NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.
NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegtation and Wildlife Resources
RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT [GEOGRAPHY]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Answer the following questions:
(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?
Ans. The two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation are:
(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.
Ans. Reasons for land degradation:
(c) Flood (Any two)
(iii) Why is land considered an important resource?
Ans. Land is considered an important resource as:
(a) It supports all kinds of living things include humans.
(b) It is used for various ways i.e. for constructing buildings, roads, railway lines etc.
(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.
Ans. (a) Our government has constructed national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
(b) Awareness programmes like social forestry and Vanamahotsava re be encouraged at the regional and community level.
Ans. (i) The impurities of water should be treated before releasing them into water bodies.
(ii) Rainwater harvesting should be done to save surface run off.
(iii) Wastage of water should be checked at home also. Waste water of kitchen and washing can be used for gardens and toilets.
Q.2. Tick (✔) the correct answer
(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?
(b) Soil texture.
(c) Organic matter.
Ans. (b) Soil texture.
(ii) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?
(a) Shelter belts.
(c) Terrace cultivation.
Ans. (c) Terrace cultivation.
(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature?
(a) Switch off the bulb when not in use.
(b) Close the tap immediately after using.
(c) Dispose polypacks after shopping.
Ans. (c) Dispose polypack as after shopping.
Q.3. Match the following:
|(i) Land use||(a) prevent soil erosion|
|(ii) Humus||(b) narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere|
|(iii) Rock dams||(c) productive use of land|
|(iv) Bio sphere||(d) organic matter deposited on top soil contour ploughing.|
|(i) Land use||(c) productive use of land|
|(ii) Humus||(d) organic matter deposited on top soil contour ploughing.|
|(iii) Rock dams||(a) prevent soil erosion|
|(iv) Bio sphere||(b) narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere|
Q.4. State whether the given statement is true or false. If true write the reasons.
(i) Ganga-Brahamputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.
Ans. True. It is because here the land very fertile and suitable for cultivation.
(ii) Water availability per person in India’s declining.
Ans. True. Because of rising population and drying up of water resources, increasing water pollution.
(iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping.
Ans. False, it is called shelter-belt.
(iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.
Ans. False, it will deteriorate the ecosystem.
Discuss some more reasons which are responsible for changes of land use pattern. Has your place undergone any change in the land use pattern in recent years?
Find out your parents and elderly people. You can conduct an interview by asking the following questions.
Based on the table you have just completed, draw a picture of land use patterns that you foresee in your neighbourhood after 20 years. Why do you think that land use patterns change over the years?
Ans. There is a great change in the land-use pattern. The reasons are as under:
Q.1. Observe the land, type of soil and water availability in the region you live. Discuss in your class, how it has influenced the lifestyle of people there.
Ans. The land, type of soil and water availability in the region influence the life style of people living there. They affect the economic activities of the people. If the land is fertile and there is enough water available for irrigation; people will adopt agricultural activities.
Study the table given (NCERT Page No. 10) and answer the following:
(i) Name the countries having the highest percentage of land under cropland, forest, pasture and other uses.
Ans. Cropland — India.
Forest — Japan.
Pasture — Australia.
Other Uses — Canada.
(ii) How would you relate the land use pattern of these countries with the probable economic activities?
Ans. (a) india is an agricultural country so it uses land maximum for crops production.
(b) The mountainous land of Japan is covered with forests.
(c) Australia has 56% of area in pastures; so the economic activity is related to cattle rearing.
(d) Paper and pulp industry is very common in Canada as its maximum land is covered mainly with coniferous forests.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. How is land degraded?
Ans. Land is degraded by:
(iii) Mining and quarrying.
(iv) Industrial effluents.
Q.2. What per cent of the total area of the earth’s surface is covered by land?
Ans. About thirty per cent of the total area of the earth’s surface is covered by land.
Q.3. Write some methods to conserve land.
Ans. Afforestation, land reclamation, regulated use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers and checks on over grazing.
Q.4. What is landslide?
Ans. Landslide is the mass movement of rocks, debris or earth down a stope.
Q.5. List any three factors responsible for landslide.
Ans. Three factors responsible for landslide are:
Q.6. What is fallow land?
Ans. A piece of land which is left uncultivated after two or three years to restore its fertility called fallow land.
Q.7. Which two countries have high percentage of pasture land?
Ans. Australia and Canada.
Q. 8. What is Soil?
Ans. Soil is the loose rock material which forms the top layer of the earth and serves as a source of food for men and animals.
Q.9. Name two factors responsible for soil erosion.
Ans. (i) Wind.
(ii) Running water.
Q.10. What is soil erosion?
Ans. The removal of top layer of the soil by the agent of weathering i.e. air, wind and running water is called soil erosion.
Q.11. What is soil made up of?
Ans. Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth.
Q.12. How is soil erosion caused by human beings?
Ans. Cutting trees, grazing animals on land by human beings leads to soil erosion.
Q.13. Mention the major regions of the world that faces water scarcity.
Ans. Most of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of Western USA, North-West Mexico, parts of South America and entire Australia are facing problem of water scarcity.
Q.14. What makes soil fertile?
Ans. The right mix of minerals and organic matter makes the soil fertile.
Q.15. Mention two factors on which natural vegetation depends.
Ans. Factors on which natural vegetation depends are:
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Why does soil loose its fertility?
Ans. The soil looses its fertility as:
(i) It is not left fallow for some time.
(ii) Same crops are grown every year.
(iii) Intensive use of chemicals and pesticides also makes it infertile.
(iv) Soil erosion also makes soil infertile.
Q.2. Why is our earth called a blue planet?
Explain water distribution on the surface of the earth.
Ans. Our earth is called a blue planet because three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
Distribution of water:
(i) 97% of water is in ocean and seas. It is salty and unsuitable for consumption.
(ii) Only 2% of water contains in ice-caps and glaciers. Due to their location they are inaccessible.
(iii) Only 1% of fresh water is found as ground water in river and lake and in the atmosphere as water vapour. It is suitable for human use.
Q.3. Why land is considered an utmost important resource? Give reasons.
Ans. Land is considered as an utmost important resource because:
(i) Human beings obtain most of the product from it to satisfy their needs.
(ii) It provides for more than 95% of human food requirement, greater part of clothing and housing and all needs of food for both fuel and construction.
(iii) About 90% of world population occupy nearly 30% of its land area.
(iv) It is used for various purposes such as cultivating crops, grazing of animals, construction of houses and roads, mining and manufacturing.
Q.4. What steps would you like to suggest to prevent land degradation?
Ans. We can prevent land degradation by:
(a) Planting more trees.
(b) Stop overgrazing.
(c) Adopting environment friendly mining.
(d) Proper discharging of effluents or industrial wastes.
(e) Growing of thorny bushes to stabilise sand dunes.
Q.5. The earth is called the ‘water planet’ but still we face water scarcity. Why?
Ans. The oceans cover two-third of the earth’s surface. However, the ocean water is saline and not fit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 percent. Nearly 70 percent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain regions. Only1 percent of fresh water is available and fit for human use. Hence, human beings face the scarcity of fresh water.
Q.6. Distinguish between evergreen and deciduous trees.
|Evergreen Trees||Deciduous Trees|
|1. Evergreen trees do not shed their leaves simultaneously in any season of the year.||1. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in a particular season to conserve loss of moisture through transpiration.|
|2. For example; Rosewood, cinchona, juniper, silver fir, etc.||2. For example; Mango, neem, peepal, mahua, etc.|
Q. 7. List the factors affecting the land use pattern of an area.
Ans. There are two factors that affect the land use pattern of an area.
(a) Physical factors: such as topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water.
(b) Human factors: such as population and technology.
Q. 8. Mention the uses of land.
Ans. Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What is a biosphere? What are their uses?
Ans. Biosphere reserve: A biosphere reserve is a protected area for the conservation of endangered species of flora and fauna in their natural habitats.
Uses of Biosphere:
(i) In a Biosphere reserve endangered species of animals and plants are protected.
(ii) These rare plants and animals are transmitted to future generation in their natural glory.
(iii) The surrounding areas are reserved for work for betterment of flora and fauna.
Q.2. Natural vegetation is very useful for us. How, explain by giving five examples?
Ans. Natural vegetation is very useful for us. Given below examples help us to understand it:
(i) We get valuable products like timber, lac, resins, herbs, etc from it.
(ii) Trees provides us fresh air to breath.
(iii) It prevent soil from erosion.
(iv) Trees act as shelter belts.
(v) Forests help in moderating temperature.
(vi) Forests bring rainfall and provide moisture through transpiration.
Q.3. How can you broadly classify natural vegetation?
Ans. Natural vegetation can be broadly classified into three categories.
(a) Forests: Land that has a dense cover of trees and shrubs is called forest. Forest grow well in a region where there is abundance of sunlight and rainfall.
(b) ‘Grasslands: Land where grass and grass-like plants are the dominant form of plant life is called grasslands. They grow in region of moderate rainfall.
(c) Shrubs: Shrubs are low woody perennial plants. Thorny shrubs and scrubs grow in the dry region of the world like in deserts.
Q.4. What are the different types of soil found in India? Write one sentence about each type of soil.
Ans. The different types of soil found in India.
(i) Black Soil: It is a very fertile soil and is formed by volcanic activity.
(ii) Alluvial Soil: It is formed by the silt brought by rivers.
(iii) Red Soil: It is red in colour due to the presence of high iron content in it.
(iv) Laterite Soil: It is formed as a result of intense leaching and is less fertile.
(v) Desert Soil: It is also called arid soil. It is sandy and alkaline in nature.
(vi) Mountain Soil: This soil is mostly found in hilly areas. It is thin and inferil.
Q.5. Suggest any four ways to preserve wildlife.
Ans. Ways to Preserve Wildlife:
(i) illegal poaching should be banned.
(ii) Plant more trees to provide natural shelter to wildlife.
(iii) We should cooperate in government schemes and in its efforts to preserve wildlife.
(iv) More wildlife sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves must be set up.
Q.6. Write notes on the following:
(b) Biosphere Reserve.
(c) National Park.
Ans. (i) Wildlife Sanctuary: These are areas where extinction of animals is protected, mainly those species which are endangered.
(ii) Biosphere Reserve: These are areas where all kinds of plants and animals are found in their natural surroundings e.g. Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, Nilgiri in Western Ghat.
(ii) National Park: These are large areas where natural vegetation and wild animals are together preserved. In these areas hunting of animals is prohibited.
Q.7. What are the factors affecting soil formation?
Ans. The factors affecting soil formation are as under:
(i) Parent Rock: It determines colour, texture, chemical properties, mineral content and permeability of soil.
(ii) Climate: Temperature and rainfall affect the rate of weathering and humus.
(iii) Relief: Altitude and shape determine accumulation of soil.
(iv) Flora, Fauna and Microorganisms: They affect the rate of humus formations.
(v) Time: Time determines thickness of soil profile.
Q. 8. Explain the classification of land on the basis of ownership.
Ans. On the basis of ownership, land can be classified as – Private land and Community land.
Private land: Private land is owned by individuals whereas community land is owned by the community for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs. Community land is also known as common property resources.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. Why is it necessary to increase the area under forest in India?
Ans. (a) It is because so far forest area in India is below the recommended ratio of 33% of total geographical area of the country which is presently 22.47%
(b) Forest plays a major role in enhancing the environment of a country, modify local climate, control soil erosion and regulate stream flow.
(c) A number of animals and plant species are so far endangered and extinct. These are to be protected to maintain ecological balance.
Q.2. What steps have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife?
Ans. Following steps have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife:
(a) National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are made to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
(b) Many countries have passed laws against the trade as well as killing of birds and animals. In India for example, killing lions, tigers, deers, great indian bustards and peacocks is illegal.
(c) An international convention CITES ias been established that lists several species of birds and animals in which trade is prohibited.
Q. 3. Give an account of various methods of soil conservation.
Ans. Some methods of soil conservation are:
(a) Mulching: The bare land between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.
(b) Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of barriers to collect water.
(c) Rock dam: Rocks are piled up-to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.
(d) Terrace farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops.
(e) Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. What measures will you suggest to control land degradation?
Ans. Following measures can be taken to control land degradation:
(a) By checking soil erosion.
(b) By proper waste management.
Q.2. Animals big or small, all are integral to maintaining balance in the ecosystem. Explain the statement.
How is wildlife important to us?
Ans. Animals, big or small, all are integral to maintaining balance in the ecosystem because of the following:
(a) Animals provide us milk, meat, hides and wool.
(b) Insects like bees provide us honey, help in pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem.
(c) Birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well.
(d) Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.
Q..3. Enlist the major factors responsible for scarcity of fresh water.
Ans. Major factors leading to water scarcity are:
(a) Increasing population.
(b) Rising demands for food and cash crops.
(c) Increasing urbanisation.
(d) Rising standard of living.
Q.4. Describe the various methods of conserving water resources.
Ans Water resources can be conserved in the following ways:
(a) Forest and other vegetation cover slow the surface runoff and replenish underground water. So plant more and more trees.
(b) Water harvesting is another method to save surface run off.
(c) The canals used for irrigating field should be properly lined to minimise losses by water seepage.
(d) Sprinklers effectively irrigate the area by checking water losses through seepage and evaporation.
(e) In dry regions drip or trickle irrigation is very useful.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) The narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere is called:
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (b) Biosphere.
(ii) Breaking up and decay of exposed rocks is called:
(b) Soil erosion.
Ans. (a) Weathering.
3. Two major factors responsible for the growth of natural vegetation are:
(a) Fertillzers and irrigation.
(b) Sunshine and altitude.
(c) Rainfall and snowfall.
(d) Temperature and moisture.
Ans. (d) Temperature and moisture.
4. Which of these is a result of deforestation?
(a) Soil erosion.
(b) Lowering of water table.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
5. Indiscriminate hunting of animals has driven many to edges of:
(d) all of these.
Ans. (a) extinction.
II. Match the column
|(i) Land Use||(a) Prevent soil Erosion|
|(ii) Humus||(b) Land suitable for agriculture|
|(iif) Rock Dams||(c) Productive use of land|
|(iv) Arable Land||(d) Organic matter deposited on top soil|
|(i) Land Use||(c) Productive use of land|
|(ii) Humus||(d) Organic matter deposited on top soil|
|(iif) Rock Dams||(a) Prevent soil Erosion|
|(iv) Arable Land||(b) Land suitable for agriculture|
I. Look at the given below picture and answer the questions that follows:
1. Identify and name the type of farming.
2. How and where is it practised?
Ans It is practised in mountain areas by cutting the mountain slopes to make it flat surface. The flat surface thus so make help to grow crops.It reduced the surface run off and check soil erosion.