NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 22 The World of Organization Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 22



Q.1. What is an organisation?

Ans: An organisation is a social unit which is formed with a specific purpose.

Q.2. Give two examples of input from the environment in an organisation.

Ans: Human Resource and Capital Technology.

Q.3. Name any three subsystems of an organisation.

Ans: Goal substem, Technical subsystem and Managerial subsystem.


State whether the following statements are True or False:

Q.1. Work is a social activity.

Ans: True.

Q.2. All works require social interaction.

Ans: True.

Q.3. In authoritarian relationship employees are fully involved in setting goals.

Ans: False.

Q.4. The process of organisational socialisation is a factor in determining the development of interpersonal relationships at work.

Ans: True.

Q.5. Role clarity influences productivity at work.



Q.1. Describe any two subsystems of an organisation.

Ans: Two subsystems of an organisation are:

(i) Goal Subsystem: It comprises the overall goals and objectives of the organisation and also the specific goals of different departments and individuals in the organisation.

(ii) Technical Subsystem: This subsystem refers to the use of knowledge, facilities equipment and technology by the people who work in the organisation.

Q.2. List the determinants of organisational climate and explain any two determinants.

Ans: The determinants of organisational climate are: 

(i) Organisational Structure.

(ii) Technology.

(i) Organisational Structure: It is the framework of authority – responsibility relationship in an organisation. It clarifies who is to supervise whom and who is responsible to whom. It serves as the basis of interpersonal relationships between supervisors, subordinates and coworkers. For example if the top management feels the need to give greater emphasis to the subordinates, it will follow a decentralised structure. This means there will be fewer layers in the hierarchy and employees would be encouraged to participate in decision making. But if top management likes to maintain greater consistency in decision making, it would follow a centralised structure.

(ii) Technology: The nature of technology employed by an organisation also influences the organisational climate. For example routine technologies like assembly lines tend to create rules, leading to a rigid climate where trust and creativity are low. More dynamic and changing technologies e.g. aerospace engineering seem to lead to greater trust and personal responsibility for task accomplishment.

Q.3. Write short note on any two of the following:

(i) Relationship with co-workers.

Ans: We spend more time with our colleagues than with anyone else. The work group context affects our experiences at the workplace. Relationships with coworkers do not develop according to rules and regulations as stated in formal terms. Relationships with peer groups often develop as a result of common taste, likes and dislikes. Some employees are more interdependent on their coworkers and provide an opportunity for the employees to have greater ease in interaction. Also co workers provide an opportunity for the employees to compare their beliefs with similar others. It is likely that a newcomer will first look at his/her work group peers for appropriate ways of behaving. For example the employee may learn from his peer group that it is not appropriate to give an opinion about the company policy even when asked by the boss. Besides, learning the unwritten rules within the organisation the peer group also provides an outlet for employees to express their emotions which they cannot do with their supervisors. So such relationships provide job satisfaction and increase organisational commitment. 

One critical factor which helps establish the context for the development of interpersonal relationships and adopting the work roles is the process of organisational socialisation.

(ii) Productivity and excellence at work.

Ans: When organisations meet the expectations of the people everyone benefits i.e. owners, employees, customers and local communities in which they operate. Then they are considered effective. However, when they exceed the minimum standards of effectiveness they may be considered to have achieved excellence. Over time excellence brings reputation that is when an organisation is regarded and recognized for superior performance. To achieve excellence an organisation must be productive and be able to transform inputs into outputs at minimum cost. Individual behaviour in organisations is jointly determined by two factors – the characteristics of the perceived environment and the characteristics of the individual. The perceived environment or climate has been examined in some detail earlier. 

Let us examine the role of individual characteristics and the way they influence productivity and excellence at work, and ultimately the success or failure of an organisation.

(iii) Strategies for developing productivity at work.

Ans: Four principal strategies exist for developing and enhancing productivity and excellence at work: 

(i) Employee Selection and Placement. 

(ii) Training and Development. 

(iii) Task Design. and 

(iv) Performance Appraisal and Rewards. 

Together, such activities can contribute substantially to improving productivity at work which ultimately is a key factor in contributing to organisational excellence. 

These are explained below:

(i) Employee Selection and Placement: By selecting only those with high ability and skill levels, high initial motivational levels and then placing them on suitable jobs – organisations can improve the initial quality of at least some of the human inputs which go on to determine excellence at work. Recruitment and selection may also substitute for employee socialisation and training. If desirable employees can be secured through a combination of recruitment and socialisation, it would ensure organisational success.

(ii) Training and Development: Training can serve to develop the capabilities not only in the present job but also future jobs. In fact training is an investment in employees (a talent bank) that can be drawn upon in the future. Employee training programmes may take a variety of forms including information presentation techniques (such as lectures), case studies, role play and so forth.

(iii) Task Design: The effects of task design on productivity and excellence are two-fold. In general increasing the amount of variety, autonomy, responsibility, feedback and task identity (or completeness task) can improve performance. The important thing then for both individuals and organisations is to understand the need-strength and goals for redesigning the jobs.

(iv) Performance Appraisal and Rewards: Finally, a variety of methods are available to guide, direct and reward employee-behaviour. Formal performance appraisal and appropriate use of reward system represent two such methods.

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