Nagaur in eastern Rajputana. He also sent his forces to Bengal and had Tughid Beg killed. By all these harsh Balban controlled the situation.

Q. 4. Describe briefly the measures undertaken by Alauddin Khalji to control the markets.

Ans: Measures undertaken by Alauddin Khalji to control the markets:

(i) Alauddin wanted to maintain a large army, he therefore, lowered and fixed the price of the commodities of daily use.

(ii) To control the prices, Alauddin set-up three different markets for different commodities in Delhi. These markets were the grain market (Mandi), cloth market (Sarai Adl) and the market for horses, slaves, cattle, etc.

(iii) To ensure implementation, Alauddin appointed a superintendent (Shahna-i-Mandi) who was assisted by an intelligence officer.

(iv) Apart from Shahna-i-Mandi, Alauddin received daily reports of the market from two other independent sources, barid (intelligence officer) and munhiyans (secret spies). Any violation of Sultan’s orders resulted in harsh punishment, including expulsion from the capital, imposition of five year imprisonment and mutilation.

(v) Low prices in the horse market were ensured by putting a stop to the purchase of horses by horse dealers and brokers in Delhi market.

Q.5. Describe the transfer of capital and the introduction of token currency by Muhammad Tughlaq.

Ans: Transfer of capital by Muhammad Tughlaq-

(i) Muhammad bin Tughlaq transferred his capital from Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad). He did so because he wanted to maintain both Delhi and Daulatabad as his capitals. Further, Daulatabad was more centrally located.

(ii) The entire population was not asked to leave only the upper classes consisting of shaikhs, nobles, ulema were shifted to Daulatabad. No attempt was made to shift the rest of the population.

(iii) Though Muhammad bin Tughlaq built a road from Delhi to Deogir and set-up rest houses but the journey was extremely harsh for the people. Large number of people died because of rigorous travelling and the heat.

(iv) Due to growing discontent and the fact that north could not be controlled from south, Muhammad decided to abandon Daulatabad.

Introduction of Token currency

(i) Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduced a copper coin (Jittal) in place of silver coin (tanka) and ordered that it should be accepted as equivalent to the tanka.

(ii) However, the idea of token currency was new in India and it was difficult for traders and common people to accept it.

(iii) The state also did not take proper precautions to check the imitation of coins issued by the mints. Government could not prevent people from forging the new coins and soon the new coins flooded the markets.

(iv) According to Barani, the people began to mint token currency in their houses. However, the common man failed to distinguish between copper coin issued by the royal treasury and those which were locally made. Thus, the Sultan was forced to withdraw the token currency.

Q. 6. What was the impact of Timur’s invasions on Delhi Sultanate.

Ans: Impact of Timur’s invasions on Delhi Sultanate-

(i) The invasion of Timur in AD 1398 left the sultanate desolate.

(ii) Timur’s raid into India was a plundering raid and his motive was to seize the wealth accumulated by the Sultans of Delhi over the last 200 years.

(iii) Timur defeated Nasiruddin and his Wazir Mallu Iqbasl. He entered Delhi and stayed for fifteen days. He ordered general massacre and large number of Hindus and Muslims including women and children were murdered.

(iv) Before leaving India Timur’s invasion indicated the downfall of Delhi Sultanate. Delhi Sultanate lost control over Punjab. Timur appointed Khizr Khan, the ruler of Multan and the founder of the Sayyid dynasty.

Q. 7. For what reasons did Bengal remain a problem for the Delhi Sultanate? 

Ans: Reasons that remained Bengal problem for the Delhi Sultanate.

(i) Bengal was the easternmost province of Delhi Sultanate. Lack of proper means of transportation and communication created difficulty in controlling this province.

(ii) Though Bengal was annexed to Delhi Sultanate, a number of times it gained its independence. During the last decade of the 12 century AD Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar annexed Bengal to the conquered territories of Muhammad Ghori. But after his death, his successors declared their independence with the support of the local people.

(iii) Balban forced Bengal to accept the sovereignty of Delhi and appointed, his son Bughra Khan as its governor. But after Balban’s death he declared his own independence.

(iv) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq tried to solve this problem by partitioning Bengal into three independent administrative divisions namely Lakhnauti, Satgaon and Sonargaon.

(v) Muhammad bin Tughlaq tried to declare the supremacy of Delhi Sultanate but when he was busy in suppressing rebellion in other parts of Sultanate, Bengal cut off its connection with Delhi.

(vi) Firoz Shah Tughlaq invaded Bengal and tried to capture it but Haji Iliyas, a noble who had united Bengal and had become its ruler, repulsed his attack. Tughlaq had to sign a treaty with Iliyas. According to the treaty, river Kosi was accepted as the boundary line between two kingdoms.



Q. 1. Name the main ruler who was overthrown by the invading Turk Muhammad Ghori from Delhi.

Ans: Prithviraj Chauhan.

Q. 2. Who led Arab invasion on India in AD 712?

Ans: Muhammad Bin Qasim.

Q.3. Who was Muhammad Bin Qasim? 

Ans: Muhammad Bin Qasim was a general of the Umayyad Caliphate.

Q. 4. When and where was Islam religion born?

Ans: Islam religion was born in the 7th century AD in Arabia.

Q. 5. Who was the founder of Islam religion?

Ans: Prophet Muhammad.

Q. 6. Caliph is derived from which word and what does it mean?

Ans: Caliph is derived from the Arabic word ‘Khalifa’ which means ‘deputy’.

Q. 7. Which title was given to the rulers who succeeded Prophet Muhammad?

Ans: Caliphs.

Q.8. Name the holy book of Islam religion.

Ans: Quran.

Q. 9. Who was Mahmud Ghazni?

Ans: Mahmud Ghazni was son of Sabuktigin, the founder of Ghazni dynasty and Turkish slave commander.

Q. 10. When did Mahmud Ghazni invade India?

Ans: Mahmud Ghazni invaded India during AD 1000-1026. 

Q. 11. How many times Mahmud Ghazni invaded India?

Ans: Seventeen times.

Q. 12. When and which ruler was first encountered by Mahmud Ghazni? 

Ans: The Hindu shahi ruler, Jaipal in AD 1001.

Q. 13. In which years Mahmud Ghazni attacked the rulers of Multan? 

Ans: AD 1004-06.

Q. 14. When did Mahmud Ghazni attack on the Somnath temple in Saurashtra?

Ans: In AD 1025.

Q. 15. What was the main reason of attacks of Mahmud Ghazni on India?

Ans: To acquire the famous wealth of India and make Ghazni the formidable power in the politics of Central Asia.

Q. 16. Why did Muhammad Ghori invaded India?

Ans: Muhammad Ghori invaded India to establish permanent empire in India.

Q. 17. When did Muhammad Ghori lead his first expedition?

Ans: AD 1175.

Q. 18. When was the first battle of Tarain fought? 

Ans: In AD 1191.

Q. 19. Which battle laid the foundations of Turkish rule in northern India?

Ans: The battle of Tarain and Chandwar.

Q. 20. In the first battle of Tarain who conquered Bhatinda?

Ans: Prithviraj Chauhan.

Q. 21. Who was the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: Qutbuddin Aibak.

Q. 22. When did Muhammad Ghori die?

Ans: In AD 1206.

Q. 23. Name the first independent Muslim ruler of India.

Ans: Qutbuddin Aibak.

Q. 24. By which name Qutbuddin Aibak was also known?

Ans: Lakh Baksh’.

Q. 25. Who was Iltutmish?

Ans: Iltutmish was the governor of Badaun and son-in-law of Qutbuddin Aibak who became the Sultan of Delhi after the death of Qutbuddin Aibak.

Q. 26. What was the other name of Iltutmish?

Ans: Shamsuddin.

Q. 27. What was ‘Group of Forty’ established by Iltutmish?

Ans: These were Turkish amirs or nobles who advised and helped the Sultan in administering the Sultanate.

Q. 28. What was ‘iqtas’ in the administration of Iltutmish?

Ans: Iqtas were land assignments in lieu of cash salaries given to Turkish officers by Iltutmish.

Q.29. When did Balban ascend the throne of Delhi?

Ans: In AD 1226.

Q.30. Who laid the foundation of Kialji dynasty?

Ans: Jalaluddin Khalji.

Q. 31. Who was Alauddin Khalji? 

Ans:  Alauddin Khalji was nephew and son- in-law of Jalaluddin Khalji who murdered him and crowned himself as the Sultan.

Q. 32. Name the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.

Ans: Ghazi Malik.

Q. 33. Name the Sultan who tried to shift his capital from Delhi to Deogir.

Ans: Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Q.34. Who introduced token currency? 

Ans: Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Q. 35. Name the founder of Sayyid dynasty.

Ans: Khizr Khan.

Q. 36. Who was the founder of the Lodi dynasty?

Ans: Bahlol Lodi.

Q. 37. Name the Lodi Sultan who showed little tolerance towards the non- Muslims and re-imposed jizya on them.

Ans: Sikandar Lodi.

Q. 38. What was the motive of Timur for the invasion of India? 

Ans: Timur’s motive was to seize the wealth accumulated by the Sultans of Delhi over the last 200 years. 

Q. 39. What was meant by the term ‘Malik’?

Ans: In Delhi Sultanate it meant the second highest grade of the officers.

Q. 40. Who were Mamluks?

Ans: Mamluks were slave officers.

Q. 41. Name the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir.

Ans: Shamshuddin Shah (AD 1339).

Q. 42. Name the ruler who made Bengal a part of his empire in AD 1538.

Ans: Sher Shah Suri.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q. 1. The rulers who ruled substantial parts of the North India between A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1526 were named as:

(a) Kings

(b) Badshah

(c) Emperors 

(d) Sultans

Ans: (d) Sultans

Q. 2. The slave dynasty ruled between

(a) A.D. 1206-A.D. 1290

(b) A.D. 1284-A.D. 1290

(c) A.D. 1307-A.D. 1354

(d) A.D. 1365-A.D. 1378 

Ans: (a) A.D. 1206-A.D. 1290

Q. 3. Islam was born in:

(a) 2nd century A.D.

(b) 5th century A.D.

(c) 7th century A.D.

(d) 8th century A.D.

Ans: (c) 7th century A.D.

Q. 4. Mahmud Ghazni invaded India:

(a) 15 times

(b) 17 times

(c) 18 times 

(d) 23 times

Ans: (b) 17 times

Q. 5. The first ‘Battle of Tarain’ was fought between:

(a) Muhammad Ghori and Ghazni 

(b) Mahmud Ghazni and Prithviraj Chauhan

(c) Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan

(d) Prithviraj Chauhan and Aibak

Ans: (c) Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan

Q. 6. Who won the second ‘Battle of Tarain’?

(a) Prithviraj Chauhan

(b) Muhammad Ghori

(c) Mahmud Ghazni

(d) Iltutmish

Ans: (b) Muhammad Ghori

Q. 7. Turkan-i-Chahalgani was established by:

(a) Iltutmish

(b) Sikandar

(c) Balban

(d) Aibak

Ans: (a) Iltutmish

Q. 8. Who formulated the theory of Kingship?

(a) Razia

(b) Nasiruddin Mahmud

(c) Mahmud Ghazni

(d) Balban

Ans: (d) Balban

Q. 9. Who insisted on the ceremony of Sijada and Paibos?

(a) Balban

(b) Qutbuddin Aibak

(c) Jalalluddin Khalji

(d) Ghazi Malik

Ans: (a) Balban

Q. 10. Khilji dynasty was founded by:

(a) Alauddin Khalji

(b) Jalalluddin Khalji 

(c) Malik Kafur

(d) Ulugh Khan

Ans: (b) Jalalluddin Khalji 

Q. 11. Who was the author of Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi?

(a) Balban

(b) Barani

(c) Alauddin

(d) Jalaluddin

Ans: (b) Barani

Q. 12. Who introduced market regulations?

(a) Alauddin Khalji

(b) Mohammud Bin Tuglaq

(c) Sayyid brothers

(d) Balban

Ans: (a) Alauddin Khalji

Q. 13. Who tried to transfer his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad?

(a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

(b) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

(c) Balban 

(d) Alauddin Khalji

Ans: (a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Q. 14. Who introduced the “Token currency? 

(a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

(b) Alauddin Khalji

(c) Jalaluddin Khalji

(d) Malik Kafur

Ans: (a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Q. 15. Sayyid dynasty was founded by:

(a) Mubarak Shah

(b) Khiz Khan

(c) Alam Shah 

(d) Hamid Khan

Ans: (b) Khiz Khan

Q. 16. Who re-imposed Jizya on non-muslims? 

(a) Balban

(b) Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq 

(c) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

(d) Sikandar Lodi

Ans: (d) Sikandar Lodi

Q. 17. Who laid down the foundation of Sharqi dynasty?

(a) Malik Sarwar

(b) Malik Kafur

(c) Timur

(d) Firuz Shah

Ans: (a) Malik Sarwar

Q. 18. Who is known as the ‘Akbar of Kashmir’? 

(a) Shamshuddin Shah

(b) Zafar Khan

(c) Zainul Abidin 

(d) Ibrahim

Ans: (c) Zainul Abidin 

Q. 19. Who was the most famous of the Gujarat rulers ?

(a) Hoshang Shah

(6) Mahmud Khan

(c) Nasiruddin

(d) Ahmad Shah 

Ans: (d) Ahmad Shah 

Q. 20. In which year Sher Shah Suri defeated Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah and made Bengal a part of his empire?

(a) 1438

(b) 1468

(c) 1538

(d) 1568

Ans: (c) 1538

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