# NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology

NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Geography Class 12 Solutions.

## NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Geography Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography, Geography: India People and Economy, Geography: Practical Work in Geography. NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Spatial Information Technology Notes, NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 28

PART – III PRACTICAL WORK IN GEOGRAPHY

1. Define GIS.

Ans: A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that analyses and displays geographically referenced information.

2. Define DIP.

Ans: DIP is the angle between that horizontal plane and the inclined surface (such as a geological contact between tilted layers) measured perpendicular to the strike line down to the inclined surface.

3. Name six elements of data structure.

Ans: The six essential elements of geography are The World in Spatial Terms, Places and Regions, Physical Systems, Human Systems, Environment and Society, and Uses of Geography.

4. What do you understand by GPS?

Ans: The global positioning system (GPS) is a network of satellites and receiving devices used to determine the location of something on Earth. Some GPS receivers are so accurate they can establish their location within one centimetre (0.4 inches). GPS receivers provide location in latitude, longitude, and altitude.

5. What is Vector?

Ans: Vector data is a geographic data type where data is stored as a collection of points, lines, or polygons along with attribute data.

1. Explain how a computer can help in cartography.

Ans: Computer cartography is employed to facilitate a variety of computer applications, often through integration with the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite network. This can allow real-time automated map generation for tasks such as automotive navigation systems.

2. Compare Vector and Raster GIS.

Ans: Raster vs vector GIS: They operate differently and are used to address different types of geographical problems. Vector GISs are most suited to applications that involve the social and engineering sciences, and grid cell (raster) systems to applications that involve the natural sciences.

3. Write a short note on application of GIS in socio-economic planning.

Ans: GIS facilitates decision making by combined analysis of different layers of relevant information. Socio-economic and geo-spatial data helps authorities to rapidly access and visualise critical information to tackle disastrous conditions.

4. Write a short note on Global Positioning System.

Ans: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S.-owned utility that provides users with positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services. This system consists of three segments: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment.

5. Give the advantages of GIS.

Ans: It allows employees to be more efficient when mapping out job sites due to the sheer volume of data they can access. GIS makes transporting and tracking goods significantly more efficient when applied in logistics scenarios. With GIS technology, you can even track goods and services in real time with pinpoint accuracy.

1. Explain the importance of Spatial Information Technology.

Ans: Spatial Information Technology (SIT) plays a crucial role in various fields due to its ability to capture, analyse, and visualise data associated with geographic locations.

Here are some reasons why it’s important:

(i) Better Decision Making: Decision-making in geography often involves the systematic evaluation of disparate factors. It enables individuals to deduce appropriate choices based on the information available. Choices made impact both the physical world and the societal constructs.

(ii) Resource Management: Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together natural heritage management, land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry.

(iii) Environmental Monitoring and Conservation: Environmental monitoring and conservation of the natural environment are crucial activities aimed at understanding, protecting, and preserving the Earth’s ecosystems, species, and natural resources.

(iv) Infrastructure Planning and Management: Infrastructure planning involves the concept of a system approach to installation, operation and management. It includes both specific functional modes, such as highways and streets and the combined systems the various modal elements compose (utilities, storm water, etc.)

(v) Emergency Response and Disaster Management: Disaster Management consists of the set of continuous and integrated processes of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures for prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, rehabilitation, reconstruction ,capacity building etc.

(vi) Public Health: This situates health geography alongside other geographical sub-disciplines that trace human-environment relations. Health geographers use modern spatial analysis tools to map the dispersion of health, including various diseases, as individuals spread them amongst themselves, and across wider spaces as they migrate.

(vii) Business Intelligence: GeoBI is business intelligence that makes use of geospatial information. Business intelligence supports better business decision making leading to new revenue opportunities, improved cost visibility, and better risk management.

(viii) Scientific Research: There are various types of scientific research. Some of the most important include quantitative, qualitative, applied, basic, mixed, and classification.

2. Describe Global Positioning System a vital source of spatial data.

Ans: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is indeed a vital source of spatial data, revolutionising the way we navigate and understand our world.

Here’s why:

(i) Precision Location Data: Data precision is the smallest difference between two positions that can be recorded and stored. Precise location data may measure position to a fraction of a unit. Precise thematic information may specify marketing, census, or other data in great detail.

(ii) Navigation: Navigation is the art and science of determining the position of a ship, plane or other vehicle, and guiding it to a specific destination. Navigation requires a person to know the vehicle’s relative location, or position compared to other known locations. Navigators measure distance on the globe in degrees.

(iii) Mapping and Cartography: Cartography, the art and science of graphically representing a geographical area, usually on a flat surface such as a map or chart. It may involve the superimposition of political, cultural, or other non geographical divisions onto the representation of a geographical area. cartography.

(iv) Disaster Response and Management: Disaster management is a process of effectively preparing for and responding to disasters. It involves strategically organising resources to lessen the harm that disasters cause. It also involves a systematic approach to managing the responsibilities of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery.

(v) Environmental Monitoring: Environmental monitoring means using observational techniques and tools (such as sensors, wireless communications and remote management software) to detect, observe and measure environmental conditions at a specific site or location.

(vi) Surveying and Construction: Land surveying is a process for determining distances and angles between points on land. Land surveyors use traditional instruments and digital technology, to produce surveys, data and maps describing the Earth’s surface features. This is essential for civil engineering and construction projects.

(vii) Precision Agriculture: Precision agriculture (PA) is a farming management strategy based on observing, measuring and responding to temporal and spatial variability to improve agricultural production sustainability.

(viii) Geotagging and Location-Based Services: The geographical location data used in geotagging can, in almost every case, be derived from the global positioning system, and based on a latitudes/longitude – coordinate system that presents each location on the earth from 180° west through 180° east along the Equator and 90° north through 90° south along the prime.

3. Draw and explain modern cartography through it.

Ans: Here’s a breakdown of how modern cartography works:

(i) Data Acquisition: For the data acquisition at small areas or for individual objects digital cameras with calibrated metric lens or calibrated video cameras are used. For more precise work at small surfaces terrestrial laser scanners or modern geodetic instruments are used. For the cadastral or topographic surveys GNSS instrument is used.

(ii) Map Design: Cartographic design or map design is the process of crafting the appearance of a map, applying the principles of design and knowledge of how maps are used to create a map that has both aesthetic appeal and practical function.

(iii) Integration of Dynamic Data: Data integration is the process of consolidating data from multiple source datasets into a target dataset.

(iv) Customization and Personalization: Personalization is all about using customer data to create a personalised experience tailored to their preferences and interests. On the other hand, customization creates a sense of ownership and control over the experience, as customers are actively involved in shaping it.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) The spatial data is characterised by the following forms of appearance:

(a) Positional.

(b) Linear.

(c) Aerial.

(d) All the above forms.

Ans: (c) Aerial.

(ii) Which one of the following operations requires analysis module software?

(a) Data storage.

(b) Data display.

(c) Data output.

(d) Buffering.

Ans: (b) Data display.

(iii) Which one of the following is disadvantage of Raster data format?

(a) Simple data structure.

(b) Easy and efficient overlaying.

(c) Compatible with remote sensing imagery.

(d) Difficult network analysis.

Ans: (d) Difficult network analysis.

(iv) Which one of the following is an advantage of vector data format?

(a) Complex data structure.

(b) Difficult overlay operations.

(c) Luck of compatibility with remote sensing data.

(d) Compact data structure.

Ans: (a) Complex data structure.

(v) Urban change detection is effectively undertaken in GIS core using.

(a) Overlay operations.

(b) Proximity analysis.

(c) Network analysis.

(d) Buffering.

Ans: (d) Buffering.

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