NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 10 Establishment of the Mughal Rule, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Establishment of the Mughal Rule

Chapter: 10




Q. 1. Why did Babur invade India?

Ans: Babur invade India because he was facing tough situations in Central Asia. The unstable political situation in India also played a role.

Q. 2. What was Babur’s strategy at the Battle of Panipat? 

Ans: Babur effectively applied the Rumi (Ottoman) method of warfare.

Q. 3. What problems did Babur face after the Battle of Panipat? 

Ans: Problems faced by Babur after the Battle of Panipat are as follow:

(a) His nobles and commanders were eager to return to central Asia.

(b) The Rajputs were rallying around under the leadership of Rana Sanga.

Q. 4. Who were the two rulers from  Rajputana defeated by Babur? 

Ans: Rana Sanga and Medini Rai.


Q. 1. Why did Humayun fail to defeat Sher Shah?

Ans: Humayun failed to defeat Sher Shah because his brother Hindal Mirza who was supposed to provide supplies for his army, declared his independence.

Q. 2. How did Sher Khan emerge as the leader of Afghans?

Ans: Sher Khan was a great tactician and able military commander. After defeating Humayun he emerged as the leader of Afghans.

Q. 3. List the territories which were brought by Sher Shah under his rule.

Ans: (a) Malwa 

(b) Rajputana

(c) Sindh

(d) Punjab

(e) Bengal

Q. 4. List two important achievements of Sher Shah.

Ans: (a) He streamlined local administration at Sarkar and Pargana level.

(b) He built Grand Trunk Road.


Q. 1. Why Akbar removed Bairam Khan?

Ans: Akbar removed Bairam Khan because he had assumed full control and was behaving independently.

Q. 2. Which were the main political powers in India at the time of Akbar’s accession? 

Ans: Rajputs, Afghans and kingdoms of Ahmednagar, Kabul and Qandhar.

Q. 3. Which of the Rajput rulers posed challenge to Akbar and did not submit?

Ans: Maharana Pratap of Mewar.

Q. 4. Name the lady ruler who fought with the Mughals. Which was the territory ruled by her?

Ans: Chand Bibi was the lady ruler who fought with the Mughals. Ahmednagar was the territory ruled by her.


Q. 1. Who was the ruler from Deccan who defeated the Mughal forces under Jahangir?

Ans: Malik Ambar.

Q. 2. The Mughals signed treaty with which of the two states of Deccan in 1636?

Ans: Bijapur and Golconda.

Q. 3. Which Mughal commander brought the Ahom kingdom under Mughal control?

Ans: Mir Jumla.

Q. 4. With which of the Deccan powers Aurangzeb remained engaged for a long time?

Ans: Aurangzeb remained engaged with the Marathas for a long time.


Q. 1. On what terms Shahjahan established peace with Bijapur and Golconda?

Ans: Bijapur and Golconda accepted Mughal suzerainty and agreed to pay annual tributes.

Q. 2. What was Aurangzeb’s policy towards Deccan?

Ans: Aurangzeb followed an aggressive policy and remained involved in conflict.

Q. 3. Where was Shivaji coronated? What was the title that he took?

Ans: Shivaji was coronated at Raigarh. He took the title of Chatrapati. 

Q. 4. Which of the Mughal rulers lost huge amount of money in north-west frontier conflicts?

Ans: Shahjahan.


Q. 1. Trace the establishment of the Mughal rule in India under Babur. 

Ans: Establishment of the Mughal rule in India under Babur:

(i) In 1517 Babur made decisive moves towards India. A few developments in India at that time also helped him to act on plans of invading India.

(ii) The unstable political situation in India after Sikandar Lodi’s death convinced him of political discontentment and disorder in the Lodi empire.

(iii) There was conflict between some Afghan chiefs with Ibrahim Lodi. Prominent among them was Daulat Khan Lodi, the Governor of a large part of Punjab. The Rajput king of Mewar Rana Sanga was also asserting his authority against Ibrahim Lodi and was trying to increase his area of influence in north India. Both of them sent word to Babur to invade India. Invitations from Rana Sanga and Daulat Khan Lodi might have encouraged Babur’s ambitions.

(iv) Babur successfully captured Bhira (1519-1520), Sialkot (1520) and Lahore (1524) in Punjab. In 1526, he fought with Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat and defeated Lodi. In this battle, he effectively applied the Rumi (Ottoman) method of warfare. Ibrahim Lodi died in the battle field. Babur thus, took control of Delhi and Agra and got the rich treasure of Lodis. Victory at Panipat provided Babur a firm ground to consolidate his conquests.

(v) After the Battle of Panipat, the forces of Babur and Rana Sanga fought at Khanwa. In this battle Rana Sanga was defeated in 1527. With the defeat of Rana the biggest challenge in north India was shattered.

(vi) In 1528, Babur defeated Medini Rai in Chanderi. With this defeat of Rajputs, resistance across Rajputana was completely shattered.

All these victories took a step forward in the direction of the establishment of the Mughal Empire.

Q. 2. Who was Akbar’s regent? Who were the major political powers in India in the initial years of Akbar’s rule?

Ans:  Bairam Khan was Akbar’s regent. The major political powers in India in the initial years of Akbar’s rule were:

(i) The Rajputs who were spread throughout the country as independent chiefs and kings, and were concentrated mainly in Rajasthan.

(ii) Khandesh, Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and few other kingdoms in south India and Deccan were quite powerful.

(iii) The Afghans held political control mainly in Gujarat, Bihar and Bengal.

(iv) Kabul and Qandhar, though ruled by Mughal factions, were hostile towards Akbar.

Q. 3. How did Akbar establish Mughal supremacy in the Deccan? 

Ans: Establishment of Mughal supremacy in the Deccan by Akbar:

(i) After 1590, Akbar gave shape to a Deccan policy to bring the states under Mughal control. 

(ii) In 1591, Akbar offered the Deccan states to accept Mughal sovereignty but he failed in his efforts. After that he decided to capture these states by force.

(iii) First he launched agression against Ahmednagar in 1595 and fought with its ruler Chand Bibi. Chand Bibi was defeated and a treaty was signed between the two and Chand Bibi ceded Berar to Mughals.

(iv) After some time Chand Bibi tried to recapture Berar with the help of Nizamshahi, Qutabshahi and Adilshahi forces but again Mughal forces defeated them and could retain their position.

(v) After Prince Murad’s death in 1598, Prince Daniyal and Khan Khanan were sent to Deccan. There they captured Ahmednagar. Soon the Mughals also conquered Asirgarh and adjoining regions.

(vi) Adil Shah of Bijapur also expressed allegiance and offered his daughter in marriage to Prince Daniyal. Now, Mughal territories included Asirgarh, Burhanpur, Ahmednagar and Berar.

Q. 4. How was Aurangzeb’s policy towards Rajputs different from Akbar? 

Ans: (i) During the reign of Akbar there was no hostility between the Rajputs and the Mughals inspite of the subjugation of the whole of Rajasthan.

(ii) But during the reign of Aurangzeb, the Mughal relations with Rajputs suffered, particularly over the issue of the successor to the throne of Marwar.

(iii) Aurangzeb’s interference in the succession dispute and his support to the rival candidate antagonised the Rajputs. His occupation of Jodhpur further put a dent on the Mughal-Rajput relation and the Rajputs gradually got alienated from Mughal rule.

(iv) The absence of a powerful Rajput section in the nobility ultimately proved detrimental to the Mughal control of the peripheral areas, specially when it came to negotiating with the Marathas.

Q. 5. How did Aurangzeb face the Marathas?

Ans: (i) The Marathas emerged in the Deccan as a vital force under Shivaji in the middle of the 17th. century and began to challenge the Mughal authority.

(ii) After the death of Shivaji in 1680 his son Sambhaji became the ruler. But he was captured and put to death in 1689 by Aurangzeb.

(iii) Sambhaji was succeeded by Rajaram but he died in 1700. He was succeeded by his minor son Shivaji III under the regency of Tara Bai, his mother.

(iv) It is the energy and administrative genius of Tara Bai which inflicted great set back to Aurangzeb’s efforts.

(v) The Mughals, however, succeeded in dividing the Marathas into two rival camps-one under Tara Bai and the other under Shambhaji’s son, Sahu.

(vi) Sahu, who far long was in the Mughal court, was released. He succeeded in deposing Tara Bai with the help of a Chitpavan Brahman named Balaji Vishwanath.

(vii) Aurangzeb’s efforts to contain Marathas were not very successful. The alliance with minor shifts and frequent tensions continued in some form or the other.

(viii) The conflict with Marathas continued from 1687 to 1707. Aurangzeb spent most of his time in Deccan and could manage to keep the region under Mughal control. But after his death in 1707, they reasserted independence and succeeded in a short period.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer. 

Q. 1. Babur ascended the throne at Farghana in :

(a) 1394

(b) 1494

(c) 1498 

(d) 1504

Ans: (b) 1494

Q. 2. Babur applied the Rumi method of warfare in the:

(a) First Battle of Tarain.

(b) Second Battle of Tarain.

(c) Battle of Panipat.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (c) Battle of Panipat.

Q. 3. Battle of Khanwa was fought between:

(a) Rana Sanga and Akba.r

(b) Babur and Ghazni.

(c) Rana Sanga and Babur.

(d) Babur and Medini Rai.

Ans: (c) Rana Sanga and Babur.

4. Humayun ascended the throne in:

(a) 1504

(b) 1517

(c) 1528

(d) 1530

Ans: (d) 1530

Q. 5. The real name of Sher Shah was

(a) Murid.

(b) Farid.

(c) Malik Kafur. 

(d) Ibrahim. 

Ans: (b) Farid

Q. 6. Sher Shah succeeded in establishing in Afghan rule again in India in: 

(a) 1540

(b) 1541

(c) 1542

(d) 1543

Ans: (a) 1540

Q. 7. The Mughal emperor who died after falling from the stairs of the library at Sher Mandal in 1556 was:

(a) Babur.

(b) Humayun.

(c) Akbar. 

(d) Sher Shah.

Ans: (b) Humayun.

Q. 8. Who served as the regent of the Mughal emperor, Akbar? 

(a) Sher Shah.

(b) Abdur Rahim.

(c) Bairam Khan.

(d) Itimad Khan.

Ans: (c) Bairam Khan.

Q.9. The major political powers spread in different parts of the country during Akbar’s initial period were:

(a) The Rajputs.

(b) The Afghans. 

(c) Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda kingdoms.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 10. Akbar started his policy of expansion with:

(a) Eastern India.

(b) Western India.

(c) Central India.

(d) Southern India.

Ans: (c) Central India.

Q.11. Who posted most serious challenge to Akbar and did not submit before him?

(a) Prithviraj Chauhan. 

(b) Baz Bahadur.

(c) Raja Bharmal.

(d) Maharana Pratap.

Ans: (d) Maharana Pratap.

Q. 12. Who was the first Rajput rule who entered matrimonial alliance with Akbar?

(a) Dalpat Shah. 

(b) Raja Bhirmal.

(c) Maharana Pratap.

(d) Baz Bahadur.

Ans: (b) Raja Bhirmal.

Q. 13. Akbar ended the independence of Bihar and Bengal in:

(a) 1574

(b) 1575

(c) 1576

(d) 1578

Ans: (c) 1576

Q. 14. Kashmir was annexed to the Mughal Empire in:

(a) 1576

(b) 1586

(c) 1596

(d) 1606

Ans: (b) 1586

Q. 15. The ruler of Ahmednagar who decided to face the Mughal was:

(a) Chand Bibi. 

(b) Mirza Beg.

(c) Jalala.

(d) Rashanai.

Ans: (a) Chand Bibi.

Q. 16. During the reign of which Mughal emperor no addition was made to the Mughal territory in Deccan?

(a) Akbar.

(b) Shahjahan.

(c) Jahangir. 

(d) Aurangzeb.

 Ans: (c) Jahangir. 

Q.17. Who was Mir Jumla?

(a) Governor of Bihar.

(b) Governor of Jaunpur. 

(c) Governor of Bengal.

(d) Governor of Assam.

Ans: (c) Governor of Bengal.

Q. 18. Who assumed the title of Chatrapati? 

(a) Maharana Pratap.

(b) Bir Kunwar Singh.

(c) Shivaji.

(d) Shambhaji.

Ans: (c) Shivaji.

Q. 19. The Mughal empire reached its greatest territorial limits under:

(a) Shahjahan. 

(b) Aurangzeb.

(c) Akbar.

(d) Jahangir.

Ans: (b) Aurangzeb.

Q. 20. The Mughal ruler lost huge amount if money in north-west frontier conflicts was:

(a) Shahjahan. 

(b) Jahangir. 

(c) Humayun.

(d) Aurangzeb.

Ans: (a) Shahjahan.

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