Evaluation and Assessment

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Evaluation and Assessment

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Evaluation and Assessment




Evaluation, particularly educational evaluation is a series of activities designed to measure the effectiveness of the teaching-learning systems as a whole. According to Mary Thorpe (1980), “Evaluation is the collection, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education.” Teaching-lcaming process is a continuous activity. It needs to be evaluated from beginning to end. Evaluation during the learning process often termed as formative evaluation is important for learners and teachers alike.

The bases of evaluation are learning objectives, performance standards and achievement tests on the one hand, and learners and opinions on the other. Evaluation helps to build an educational programme, assess its achievement and improve upon its effectiveness. It also provides valuable feedback on the design, development and implementation of the programme. It is, of course, an important component of the teaching-learning helps in making the value determining educational status, or measuring achievement of the scope of evaluation in schools extents to almost all the areas of learner’s personality development. It includes both scholastic and non scholastic It reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the learners, so that the learners have a better opportunity to understand and improve themselves.

 Evaluation is helpful to teachers. It provides feedback to them to reshape their teaching strategies according to the needs of the Evaluation in education in general and in distance education in particular becomes imperative to know as to what extent the goals of education have been achieved.

 Thus, evaluation is not merely assigning grades to is a continuous process of acquiring and processing information in order to improve learning and to assess decisions made in designing an instructional system. If we analyse the above statement we easily notice that it has three important implications for the entire system.

They are as follows:

  1. Evaluation is a continuous process and not aone time performance measurement effected at the end of a course/programme. It starts at the stage of curriculum development and continues until the instruction
  2. Evaluation process is aimed at finding ways and means to improve learning and thereby to achieve learning objectives more effectively and more efficiently.
  3. Evaluation requires the use of accurate and appropriate measuring instructions to collect information for taking decisions about the quality and operation of education.

It is clear that in designing an effective learning system, one of the earliest steps we need to take is to prepare a comprehensive evaluation plan, which should be developed soon after the learning objectives have been formulated. This practice will help us to:

  • Determine whether the objectives are attainable or need revisions before we start designing the instructional 
  • Collect data/information in a form that suits our purposes adequately and at a time when it is available, otherwise the opportunity to collect specific information may be lost; and
  • have sufficient time to test the effectiveness of a design.

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school based evaluation of a student that covers all aspects of a student’s development. It is a developmental process of students which emphasizes two fold objectives. These objectives are continuity in evaluation and assessment of broad based learning and behavioural outcomes on the

The term “continuous” is meant to emphasise that evaluation of identified aspects of students and development is a continuous process rather than an event, built into the total teaching learning process and spread over the entire span of academic session. It means regularity of assessment, frequency of unit testing, diagnosis of learning gaps, use of corrective measures, retesting and feedback of evidence to teachers and students for their self evaluation.

 The second term means that the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of the students’ growth and development. Since abilities, attitudes and aptitudes can manifest themselves in forms other than the written word, the term refers to application of variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing) aims at assessing a learner’s development in areas of like:

  • Knowledge
  • Understanding
  • Applying
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating 
  • Creating

Objectives of CCE

  • To help develop psychomotor andaffective skills
  • To lay emphasis on thought process and de emphasis
  • To make evaluation an integral part of the teaching-learning process.
  • To use for improvement of students achievement and teaching-learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instructions.
  • To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance.
  • To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner, the process of learning and the learning environment.
  • To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity.

Features of CCE

  • The ‘continuous’ aspect of CCE takes care of “continual’ and periodicity’ aspect of evaluation
  • Continual means assessment of students in the beginning of instructions (placement evaluation) and assessment during the instructional process (formative evaluation) done informally using multiple techniques of evaluation.
  • Periodicity means assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit/term (summative evaluation).

. The comprehensive component of CCE takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality. It includes assessment in Scholastic as well as Co- Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth.

  • Scholastic aspects include curricular areas or subject specific areas, whereas Co-Scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co Curricular Activities, Attitudes and Values.
  • Assessment in Scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and periodically. The diagnostic evaluation takes place at the end of the unit/term test. The causes of poor performance in some units are diagnosed using diagnostic tests. These are followed with appropriate interventions followed by retesting
  • Assessment in Co-Scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria, while assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of Indicators of Assessment and Checklists.

Functions of CCE

  • It helps the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies.
  • Continuous evaluation helps in regular assessment to the extent and degree of Learner’s progress (ability and achievement with reference to specific Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas).
  • Continuous evaluation serves to diagnose weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain an individual learner’s strengths and weaknesses and her needs. It provides immediate feedback to the teacher, who can then decide whether a particular unit or concept needs a discussion again in the whole class or whether a few individuals are in need of remedial instruction

By continuous evaluation, children can know their strengths and weaknesses. It provides the child a realistic self assessment of how be she studies. It can motivate children to develop good study habits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals. It helps a learner to determine the areas of instruction in where more emphasis is required.

  • Continuous and comprehensive evaluation identifies areas of aptitude and interest. It helps in identifying changes in attitudes and value systems
  • It helps in making decisions for the future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers
  • It provides information/reports on the progress of students in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas and thus helps in predicting the future success of the learner.

      Continuous evaluation helps in bringing awareness of the achievement to the child, teachers and parents from time-to-time. They can look into the probable cause of the fall in performance if any. and may take remedial measures of instruction in which more emphasis is required. Many times, because of some personal reasons, family problems or adjustment problems, the children start neglecting their studies, resulting in a sudden drop in their performance. If the teacher, child and parents do not notice the sudden drop in the performance of the child in academics, it could result in a permanent deficiency in the child’s learning.

     The major emphasis of CCE is on the continuous growth of students ensuring their intellect. emotional, physical, cultural and social development and therefore, it will not be merely limited to assessment of learner’s scholastic attainments. CCE uses assessment as a means of motivating learners to provide feedback and follow up work to improve upon the learning in the classroom and to present a comprehensive picture of a learner’s profile. It is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation.

Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Assessment

In order to have Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects need to be given due recognition. Such a holistic assessment requires maintaining an ongoing and comprehensive profile for cach learner that is honest, encouraging and discreet. While teachers frequently reflect, plan and implement remedial strategies, the child’s ability to retain and articulate what has been learned over a period of time also requires periodic assessment. These assessments can take many forms but all of them should be as comprehensive and discreet as possible. Weekly, fortnightly, or quarterly reviews (depending on the learning arra), that do not openly compare one leamer with another are generally recommended. The objective is to promote and enhance not just learning and retention among children, but their soft skills as well.

Scholastic Assessment

The objectives of the Scholastic domain are:

  • Desirable behaviour related to the learner’s knowledge, understanding. application, evaluation, analysis and the ability to apply it in an unfamiliar situation.
  • To improve the teaching learning process.
  • Assessment should be both Formative and Summative

Summative and Formative Assessment

Assessment is often divided into formative and summative categories for the purpose of considering different objectives for assessment practices.

Summative Assessment

Summative assessment is intended to measure learning outcomes and report those outcomes to students, parents and administrators. In an educational setting, it generally occurs at the conclusion of a class, course, semester or academic year. In the context of a course summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade. It is also referred to in a learning context as assessment of learning”. Performance-based assessment is similar to summative assessment, as it focuses on achievement. A well-defined task is identified and students are asked to create, produce, or do something, often in settings that involve real-world application of knowledge and skills. Proficiency is demonstrated by providing an extended response. Performance formats are further differentiated into products and performances. The performance may result in a product, such as a painting, portfolio, paper, or exhibition, or it may consist of a performance, such as a speech, athletic skill, musical recital, or reading

Definitions of Summative Assessment

. “Good summative assessments-tests and other graded evaluations must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias’ (Angelo and Cross, 1993).

  • assessment (that) has increasingly been used to sum up learning (Black and William, 1999). 
  • looks at past achievements … adds procedures or tests to existing work involving only marking and feedback grades to students is separated from teaching is carried out at intervals when achievement has to be summarized and reported. (Harlen, 1998).

Features of Summative Assessment

  • Assessment of learning.
  • Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the sum of what they have or have not learned.
  • Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work.

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is generally carried out throughout a course or project. In an educational setting, formative assessment is used by teachers to consider approaches to teaching and next steps for individual learners and the class, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes. Formative assessment, also referred to as educative assessment or ‘assessment for learning”, is used to aid learning. Assessment for learning is defined as all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged” (Black and William 2004).

Definitions of Formative Assessment

  • …often means no more than that the assessment is carried out frequently and is planned at the same time as teaching!. (Black and William, 1999)
  • … provides feedback which leads to students recognizing the (learning) gap and closing it … it is forward looking (Harlen, 1998).
  • …includes both feedback and self- monitoring! (Sadler, 1989)
  • ….is used essentially to get feedback into the teaching and learning process.’ (Tunstall and Gipps, 1996)

Features of Formative Assessment

  • Is diagnostic and remedial. 
  • Makes provision for effective feedback.
  • Provides a platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning
  • Enables teachers to adjust teaching 10 take account of the results assessment
  • Recognizes the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are cnicial influences on learning.
  • Recognizes the need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve
  • Builds students’ prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught 
  • Incorporates varied learning styles to decide how and what to teach 
  • Encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work
  • Offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after they get the feedback • Helps students to support their peer group and vice-versa.

   A common form of formative assessment is diagnostic assessment”. Diagnostic assessment measures a student’s current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning. “Self-assessment is a form of diagnostic assessment which involves students assessing themselves. “Forward-looking assessment” asks those being assessed to consider themselves in hypothetical future situations

Co-Scholastic Assessment

The desirable behaviour related to a learner’s life skills, attitudes, interests, values, co-curricular activities and physical health are described as skills to be acquired in a co-scholastic domain.

    The process of assessing the students progress in achieving objectives related to scholastic and co scholastic domain is called comprehensive evaluation It has been observed that usually under the scholastic domain such as knowledge and understanding of the facts, concepts, principles etc of a subject are assessed The Co-Scholastic elements are either altogether excluded from the evaluation process or they are not given adequate attention. For making the evaluation comprehensive, both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects should be given importance. Simple and manageable means of assessment of Co-Scholastic aspects of growth must be included in the comprehensive evaluation scheme.

   Comprehensive evaluation would necessitate the use of a variety of tools and techniques. This will be so because both different and specific areas of learner’s growth can be evaluated through certain special techniques.

School Based CCE 

School based Evaluation is held at school level unlike external examination conducted by the Board School Education. This is done by the teachers according to the schedule developed by the school and guidelines given by the Board. Though this evaluation has been done at school level all alone certain shortcomings have crept into this system. These shortcomings can be attributed to Various factors. The basic factor is the misconception of teachers regarding the place of evaluation of importance in the educational process. The other external factor has been the imitation of the practice examination which is generally held at the end of session.

In the School Based System of evaluation, the focus on the purpose of assessment has changed. Now, it includes readiness testing, screening of development, evaluation of performance in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains more frequently. systematically and effectively.

   In other words, School Based Evaluation is child. centred, school-centred and multidimensional evaluation. Hence, in its true spirit, it triggers an all round development of the learner. It encourages all kinds of learning in life both inside the school as well as outside it. 1 It is child-centered as it attempts to consider the learner as a unique entity for its individual pattern of development. It builds on an individual child’s abilities, progress and development in achieving already set goals and objectives of education as an individual and not just his/her position in relation to other learners.

    Further, this evaluation helps a learner to use their highest potential in a better manner and also provides insight to the teachers to discover the methods which may be helpful to the individual learner in resolving his or her problems and difficulties.

     Besides being child-centred, this evaluation is school-centred as well. It means that no outside agency interferes in this evaluation process. It is entirely school based and done by the teacher. The teacher is trusted and given full responsibility of evaluating students with the brief that the teacher knows best about his/her students.

    School Based Evaluation is multidimensional. Its multidimensional nature is reflected in recognizing and taking care of learners’ social, emotional, physical, intellectual and other areas of development which are interrelated and cannot be considered in isolation. It also calls for the use of multiple techniques and tools of evaluation.

Aim of School Based CCE;

  • Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as far as possible), de emphasis on memorization, encouraging comprehensive evaluation incorporating both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects of learners development.
  • Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process.
  • Functional and meaningful declaration of results for effective use by teachers, students parents and the society.
  • Wider uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for their improvement, thorough diagnosis and remedial/enrichment programmes.
  • Improvement in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purposes
  • Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology.
  • Introduction of the semester system.
  • The use of grades in place of marks in determining the levels of pupils’ performance and proficiency. 
Traditional schooling Enriching schooling Empowering schooling
Teachers centred Student centered Self Experience centered
Subjects and classes teacher directed directed Virtual automatically
Sorting and ranking individual Continuous assessment Multi literacies
Competency Competency Competency
Memory Critical thinking Risk taking
Competitive Collaborate Ethical
Creative Interactive

Implementing School Based Assessment would mean:

  • Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as far as possible), de-emphasis of memorization, encouraging Comprehensive evaluation incorporating both scholastic and co-scholastic aspects of learners development.
  • Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process.
  • Functional and meaningful declaration of

Its Characteristics

School Based Evaluation has the following characteristics:

  • Is broader, more comprehensive and continuous than the traditional system.
  • Aims primarily to help learners for systematic learning and development.
  • Takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future.
  • Is more transparent, futuristic and provides more scope for association among learners, teachers and parents.

School based evaluation provides opportunities to teachers to know the following about their learners:

  • What they learn?
  • How do they learn?
  • What type of difficulties/limitations they face in working in tandem?
  • What do the children think?
  • What do the children feel?
  • What are their interests and dispositions?

The focus has shifted to developing a deep learning environment. There is a paradigm shift in the pedagogy and competencies from controlling to ‘enriching’ to ’empowering’ schools. results for effective use by teachers, students, parents and the society.

  • Wider uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for its improvement, through diagnosis and remedial/enrichment programmes.
  • Improvements in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purposes.
  • Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology.
  • Introduction of the semester system from the secondary stage onwards
  • The use of grades in place of marks in determining and declaring the level of pupil performance and proficiency.
  • The above goals are relevant for both external examination and evaluation in schools.

Shortcoming of Traditional External Examination

  • It is a one shot examination at the end of a year at the terminal stage of schooling.
  • It mainly evaluates only the scholastic aspects of learning of the students . It does not evaluate all the abilities of the children. On the basis of marks obtained in written examination the students are declared pass or fail and further classified into predetermined divisions.
  • Pass and fail system causes frustration and is inhumane because the failed candidates come to feel that they are good for nothing.
  • Co-scholastic arcas are almost totally ignored and have no place in the currently prevalent scheme of education and evaluation.
  • The practice of testing of untaught content also reflects poor learning achievement. • Only Only limited techniques of evaluation without
  • Potential for judging a student are being used The aim of evaluation is to improve learner’s quality which is not served by external examination.
  • The current practice of awarding marks suffers from many discrepancies due to variety of errors
  • The varied ranges of obtained scores of students in different subjects create the problem in declaring reliable results.
  • Analysis and interpretation of test results not done in a scientific way.

School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation System should be Established to:

  • Reduce stress on children
  • Make evaluation comprehensive and regular
  • Provide space for the teacher for creative teaching.
  • Provide a tool of diagnosis and remediation. • 
  • Produce learners with greater skills,

Four Assessment Paradigms

 Assessment of Learning

The assessment of learning is defined as a process whereby someone attempts to describe and quantify is the knowledge, attitudes and skills possessed by another. Teacher direction is paramount and the student has little involvement in the design or implementation of the assessment process in these circumstances

  • Teacher designs learning
  • Teacher collects evidence
  • Teacher judges what has been learnt (and what has not been learnt)

Assessment for Learning

The assessment for learning involves an increased level of student autonomy, but not without teacher guidance and collaboration. The assessment for learning is sometimes seen as being akin to Formative assessment. There is more emphasis towards giving useful advice to the student and less emphasis on the giving of marks and the grading function

  • Teacher designs learning
  • Teacher designs assessment with feedback to student 
  • Teacher judges what has been learnt (student develops insight into what has not)

Assessment as Learning

The assessment as learning is perhaps more connected with diagnostic assessment and can be constructed with more of an emphasis on peer learning. Assessment as learning generates opportunities for self assessment and peer assessment. Students take on increased responsibility to generate quality information about their learning and that of others.

  • Teacher and student co-construct learning 
  • Teacher and student co-construct assessment
  • Teacher and student co-construct learning progress map

Assessment for learning and assessment as learning activities should be deeply embedded in teaching and learning and be the source of interactive feedback, allowing students to adjust, rethink and re-lear

Assessment in Learning

The ‘assessment in learning’ places the question at the centre of teaching and learning. It deflects the teaching from its focus on a correct answer to focus on ‘a fertile question. Through enquiry students engage in processes that generate feedback about their learning, which come from multiple sources and activities. It contributes to the construction of other learning activities, line of enquiry and the generation of other questions. 

  • Student as the centre of learning
  • Student monitors, assesses and reflects on learning
  • Student initiates demonstration of learning (to sell and others)
  • Teacher as coach and mentor.

Teachers and students need to understand the purpose of each assessment strategy. The overall assessment package being used by learners and teachers should accurately capture, generate and use meaningful learning information to generate deep learning and understanding.

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