Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

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Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

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Also, you can read the Assam TET online notes in these sections as per Assam TET Syllabus guidelines. These notes are part of Assam TET All Subject. Here we have given Assam TET Concept of Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory for All notes, You can practice these here.

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory


Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Erik Erikson proposed a theory of psychosocial development He believed development occurs throughout the life span. His theory provided new insights into the formation of a healthy personality It emphasizes the social and emotional aspects of growth. Children’s personalities develop in response to their social environment. The same is true of their skills for social interaction.

Erikson’s theory includes eight stages. At each stage, a social conflict or crisis occurs. These are not generally tragic situations; however, they require solutions that are satisfying both personally and socially. Erikson believed that each stage must be resolved before children can ascend to the next stage.

Maturity and social forces help in the resolution of the crisis or conflict. Therefore, teachers and parents play a powerful role in recogniring each stage. By providing social opportunity and support, teachers and parents can help children overcome each crisis. Following table contains the first four stages of Erikson’s theory. These stages occur during the carly childhood years. The paragraphs that follow give brief overview of these early stages

Erikson’s Stages of Development During

Early Childhood

StageApproximate AgePsychosocial Crisis
IBirth-18 monthsTrust versus mistrust
II18 months-3 yearsAutonomy versusshame and doubt
III3-5.yearsInitiative versus guilt
IV6-12 yearsIndustry versusinferiority

Note: The first four stages of Erikson’s theory concern children from birth to twelve years

Stage 1: Trust Versus Mistrust

During the first eighteen months of life, children learn to trust or mistrust their environment. To develop trust they need to have warm, consistent, predictable, and attentive care. They need caregivers who will accurately read and respond to their signals, Why infants are distressed, they need to be comforted They also need loving physical contact, nourishment, cleanliness, and warmth. Then they will develop a sense of confidence and trust that the world is safe and dependable. Mistrust will occur if an infant experiences an unpredictable world and is handled hanley

Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt

This second stage occurs between eighteen months and three years of age. During this stage, toddlers use their new motor and mental skills. They want to be independent and do things for themselves. They are in the process of discovering their own bodies and practicing their developing locomotor (physical movement and language skills

The objective of this stage is to gain self-control without a loss of self-esteem. Fostering independence in children is important. At this age, toddlers start to become self-sufficient. They need to learn to choose and decide for themselves. To do this, toddlers need a loving, supportive environment. Positive opportunities for self-feeding, toileting. dressing and exploration will result in autonomy, or independence On the other hand, over protection or lack of adequate activities results in self-doubt, poor achievement, and shame.

Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt

Between three and five years of age, the third stage occurs. According to Erikson, it emerges as a result of the many skills children have developed. Now children have the capacity and are ready to learn constructive ways of dealing with people and things They are learning how to take initiative without being hurtful to others They are also busy discovering how the world works. Children begin to realize that what they do can have an effect on the world, too. Challenged by the environment, children are constantly attempting and mastering new tasks. Aided by strong initiative, they are able to move ahead energetically and quickly forget failures. This gives them a sense of accomplishment.

Stage 4 : Industry Versus Inferiority

The major crisis of this stage occurs between six and twelve years of age. At this time, children enjoy planning and carrying out projects. This helps them leam society’s rules and expectations. During this stage, children gain approval by developing intellectual skills such as reading, writing, and math.

The way family, neighbours, teachers, and friends respond to children affects their future development. Realistic goals and expectations enrich children’s sense of self. Children can become frustrated by criticism or discouragement, or if parents demand too much control. Feelings of incompetence and insecurity will emerge.

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