NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy

NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Economics Notes Paper 214.

NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Economics Chapter 21 Challenges of Indian Economy, NIOS Secondary Course Economics Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Challenges of Indian Economy

Chapter: 21




Q.1. What is the poverty line for rural areas’? 

Ans. 2400 kcal per day per person.

Q.2. What is the population of India’s labour force?

Ans. 43 crores.

Q. 3. Name a scheme to tackle urban poverty.

Ans. Swarna Jayanti Sahri Rozgar Yojana.


Q.1. Mention three goals of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan. 

Ans. Three Goals of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: 

(i) Enrolment of all children in schools.

(ii) Building education guarantee centres. 

(iii) Hosting “Back to school” camps.

Q.2. Give suggestions to provide education to girl child. 

Ans. Suggestions: 

(i) Set up model school for girls in every cluster.

(ii) Provide uniforms and study materials to girls.

(iii) Train the teachers to teach girl students.

Q.3. Give one advantage of mid-day meal programme.

Ans. Mid-day meal programme allows the children for different sections of society to eat together and develop a sense of belongingness toward each other.


Q.1. Write the objectives of National Rural Health Mission.

Ans. Objectives: 

(i) To strengthen health and family welfare programmes.

(ii) Removing diseases such as malaria, kala azar, blindness, iodine deficiency, T.B., filaria, leprosy etc.


Q.1. Why is price bad for a buyer?

Ans. Buyers have to pay more money than before out their given income. It becomes a burden.

Q.2. Give the meaning of hoarding. 

Ans. Hoarding means storing goods secretly to create artificial shortage. 

Q.3. Define economic growth.

Ans. Economic growth means increase in national and per capita income.


Q.1. What are the poverty alleviation programmes? Explain any one. 

Ans. Poverty Alleviation Programmes:

(i) The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNRES).

(ii) Swaran Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY). 

(iii) Swarn Jayanti Sahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY).

Diseases such as malaria, kala-azar, blindness, iodine deficinency, T.B., filaria, leprosy etc. by improving public health delivery system. NRHM is running many mobile medical units (MMUs) which run from one place to another to provide health care at door step.

Q.2. Give some measures to solve the problem of price rise.

Ans. Problem of price rise can be solved by following ways:

(i) By helping farmers in several ways so that foodgrain output does not suffer.

(ii) Building store house and cold storages to keep foodgrains and vegetables properly so that there would be no problem of availability of such goods.

(iii) Keeping a strict vigil on hoarding of essential commodities and punishing the guilty since hoarding is a crime.

Q.3. What the government has been doing to achieve economic growth?

Ans. Achieving Economic Growth: The government has been taking following measures to achieve economic growth:

(i) Establishment of Small Scale, Large Scale and Heavy Industries: The government has been encouraging establishment of small scale, large scale and heavy industries since 1965. The industries produce goods for the use of people, machines and equipments needed to build infrastructure and help service sector to expand, Industries provide lots of jobs and higher wages.

(ii) Encouraging the Use of Better Inputs: The government has been encouraging the use of better inputs in the form of better seeds, fertilizers etc. to improve foodgrains production.

(iii) Providing Better Infrastructures: The government has been providing better infrastructures in the form of roads, railway lines, airports, communication towers, powers etc.

(iv) Modifying the Rules and Regulation: The government has modified rules and regulations in order to maintain the momentum of economic growth. With the modifications of rules and regulations, people will be easily participating in the process of development.



Q.1. What are human minimum needs which everybody must be able to fulfil?

Ans. (i) Food.

(ii) Health Care.

(iii) Housing.

(iv) Basic Education etc.

Q.2. Give any one major challenges before India (our country). 

Ans. Eradication of poverty and unemployment.

Q.3. What is most essential for our existence?

Ans. Food is most essential for our existence.

Q.4. Why do we take food?

Ans. We take food to get energy for our body so that we can perform certain activities.

Q.5. How is energy measured?

Ans. Energy is measured in terms of kilo calories.

Q.6. What is the minimum energy required daily by a man living in rural areas?

Ans. 2400 k. calories.

Q.7. What is the minimum energy required daily by a man living in urban areas?

Ans. 2100 k. calories.

Q.8. Which person is said to be below poverty line?

Ans. The person who is not able to earn sufficient money to buy the food needed in order to get required energy to do work is said to be below poverty line. 

Q.9. What per cent of the population in India was poor in the year 2004-05?

Ans. 27.5 per cent.

Q.10. How many people were poor in India in the year 2004-05?

Ans. Around 27 crores.

Q.11. State one major reason of poverty in India.

Ans. Unemployment among the population who are willing to work.

Q.12. State any two main reasons of unemployment in India.

Ans. (i) Slow growth of industries. 

(ii) Slow growth of education. 

Q.13. How can you say that employment is seasonal in agriculture?

Ans. Employment is seasonal in agriculture as after harvesting is over, agricultural labour and small farmers become unemployed.

Q.14. What do you mean by labour force?

Ans. Labour force means people who are able to work and are between age group of 15 years to 59 years.

Q.15. What was the population of labour force by the year 2010 in India? 

Ans. India’s population of labour force was more than 43 crores by the year 2010.

Q.16. Why has population below poverty line been decreasing over time in India?

Ans. Because the Indian Government has been making policies and spending a lot of money to tackle the problem of poverty.

Q.17. Name any two programmes launched by the government for the alleviation of poverty.

Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). 

(ii) Swarna Jyanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSR).

Q.18. What does MGNRES aim at?

Ans. MGNRES aims at providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a year to rural population.

Q.19. When was NRES launched in 200 districts of India?

Ans. In 2006.

Q.20. How many households were benefited under MGNRS upto the month of December, 2010?

Ans. About 4.1 crore households.

Q.21. How many rupees have been allocated by the government to run MGNRES in 2010-11?

Ans. ₹ 40,100 crores.

Q.22. When was Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SJGSY) launched?

Ans. SJGSY was launched in April, 1999.

Q.23. Write down the aim of SGSY.

Ans. The aim of SGSY is to help rural poor people to increase their income generating capacity through self-employment.

Q.24. What is the primary focus of SGSY? 

Ans. The primary focus of SGSY is the SC and ST population as well as women.

Q.25. Many new initiatives have been included in Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY). Name any two such programmes.

Ans. (i) Programmes to generate self- employment.

(ii) Programmes for urban women. 

Q.26. When was SJSRY first launched? 

Ans. It was first launched in 1997.

Q.27. What was literacy rate of India for males according to census 2011? 

Ans. It. was 82.14 per cent.

Q.28. When did India make “free education for all children between 6 to 14 years of age” a fundamental right? 

Ans. In 2009.

Q.29. What is the idea of starting mid- day meals programme by the government?

Ans. The idea of starting mid-day meals programme by the government is to provide healthy diet to children by providing good food.

Q.30. What has the mid-day meals programme been started by the government?

Ans. In order to attract children into school and retain them, the government has started mid-day meal programme.

Q.31. When does higher education start? 

Ans. Higher education starts with college education after passing from schools.

Q.32. What do higher education and technical education include?

Ans. Higher education includes graduation in Arts, Social Sciences, Science, Engineering, Medicine, Information Technologies etc.

Q.33. Many steps have been taken by the government to develop higher and technical education. State any two such steps.

Ans. (i) New model colleges will be set up at educationally backward districts of the country.

(ii) To promote IT education. So more Indian Institute of Information Technology  (IIIT) will be set up.

Q.34. How many females out of every 1,00,000 die while giving birth due to lack of proper health care?

Ans. 254 females.

Q.35. What do you mean by maternal mortality? 

Ans. Maternal mortality means death of women out of 1000, while giving birth.

Q.36. What is mortality? 

Ans. Death of new born child.

Q.37. What is child mortality? 

Ans. Death of child before completing the age of 4 years.

Q.38. Why and when was National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) launched? 

Ans. NRHM was launched in 2005 to provide affordable and qualitative health service to rural population.

Q.39. What does NRHM aim at?

Ans. NRHM aims at strengthening health and family welfare programmes, removing diseases such as malaria, kala azar, blindness, iodine deficiency, TB, filaria, leprosy by improving public health delivery system.

Q.40. Why has the government started the Janani Suraksha Yojana? 

Ans. The government has started the Janani Suraksha Yojana to save the life of mother at the time of the delivery.

Q.41. Write down the full form of AIIMS.

Ans. All India Institute of Medical Sciences.

Q.42. Where is AIIMS situated?

Ans. It is situated in New Delhi.

Q.43. Why do people from different states come to Delhi to get treatment in AIIMS?

Ans. Because AIIMS is a world class medical institute- cum-hospital.

Q.44. Why has AIIMS become over-crowded with a long waiting period of treatment?

Ans. Because AIIMS provides all the facilities which are not available in the other hospitals.

Q.45. What is the full form of AIDS. 

Ans. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

Q.46. What is AIDS?

Ans. It is a dangerous health disorder which affects people affected with HIV.

Q.47. Why do prices rise? Give any one reason.

Ans. Shortage of goods due to less production.

Q.48. When shortage of goods may occur?

Ans. Shortage of goods may occur if production of good has not been adequate.

Q.49. When does man-made shortage occur?

Ans. Man-made shortage occurs when the sellers hoard the goods without selling it. 

Q.50. Why do the sellers hoard the goods without selling them?

Ans. The sellers hoard the goods without selling them to charge more price for the goods.

Q.51. Which goods are hoarded by the sellers? 

Ans. Essential goods such as onion, rice, medicines are hoarded.

Q.52. Government can play a major role in controlling prices in many ways. State any one way.

Ans. By building storehouses and cold storages to keep foodgrains and vegetables properly so that there will be no problem of availability of such goods.

Q.53. Define economic growth.

Ans. Economic growth may be defined as increase in a country’s total income and per capita income.

Q.54. How is economic growth possible?

Ans. Economic growth is possible when a country’s agricultural and industrial production increase as well as service sector expands in the desired manner.

Q.55. Many steps have been taken by the government to increase the agricultural and industrial production. State any one such step.

Ans. India has been encouraging establishment of small scale, large scale and heavy industries since the second plan onwards i.e. from 1956.

Q.56. How has poverty been described in India? 

Ans. Poverty in India has been described as that situation in which an individual fails to earn sufficient money to buy him minimum means of subsistence.

Q.57. Define poverty line.

Ans. Poverty line is defined on the basis of recommended nutritional requirements of 2400 calories per person per day for rural areas and 2100 calories for urban areas.

Q.58. Which state of India is the most poor?.

Ans. Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh etc.

Q.59. Name any two major yojana which have been implemented by the government to alleviate poverty. 

Ans. (i) Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana.

(ii) Swaran Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana.

Q.60. Which organisation collects data on poverty in India? 

Ans. National Sample Survey Organisation.

Q.61. How many families in urban areas have been benefited under SJSRY by December, 2010?

Ans. More than 6 lac 50 thousand families.

Q.62. Is there any relationship between unemployment and poverty?

Ans. Yes, there is relationship between unemployment and poverty. Unemployment leads to hunger, pessimism, indebtedness etc. They are all signs of poverty.

Q.63. Why has the government launched IEDSS Programme with effect from 2009-10?

Ans. The government has launched IEDSS Programme with effect from 2009-10 to help children with special needs.

Q.64. State the aim of IEDSS Programme launched by the government with effect from 2009.

Ans. The aim of IEDSS Programme is to provide 100% central assistance for education of disabled children studying in class IX-XII stage.

Q.65. What must a country do if it wants to establish knowledge society and compare with other countries at international level?

Ans. A country must improve the level of its higher and technical education if it wants to establish knowledge society and compare with other countries at international level.

Q.66. How many Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) have been established in various parts of India by the country to promote research in science? 

Ans. Five.


Q.1. Enlist the challenges of Indian Economy.

Ans. Following are the challenges of Indian Economy:

(i) Eradication of poverty. 

(ii) Eradication of unemployment.

(iii) Provision of education.

(iv) Provision of health care facilities by the government to all its citizens.

(v) Controlling the rising prices of commodities in the market (Inflation). 

(vi) Increase in national income with the growth of population.

(vii) Achieving economic growth every year.

Q.2. Enlist any four initiatives which were introduced in 2009 for creating opportunities for employment.

Ans. Introduction of Four Initiatives: 

(i) Programme to generate self- employment.

(ii) Programme for urban moment.

(iii) Training for urban poor. 

(iv) Wage employment programme.

Q.3. Write a short note on “Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.” 

Ans. Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009: This law was made effective from April, 2010. Now children between age group 6-14 years can have claim to free education and the government is duty-bound to provide so. Accordingly the government will open more and more primary and upper primary schools and appoint teachers to teach.

Q.4. Explain “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” (SSA) as one of the important schemes to develop elementary and secondary education.

Ans. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: This scheme has been implemented by the central government in partnership with state to give education to children at the age group 6-14 years.

Following are goals of this scheme: 

(i) Enrolment of all children in school.

(ii) Retention of children in the school upto upper primary level.

(iii) Hosting back to school camps.

(iv) Building education guarantee centres.

(v) Closing the gap arising due to caste, gender etc. in giving education.

Q.5. Write down the advantages of National Programme of Mid-day Meals in School.

Ans. Advantages of National Programme of Mid-day Meals: (i) It attracts the children into school and retains them.

(ii) It provides healthy diet to children by providing good food.

(iii) It brings children from different societies together and develop sense of belongingness towards each other.

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