NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources

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NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Our Resources, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Our Resources

Chapter: 19




Q.1. Define the term ‘resources’.

Ans. Resources which satisfy human wants are the free gifts of the nature.

Q.2. Classify the resources on the basis of their origin.

Ans. (i) Biotic and 

(ii) Abiotic.

Q.3. Give two examples of biotic resources.

Ans. Examples of biotic resources are:

(i) forest, crops, birds, animals and fish.

Q.4. Give two examples of abiotic resources.

Ans. Examples of abiotic resources are:

(i) Land.

(ii) water.

(iii) minerals.

Q.5. Name two biotic resources which are non- renewable.

Ans. (i) Coal and 

(ii) Petroleum.


Q.1. How much area of India is under forests.

Ans. It is about 23% under forests.

Q.2. Name the state or Union Territory having the highest and the lowest proportional and share of forest cover in the country.

Ans. Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Haryana.

Q.3. Name six types of vegetation found in India.

Ans. The types of vegetation are: Tropical evergreen, Tropical deciduous forest, Thorn forests, Tidal forests and mountain forests.

Q.4. How many species of animals are found in India?

Ans. About 75000 species.

Q.5. What are the shares of India in total buffalo and cattle population in the world?

Ans. Buffalo population- 57%.

Cattle population- 15%.

Q.6. Name four types of fishing done in India.

Ans. Marine fisheries, fresh water, estuarine and pearl fisheries.


Q.1. In terms of area/size which is the rank of India in the world.

Ans. Seventh.

Q.2. What is amount of average rainfall in India?

Ans. The average rainfall is 117 cm.

Q.3. Name the three  River system which carry sixty percent of total surface water in India.

Ans. The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra river systems.

Q.4. Which are the three Indian states which have the large reserves of mineral deposits?

Ans. Jharkhand, Orissa and Chattisgarh.


Q.1. What do you understand by resource utilisation?

Ans. Humans use their natural environment to satisfied their needs. This is called resource utilisation.

Q.2. Name the four main causes of land degradation of India.

Ans. (i) Soil erosion.

(ii) deforestation.

(iii) overgrazing.

(iv) careless management of forests are the main causes of degradation of forests.

Q.3. What share of total average annual flow of water in the Indian rivers is available for use?

Ans. About 37%.

Q.4. What percentage share of ground water is utilised in India?

Ans. 37%.


Q.1. What do you understand by conservation of resources?

Ans. Conservation of resources means the judicious and planned use of natural resources.

Q.2. What is a  matter of great concern today?

Ans. The depletion of resources is a matter of great concern today.

Q.3. Which irrigation technique should be used to conserve water?

Ans. Sprinklers, drip of trickle irrigation.

Q.4. What type of farming is suitable for hilly regions?

Ans. Terrace farming.

Q.5. Give two methods of conservation.

Ans. Afforestation, preventing the felling of immature and young tress methods to conserve for forests.

Q.6. Name renewable resources of energy.

Ans. Solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectricity.


Q.1. In which year the National Forest policy was re-farmed?

Ans. In 1988.

Q.2. In which year National water policy was adopted?

Ans. In 1987.

Q.3. What was the main aim of new agriculture policy?

Ans. To use those agriculture techniques which are eco friendly and sustainable like bio technology was the main aim of the agriculture policy.


Q.1. Define resources and state how they are important to us?

Ans. Resources: Natural resources which satisfy human wants are the gifts of nature.

The resources are important to the man in the following way:

1. Resources from backbone of the economy of a nation.

2. They constitute the natural environment which is essential for human survival and development.

3. By utilising natural resources, humans created their own world of living like houses, buildings, means of transport and communication etc.

Q.2. Differentiate between biotic and abiotic resources.

Ans. Biotic resources:

1. These resources include all living elements of the environment. Example forests and forests product, birds, wildlife, fishes, etc.

2. These resources reproduce and generate themselves.

3. These resources are renewable except coal and mineral oil.

Abiotic resources: These resources includes all non-living elements of the environment. Examples are land, water, air and minerals such as iron, copper, gold etc.

Q.3. Give a brief description of distribution of biotic resources in India.

Ans. Biotic resources are forest, wildlife, livestocks and fisheries etc.

Forests: In India the forest areas cover 23% of total geographical area. It rangers from about 87% in Andaman and Nicobar Islands to only about 4% in Haryana. According to national policy it should be 33% of the total area.

Wildlife: India processes a great variety of wildlife. Out of known a world total of 1.05 million species of animals about 75000 species are found in India. India has 1200 spacious of birds. Among the mammals we have elephant found in Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. Kamal and wild ass are found in Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat. Lions are found in Gir forests. Rhino in Assam and West Bengal. Deer include hangul, swamp deer, spotted deer, mask deer and mouse deer are found in India.

Livestocks: India has about 57% of world’s buffalo population and about 15% of cattle population. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Orissa, Karnataka and Rajasthan have over two thirds  of the cattle population of India. Farm animals such as ox, buffaloes, house are the friends of the farming community in India.

Fisheries: More than 1800 distinct species of fish are known to exist in India. Four forms of fisheries are found in India such as Marine fisheries, fresh water fisheries, estuarine fisheries and the pearl fisheries. Major fishes are sardines, mackerel, prawns and silver bellis etc.

Q.4. Briefly explain the distribution of abiotic resources in India.

Ans. Abiotic resources are land, water and mineral resources.

Land resources: India covers on area of 3287263 sq. Km. India is the seventh largest country in the world. About 30% of area is covered by the mountains. About 43% of land area is plain and about 27% of land under plateaus.

Water resources: India is fortunate to have large water resources. The average rainfall about 117 cm. Rivers are major sources of surface water in India. The Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra carry 60% of total surface water. Replenishable ground water potential in India is about 434 billion cubic metres.

Minerals resources: India is very rich in mineral resources and has the potential to become an industrial power. Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh posses large concentration of mineral deposits. Important minerals are iron, coal, mineral oil, manganese etc.

Q.5. What do you understand by resource utilisation? How is it related to culture?

Ans. Two satisfy their needs, humans have been using resources for time immersed. This process is called resource utilisation. Human skill, technical know how and hard work convert the natural stuff into a commodity or service to serve material and spiritual needs of the human society. Thus the resources are created by man but he needs the help of culture to convert the natural stop into valuable resources. Culture includes all equipments and machines, means of transport and communication as well as efficient management, group cooperation, education, training, improve health and sanitation etc. Without culture man has only a limited capability to work and produce.

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