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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 26 Agriculture
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 26 Agriculture and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT [GEOGRAPHY]
Q.1. Answer the following questions:
(i) What is agriculture?
Ans. The art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock is known as agriculture.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Ans. The factors influencing agriculture are:
(d) Other factors such as availability of irrigation facilities, size of the landholdings, transport facilities, etc.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Ans. Shifting cultivation is that process of agriculture where a small area of forest is cleared by cutting down all the trees and by burning. The ashes are mixed with the soil to make it more fertile and land is used for agriculture.
(i) It is led to the deforestation and loss of natural vegetation.
(ii) It leads to soil erosion.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Ans. It is a type of commercial farming practised on farms known as estates to grown a single crop like tea, coffee, sugarcane, rubber, etc.
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Ans. The fibre crops are cotton and jute. Climatic conditions for their growth are as follows:
(a) High temperature of about 27°C during the growth period.
(b) Rainfall of about 60 cm to 100 cm with frequent showers.
(c) Fertile, well drained soil.
(d) Dry, clear and sunny weather during the ripening of cotton bolls.
Jute: Climatic conditions required for the growth of Jute:
(a) Warm and wet climate.
(b) Alluvial soil.
(c) Heavy rainfall.
Q.2. Tick the correct answer
1. Horticulture means _____________.
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables.
(b) primitive farming.
(c) growing of wheat.
Ans. (a) growing of fruits and vegetables.
2. Golden fibres refers to _____________.
Ans. (c) Jute.
3. Leading producer of coffee is ____________.
Ans. (a) Brazil.
Q.3. Give reasons
1. In India agriculture is a primary activity.
Ans. In India agriculture is a primary activity because nearly 70% of India’s population is engaged in this activity i.e. agriculture directly or indirectly. It provides food for human beings and raw materials for agro-based industries.
2. Different crops are grown in different regions.
Ans. It is because different climatic conditions prevailed all over the different regions found in India.
|Primary activities are those activities which include extraction and production of natural resources. |
Examples: Agriculture, fishing, mining. etc. advertising.
|Tertiary activities are those activities which provide support to primary and secondary sector through services.|
Examples: Transport, trade, banking, etc.
|Intensive Farming||Intensive Farming|
|(a) The farmers try to get the maximum possible output from a small plot of land. It is practised in densely populated areas.||(a) The farmers try to get the maximum possible output from a small plot of land. It is practised in densely populated areas.|
|(b) The farmers use simple tools and abundant human labour.||(b) The farmers use simple tools and abundant human labour.|
|(c) This is mostly done on fertile soil.||(c) This is mostly done on fertile soil.|
1. Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type of soil they grow.
Ans. 1. Wheat: It grows good in well drained loamy soil. Black soil provides excellent quality grain.
2. Rice: It grows well in alluvial clayey soil which can retain water.
3. Jowar, Bajra, Ragi: These can be grown is less fertile and sandy soil.
4. Maize: It requires well drained, deep and fertile soil.
5. Oilseeds: Groundnuts are grown in alluvial soil and in black soil. Mustard requires alluvial soil.
6. Pulses: They are grown in less fertile alluvial soil and red soil.
(ii) Find out the difference between the life style of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet.
Ans. The following points will clear the difference between the life style of the farmers in the USA and India:
LIFE STYLE OF FARMERS IN THE USA
(i) Farmers have large size of farms ranging between 100-300 hectares.
(ii) They use high dose of fertilisers.
(iii) They use modern techniques and machines like harvesters in agriculture.
(iv) They are generally live in farm houses.
(v) They use high quality of seeds and take adequate measures to control pests and improve soil fertility.
(vi) They generally well educated. They work like businessmen and maintain proper accounts of expenditure and income.
(vii) They sell their produce in big markets and to exports other countries also.
LIFE STYLES OFFARMERS IN INDIA
(i) The farmers generally do not have farms more than 1.5 hectares in India.
(ii) They generally hire big machines for farming or work with small machines.
(iii) They are not aware of the properties of soil and lack soil testing facilities.
(iv) The farmers lack storage facilities and sell produce in nearby markets (mandis).
(v) They are not educated and can not keep accounts of farm activities.
(vi) They live in kuchcha houses in villages.
(vii) All the members of family are engaged in agricultural activities.
Q.6. FOR FUN
Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues:
1. Crop that needs well drained fertile soils, moderate temperature and lots of sunshine (5).
2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides (5,10).
4. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5).
10. Type of farming to meet family needs (11).
13. Rearing of animals for sale (9).
14. Growing grapes for wine (11).
1. Coarse grains are also called (7).
3. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8).
5. Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables (11).
6. Tea, coffee, sugarcane and rubber are grown in (11).
7. Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6).
8. Growing of flowers (12).
9. Also called ‘Golden Fibre’ (4).
11. Also known as paddy (4)
12. Activity concerned with extraction of natural resources (7).
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What is agriculture?
Ans. The cultivation of soil for growing crops and rearing livestock is called agriculture.
Q.2. What is the meaning of word ‘agriculture?
Ans. The word agriculture is taken from a Latin word ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning cultivation or tilling of soil.
Q.3. What is sericulture?
Ans. The rearing of silkworms for commercial use is known as sericulture.
Q.4. What is horticulture?
Ans. Growing of vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use is called horticulture.
Q.5. What is Pisciculture?
Ans. Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds is known as pisciculture.
Q.6. Name different types of economic activities.
Ans. The economic activities are of three types. These are:
(i) Primary activity.
(ii) Secondary activity.
(iii) Tertiary activity.
Q.7. What is arable land?
Ans. The land on which crops are grown is called arable land.
Q.8. What do you know about organic farming?
Ans. A type of farming in which organic manures and natural pesticide are used instead of chemical.No modification is done to increase the yield of the crops.
Q.9. Write any two names of shifting agriculture in different regions of the world.
Ans. (i) Milpa in Mexico.
(ii) Roca in Brazil.
(iii) Ladang in Malaysia.
(iv) Jhuming in North-East India.
Q.10. What types of farming are included in commercial farming?
Ans. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.
Q.11. What type of cultivation is practised in developing countries?
Ans. Intensive cultivation is practised in developing countries like India etc.
Q.12. What are the two essentials for agricultural activity?
Ans. Favourable topography of soil, climate.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What climatic conditions are required for the cultivation of cotton?
Ans. (i) High temperature.
(ii) Light rainfall.
(iii) Two hundred and ten frost free days.
(iv) Bright sunshine.
Q.2. Write a short note on Shifting Agriculture.
Ans. Shifting agriculture can be explained as follows:
(a) This type of agriculture is practised is the thickly forested areas of Amazon basis, tropical Africa parts of south east Asia and North east India.
(b) It is practised in areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration and vegetation.
(c) Shifting agriculture is also known as slash and burn agriculture.
Q.3. What are the inputs and outputs of agriculture in common? What are the operations involved in agriculture?
Ans. The inputs in agriculture are seeds, fertilizers, machinery, labour etc. The outputs in agriculture are farming activities, a farmer gets crops, wool, dairy products and poultry products.
Q.4. What are the components of agriculture sector?
Ans. (i) Agri + culture = Agriculture The science of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock.
(ii) Horti + culture = Hoticulture. The art of growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.
(iii) Seri + culture = Sericulture. The science of commercial rearing of silkworms.
(iv) Pisci + culture = Pisciculture. The art of breeding of fish in especially constructed tanks and ponds.
(v) Viti + culture = Viticulture The art of cultivation of grapes.
LONGA TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Distinguish between commercial farming and subsistence farming.
|Commercial Farming||Subsistence Farming|
|(a) In this type of farming, crops are grown for sale in the market.||(a) Crops are grown to meet the needs of the farmer’s family.|
|(b) Size of the land holding is large i.e. larger than 2 hectares.||(b) Size of the land holdings is small i.e. less than 2 hectares.|
|(c) It is done with scientific methods.||(c) It is done with old primitive methods.|
|(d) Major crops grown includes rice, wheat, maize etc.||(d) Major crops grown includes – tea, coffee, rubber etc.|
Q.2. What do you mean by agricultural development? How can this be achieved?
Ans. Agricultural Development: Agricultural development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demands of increasing population.
Agricultural development can be achieved in the following ways:
(a) Increasing the cropped area.
(b) Increasing the number of crops.
(c) Improving irrigation facilities.
(d) Use of fertilizers.
(e) Use of high yielding varieties of seeds.
Agriculture has developed at different places in different parts of the world. Large holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia.
Q.3. Define the following:
(ii) Agricultural Development.
(iv) Mixed Farming.
(v) Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.
Ans (i) Plantation: Plantation is a type of commercial farming where only a single crop (like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton) is grown.
(ii) Agricultural development: The effort to increase the farm production so as to meet growing demand of increasing population is called agricultural development.
(iii) Mechanization: The process of using machines more than human labour is called mechanization.
(iv) Mixed farming: The commercial farming in which land is used to grow food and fodder crops and rearing livestock is called mixed farming.
(v) Intensive subsistence agriculture: To cultivate a small plot of land, farmers use simple tools and huge labour, this type of agriculture is called intensive subsistence agriculture.
Q. 4. What is Nomadic herding? Enlist its main features.
Ans. In normadic herding, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes.
Main features of this type of farming are:
(a) It is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
(b) Sheep, Camel, Yak and goats are most commonly reared.
(c) These animals provide milk, meats, wools, hides and other products to the herders and their families.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. In which region mainly Jhum farming is popular form of agriculture in India?
Ans. Jhum farming is practised mainly in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. It is also practised in some areas of Manipur such as Pamlou, Chattisgarh (Bastar) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
It is also popular in some areas of Madhya Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and south-eastern Rajasthan.
Q.2. Why is India called an agricultural country? Give reasons.
Ans. India is called an agricultural country as:
(i) Two-third of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
(ii) It produces most of the food consumed in India.
(iii) It also produces raw material for various industries based on agricultural production.
(iv) Some agricultural crops are grown to earn foreign exchange.
Q. 3. Enlist the main features of plantation agriculture.
Ans. Main features of plantation agriculture are:
(a) It is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber or cotton are grown.
(b) Large amounts of labour and capital are required.
(c) The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories so the development of a transport network is essential for such farming.
(d) Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world.
Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.
Q. 4. State the geographical conditions for the cultivation of rice and wheat.
Ans. Geographical conditions favourable for the cultivation of rice are:
(a) Climate: Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall.
(b) Type of soil: It grows best in alluvial clayey soil.
Geographical condition favourable for the cultivation of wheat are:
(a) Climate: It requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
(b) Type of soil: It thrives best in well drained loamy soil.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. For what reasons Indian farmers does not want his son to become a farmer?
Ans. Indian farmers does not want his son to become a farmer because:
(i) With the pace of increase in population, land holding has shrunk in hardly two or three fields per person.
(ii) Farming is a labour intensive yet non-profitable industry.
(iii) It demands manual labour while new generations are under influence of western culture and shirk work farm labour.
Q.2. Mention the geographical conditions required for tea plantation.
Ans. Geographical conditions required for tea plantation are:
(i) Climate: Warm and moist free climate.
(ii) Soil: Fertile and well drained soil.
(iii) Temperature: Highly humid.
(iv) Labour: Cheap and skilled labour.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) Agriculture is a secondary activity.
(b) Most of the work is done by machines on commercial farming.
(c) Favourable topography of soil is vital for agricultural activity.
(d) Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin.
Ans. (a) Agriculture is a secondary activity.
2. Which things are used for mixed farming?
(a) Modern machinerydis.
(b) Selected seeds.
(c) Chemical fertilizers.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
3. Millets can be grown on _____________.
(a) Very fertile and loamy soil.
(b) Non-fertile and sandy soil.
(c) Less fertile and sandy soil.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Less fertile and sandy soil.
4. Which of the following is known as ‘Golden fibre’?
Ans. (a) Maize.
5. What does the picture represent?
(a) Bajra cultivation.
(b) Rice cultivation.
(c) Maize cultivation.
(d) Cotton cultivation.
Ans. (a) Bajra cultivation.
6. Cotton requires ______________.
(a) One hundred frost free days.
(b) Two hundred and ten frost free days.
(c) Only ten frost free days.
(d) Five frost free days.
Ans. (b) Two hundred and ten frost free days.
7. In which of the following countries maize is grown?
(a) North America and Mexico.
(b) Brazil and India.
(c) China and Russia.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
8. Which of the following is a secondary activity?
(b) Baking bread.
Ans. (b) Baking bread.
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. Jute grows well on ____________ soil.
2. Transport is an example of ______________ activity.
3. Brazil is the leading producer of _____________.
4. Wheat grows well in well drained ____________ soil.
5. Rearing of silkworms to obtain silk is known as _____________.
III. Match the pictures of components of agricultural sector in column I with their names in column II
Ans. (A) — (iv)
(B) — (v)
(c) — (ii)
(D) — (iii)
(E) — (i)