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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 25 Mineral and Power Resources
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Mineral and Power Resources
RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT [GEOGRAPHY]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
List uses of any five minerals.
Ans. Uses of minerals:
(a) Manganese: Manufacture of ferrous alloys that are very strong.
(b) Mica: Mica is base to electrical industry.
(c) Aluminium: It is used in automobiles and aeroplanes, bottling industry and even in kitchen cookware.
(d) Silicon: It is used in computer industry.
(e) Gold: It used in making jewellery and ornaments.
Q.I. Answer the following questions:
(i) Name any three common minerals used by you every day.
Ans. These minerals are iron, copper and bauxite.
(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
Ans. Ores: Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ore. The ores of metallic minerals are located in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.
Ans. The regions rich in natural gas resources in India are Jaisalmer and Krishna, Godavari basin.
(iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for:
(a) Rural areas.
(b) Coastal areas.
(c) Arid regions.
Ans. (a) Rural areas: Biogas, firewood.
(b) Coastal areas: Wind energy.
(c) Arid regions: Solar energy.
(v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.
Ans. (i) Switch off tube light and bulb when not in use.
(ii) Don’t leave the tap open while brushing your teeth.
(iii) The electric appliance should be used as per instructions as should be maintained properly.
(iv) Switch to conventional sources of energy rather than the non conventional sources of energy.
(v) Cook most of the food items in pressure cookers rather than in open pans.
2. Tick (✔) the correct answer
(i) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals?
(a) They are created by natural processes.
(b) They have a definite chemical composition.
(c) They are in exhaustible.
(d) Their distribution is uneven.
Ans. (c) They are in exhaustible.
(iii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?
Ans. (c) Chile.
(iv) Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen?
(a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.
(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.
(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.
(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.
Ans. (d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.
3. Give reasons:
(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
Ans. (a) A large number of people displaced when their homes and villages have to be submerged for creating water resources and digging canals.
(b) Sometimes the dam site may prone to earthquake an earthquake. An earthquake at the dam site could be result in a huge disaster.
Thus environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
(ii) Most of the industries are concentrated around coal mines.
Ans. It is because coal is very heavy mineral and its transportation is very costly.
(iii) Petroleum is referred to as black gold’.
Ans. Petroleum is a valuable fossil fuel and is used for running machineries, transport vehicles, aeroplanes, etc. It is also used to produce variety of products like diesel, kerosene, wax, lubricants etc. Therefore it is called ‘black gold’.
(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.
Ans. Because it caused land degradation and soil erosion all over the world.
4. Distinguish between the following:
(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
|Conventional Sources of Energy||Non-Conventional Sources of Energy|
|1. Conventional sources of energy are those sources of energy which have been in use for long time.||1. Non-conventional sources of energy are those sources which are new.|
|2. Coal, petroleum,natural gas and electricity (both thermal and hydel) are examples of conventional sources.||2. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, atomic energy and bio-gas are examples of non-conventional sources of energy.|
|3. They are exhaustible sources of energy and cannot replenished easily.||3. They are not exhaustible sources of energy They are renewable.|
(ii) Biogas and natural gas:
|1. It is used as fuel and for lighting homes.||1. It is used as a raw material in petro-chemical industry.|
|2. It is commonly used in rural areas.||2. It is used in urban areas.|
|3. It is produced commercially in tanks by cow dung etc.||3. It is transported through pipelines.|
(c) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals:
|Ferrous Minerals||Non-ferrous Minerals|
|These are those minerals which contain iron.|
For examples: Iron, manganese and chrome.
|These are those minerals which do not contain iron.|
For examples: Gold, silver, copper, etc.
(d) Metallic and non-metallic minerals:
|Metallic Minerals||Non-metallic Minerals|
|1. Metals are extracted from them.||1. They do not contain metal.|
|2. They are malleable and ductile.||2. They are not malleable and ductile.|
|3. These minerals are associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks.||3. They are associated with sedimentary rocks.|
(i) Use pictures from old magazines to show different kinds of fuels used by us in our lives and display them on your bulletin board.
Ans. Do it yourself and take the help of your subject teacher.
(ii) Design a poster highlighting energy conversation tips you would take for your school.
Ans. Do it yourself with the help of your subject teacher.
(iii) Salma’s class took up an action campaign to do an energy audit of their school by surveying electricity consumption. They prepared survey sheets for the students of the school.
(iv) Can you add some more tips to this list?
Ans. You could conduct a similar survey at home and then extend it your apartment and make your neighbours also energy wise.
Using the data collected during the survey, students calculated the units consumed in one month and the approximate expenditure and compared it with electricity bill of the previous month. They also calculated the approximate cost of electricity consumed by fans, lights and other appliances not switched off. Thus, they highlighted the amount that could be saved and suggested simple energy conservation habits like
1. Switching off the appliances when not in use Minimal usage as per requirement.
2. Maximising the use of natural breeze and light by keeping the windows open. Keeping the lights dust free.
3. The appropriate maintenance and usage of appliances as per the given instructions.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What are minerals?
Ans. Minerals are natural occurring substances having definite physical and chemical composition.
Q.2. What is an ore?
Ans. Accumulation of minerals with any other substance or element is called an ore.
Q.3. What is a rock?
Ans. A rock is a naturally occurring substance on the earth’s crust, consisting of one or more minerals in varying quantities.
Q.4. What are the two broad categories of minerals?
Ans. Two broad categories are:
(a) Metallic minerals.
(b) Non-metallic minerals.
Q.5. Write any two characteristics of copper.
Ans. (i) Copper is a good conductor of electricity.
(ii) It is used for making electric motors, transformers. and generators.
Q.6. Why is the conservation of minerals necessary.
Ans. Conservation of minerals is necessary because of the following reasons:
(a) Minerals are non renewable resources.
(b) It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals.
Q.7. How are minerals extracted from the surface of the earth?
Ans. The minerals can be extracted by:
Q.8. Write any two advantages of solar energy.
Ans. The advantages of solar energy are:
(i) Solar energy is inexhaustible source of energy.
(ii) It is a non-polluting source of energy.
Q.9. What are the two disadvantages associated with wind energy?
Ans. (i) Wind mills are costly to set up.
(ii) It causes noise pollution.
(iii) It is harmful to birds.
Q.10. Name the leading producer of Bauxite in India.
Ans. Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat are the leading producers of Bauxite in India.
Q.11. From which language the word petroleum is derived? What does it mean?
Ans. The word petroleum is derived from Latin word Petra meaning rock and Oleum meaning oil. Hence it means rock oil.
Q.12. Write any two advantages of firewood as a conventional source of energy.
Ans. (i) It is easily available.
(ii) It provides energy to rural masses.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
0.1. What are the disadvantages of using oil as power resources?
Ans. (i) Depletion of oil due to oil spoilage and gas leakage.
(ii) Petroleum released causes acid rain.
(iii) Exploration of new oil fields is not easy.
Q.2. Why is there need for using non conventional sources of energy? Give two reasons.
Ans. (i) The increasing use of fossil fuels is leading to its shortage. It is estimated that if the present rate of consumption continues, the reserves of these fuels will get exhausted.
(ii) The use of conventional sources of energy causes environmental pollution.
Q.3. How is hydel electricitu produced?
Ans. Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights.
The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity.
Q.4. How is nuclear power obtained?
Ans. Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in the nuclear reactors and emit power.
Q.5. Why most of the industries concentrated around coal mines?
Ans. Most of the industries are situated near the coal mines because presence of coal mines around industries ensures easy availability of fuel and reduces the cost of transportation.
Q.6. Write a short account of the distribution of minerals in India.
Ans. In India minerals are distributed unevenly in the surface of the earth as given in label:
|Mineral||Area where they are found|
|Iron ore||Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Goa, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka.|
|Salt||Coastal states and Rajasthan.|
|Gold||Kolar Gold fields in Karnataka.|
|Copper||Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.|
|Mica||Jharkhand, Bihar, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.|
|Manganese||Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.|
|Bauxite||Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Limestone Pradesh, Gujarat.|
|Limestone||Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.|
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Describe the distribution of the following minerals in India:
|(a) Iron||High grade iron in India is mainly found in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka.|
|(b) Bauxite||Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra.|
|(c) Mica||The main areas where mica found in India are Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.|
|(d) Copper||Copper is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.|
|(e) Manganese||India’s manganese deposits lie in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.|
Q.2. How is nuclear energy is obtained? Name some largest producers of nuclear energy in world. Where is India’s uranium and thorium found?
Ans. Nuclear energy is obtained from nuclear minerals like uranium and thorium. The major producers of nuclear energy in the world are USA, Canada, Japan etc. In India, Jharkhand and the Aravallis of Rajasthan are the largest producers of uranium. Thorium is mainly found in Malabar coast of Kerala. Some of the important nuclear plants in India are at Tarapur, Kalpakkam, Kota and Kaiga.
Q.3. What are the different ways through which minerals can be extracted?
Ans. Different ways through which minerals can be extracted are:
(a) Open Cast Mining: Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer. It is mainly practised for coal mining in India.
(b) Shaft Mining: In shaft mining, deep bores are created to reach mineral deposits which are at great depths. Petroleum and natural gas are extracted by the shaft mining.
(c) Drilling: Under this method, deep wells are bored to take the minerals out. Oil and natural gas are extracted by this method by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Commission) of India.
(d) Quarrying: Minerals that lie near the surface are extracted out by the process of quarrying.
Q.4. What are the conventional and non- conventional sources of energy? Give examples also.
Ans. Conventional sources of Energy:
1. Conventional sources of energy are the traditional sources of energy which has been in use for a long time. These are wood, petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc. Once used they get depleted. Their rate of consumption is increasing day by day because of increasing population.
2. Non-conventional Sources of Energy: Energy produced from the force of sun, wind, water and tide are called non-conventional sources of energy. They are renewable sources of energy. There is urgent need of their development because rising prices of oil have signalled a shortage of their availability in near future.
Q.5. Differentiate between the following:
(a) Metallic Minerals and Non-metallic minerals.
(b) Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals.
Ans. (a) Metallic Minerals and Non-metallic minerals.
|Metallic Minerals||Non-metallic minerals|
|1. Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.||1. Non-metallic minerals are those minerals which do not yield new products on melting.|
|2. These are generally associated with igneous rocks.||2. These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.|
|3. They are usually hard and have shine or lustre of their own.||3. They are not so hard and have no shine or lustre of their own.|
|4. They are ductile i.e. turned into wires.||4. They are not ductile.|
(b) Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals.
|Ferrous Minerals||Non-ferrous Minerals|
|1. Minerals having iron contents are called ferrous minerals.||1. Minerals that do not posses iron contents are called non-ferrous minerals.|
|2. India has abundant ferrous minerals.||2. India is deficient in non-ferrous minerals.|
|3. Example: Iron ore, manganese ore, cobalt and nickel.||3. Example: copper ore, tin, zinc, gold, silver, leadeh.|
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is the next major source of energy after coal in India? Describe its two advantages.
Ans. The next major source of energy after coal in India is petroleum. Its advantages are:
(i) It can be used as fuel for heat and lighting.
(ii) It can also be used as lubricants for machinery.
(iii) It can be used as a raw material in a number of manufacturing products.
Q.2. How is India’s place in respect of important minerals?
Ans. India has abundant reserves of iron-ore and mica. Manganese ore, Titanium, bauxite and coal are also in adequate supply.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. How can we contribute in the conserving of energy resources in our daily life?
Ans. We can contribute a lot in the conserving energy resources by following steps:
(i) By using public transport instead of private means of transport to save petroleum.
(ii) By switching off electricity when not in use.
(iii) By encouraging the use of renewable sources of energy.
(iv) Using power saving devices.
(v) In automobiles, electrical motors should be introduced.
Q.2. Which values enhance the importance of minerals in our life?
Ans. (i) Minerals are the basis of the economic standard of a nation.
(ii) Minerals make life more comfortable or full of luxuries.
(iii) Most of the food items, we eat and the water we drink is made up of minerals.
Q.3. Why is the conservation of minerals necessary?
Ans. Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. So conservation of minerals is essential.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct options
1. Gold is an example of ______________ minerals.
(c) Both (a) and (b)m
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) Non-ferrous.
2. _______________ is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
(b) North America.
Ans. (a) Europe.
3. _____________ is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
(d) South America.
Ans. (c) Africa.
4. Which of these are fossil fuels?
(c) Natural gas.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (b) Petroleum.
5. In which states are Kolar gold mines located?
(a) Tamil Nadu.
(b) Orissa (Odisha).
(c) Madhya Pradesh.
Ans. (d) Karnataka.
6. Which of these deposits are found in abundance in China?
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
7. From which mineral does silicon obtain?
(d) None of these.
Ans. (a) Quartz.
8. A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is knowns as
Ans. (b) Mineral.
9. Non-metallic minerals like limestone, sandstone, marble etc. are found in the
(a) Metamorphic Rocks.
(b) Igneous Rocks.
(c) Sedimentary Rocks.
(d) Weathered Rocks.
Ans. (c) Sedimentary Rocks.
10. Aluminium is obtained from
(a) Iron Ore.
(d) Crude Oil.
Ans. (b) Bauxite.
II. Fill in the blanks:
(a) ___________ energy can be obtained by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.
(b) ________________ is a rock deposit that contains enough mineral to make it economically feasible to extract and purity to derive a desired product material.
(c) The process in which base ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw is called _______________.
(d) The world’s leading producer of non-ore is _______________.
(e) Hindustan Aeronautics limited is a ______________ industry.
Ans. Public sector.
1. On the map of world mark and locate where mineral oil and coal are found in
(c) South America.
(d) North America.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
Look at the given below picture and answer the questions that follow:
Q.1. What type of energy production is shown in the picture?
Ans. Nuclear energy.
Q.2. Name the part labelled as (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v).
Ans. (i) Hot water.
(v) Heat from fusion.