Class 9 History Chapter 6 Moanariya Rebellion The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 6 Moanariya Rebellion and select need one.
Class 9 History Chapter 6 Moanariya Rebellion
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6. Narrate the role played by Purnananda Buragohain in Moa Mariya uprisings.
Ans: The outbreak of the Moamoria rebellion during the time of Lakshmi Singha in 1769 is a turning-point in the history of Assam.The event had far-reaching consequences in the social, economic, cultural, religious and political aspect of the state.The rebellion passed through several stages or phases. The third phase of the rebellion started soon after the accession of Larhi Buragohain popularly known as Purnanand. The third phase seemed to have become very strong by the beginning of 1786 and lasted upto 1794.
Purnananda became the Buragohain for the Prime Minister of the Ahom kingdom during the reign of Gaurinath Singha. He was the Rajya Mantri or Buragohain from 1782 to 1817 a period of nearly 35 years. Since Gaurinath was an inefficient and a lazy ruler all authority and power passed on to the Buragohain. Purnananda taking advantage of the situation took complete control of the administration.Not only he capture all state power and authority but also put to death all those who opposed him or stood on his way.
Soon after coming to power purnananda continuous the work of his father in organising the military forces against the rebellious more Memories. Rajyamantry’s or reorganisation of the state and its various administrative machinery alienated the vast majority of the Moamariya’s who wanted Independence and freedom of religion.The Moamariyas felt that they would not be allowed to continue their work under the new Buragohain.
Although purnananda did not persecute the more Moamariyas on grounds of religion yet his attempt to reduce their power and position compared them to rise up in rebellion once again. This time the Moamariyas were much stronger and better organised. They manage to defeat the royal forces forcing Gaurinath Singha to flee to Guwahati. Soon after the capture of Rangpur, they declared Bharth Singha as the king new king of Assam.
Purnananda Buragohain meanwhile tried his best to put up a strong fight against the Moamariyas. But he had to suffer some defeats. Later he got a contingent of 30,000 man sent by gaurinath Singha. He attacks the Rebel areas with his new forces but unfortunately he couldn’t get much success.With lots of efforts he tried to erect a line of forts from the Bar-Ail to the Karikatiya Ali along the Namdang River. However, the scarcity of food stuff for his troops compelled him to retreat to decide in 1789.Eventually he built a strong centre of Defence in and around Dichai.The Centre later became the nucleus of the town of Jorhat.From Jorhat Purnananda tried his best to attack the Moamariyas and push them back from Rangpur. He encouraged the villagers around the Rangpur to fight against Moamariyas.He even gave help military training to the people and inspired them to fight against the Moamariyas. He also took help from many satradhikars in his fight against the Moamaiyas.But purnananda efforts didn’t bear much fruit. The Moamariyas continued to cause havoc in different parts of the country until 1805. But the great defence put up by purnanand prevented them from spreading from further.This was one of the greatest achievements of Purnananda.
7. How far Kriti Chandra Barbaruah was responsible in Moamariya uprisings?
Ans: Moamariya rebellion is one of the most significant episodes in history of Assam. It is one of the those events which greatly affected the social,economic, religious and political fabric of Assam. the rebellion came about as a result of several causes stops one of the major factors that contributed for the outbreak of this great uprising was the role played by Kriti Chandra borboruah. He contributed for the outbreak of the revolution in two ways:
(i) Alienated the Ahom nobles: Kriti Chandra was the son of Rupchandra who was the borboruah during the time of Siva Singha. On the death of rupchandra in 1714 King Siva sigha appointed his son ,kriti Chandra to the post of Borboruah.Soon after becoming the Barbaruah he became very powerful and captured most of the royal power. Therefore, when rudrasingha died in 1751 kriti chandra Rajeshwar Sinha instead of MohanMala Deo the eldest son of Rudra Singha.
(1774-1751). Kriti Chandra made Rajeshwar Singh the king (1744 – 1769)even when most of the high officials of the kingdom supported the cause of Mohanmala Deo. Not content with this, Preeti Chandra exiled Mohanmala Deo to the forest of Nampur. As he has become very powerful there were few men who could stand against him. A good number of Ahom official were against the autocratic functioning of the Barbaruah. After the death of Rajeshwar Singha in 1769, once again gain Kriti Chandra followed his wins and fancy is in installing a new king. This time kriti Chandra was determined to make his favourite Laksmi Singh her the son of Rajeshwar Singh that King.
The other group consisting of Bhagi Buragohain and others favoured Mohanmala. But Kriti Chandra opposed all moves and made sure that his favourite was appointed to the post of the kingdom.Thus, by his various actions he alienated most of the higher officials of the Ahom kingdom. The antagonised the Ahom nobles waited for an opportunity to hit back.During this long spell of being the burger over 55 years (1714 to 1769) is various action alienated the not only the people but also the Ahom nobility.
(ii) Oppression of Vaishnavas :- Another factor that contributed much for the outbreak of the out uprising in 1769 was the oppression of the Vaishnavas Satra and its disciples.The reign of Kings Siva Singha was noted for severe prosecution of the vaishnavas.Both the king as well as the Queen Phuleswari were firms believers of Shakti cult and get Royal support for the spread of these new culture in Assam.They, therefore began to persecute the vaishnavas who were opposed to this new culture. The work of prosecution was mainly undertaken by Kriti Chandra who had also become an important issue of of his movement. The Queen and kriti Chandra forced the Vaishnavas Satradhikars,mahantas and bhakats including those of the the Moamaiya Satra to participate in certain Shashi religious rites which were post by them.
As Shiva Singha ruled over 30 years 1714-1744 the persecution of the wiser was last long alienating a good number of people. The persecution organised by the Barbaruah were continued on a higher scale as well as and during the reign of the next king Rudra Singha (1744-1751)as well as during the reign of Rajeshwar Singha which made in 1751.When Lakshmi Singh the become the new king in 1769 the persecution of Vaishnavas particularly those belonging to the Moamariya Satra had reached a peak.
Kriti Chandra was determined to wipe out the Moamariyas Satra had they were the strongest pillars of the Vaishnava Movement in Assam.When the oppression became too much to bear the Momariyas took up arms to fight for their existence.The result was the outbreak of Moamoria rebellion.
Thus, there is no denying the fact that the factor that contributed most for the outbreak of Moamoria rebellion was the high-handed actions of Kriti Chandra Barbaruah. During the long 55 years as Barbaruah, he alienated the Ahom nobility and the general masses leading to a public outburst in April,1769.
|Chapter 1||American War Of Independence|
|Chapter 2||French Revolution|
|Chapter 3||Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 4||Russian Revolution|
|Chapter 5||The Revolt Of 1857|
|Chapter 6||Moanariya Rebellion|
8. Describe the role Captain Welsh to suppress the Moamoria uprising.
Ans: The arrival of Capt. Thomas Welsh in Assam in 1792 is an important chapter in the history of Assam. The event had far-reaching consequences in later years. The event marks the beginning of the British domination of Assam and the neighbouring states.The Moamoria rebellion began in 1769 with the accession of King Lakshmi Singha. The main cause for the rebellion was the persecution of Vaishnavas particularly those belonging to the Moamariya Satra. Secondly, the high-handed actions of Kriti Chandra Barbaruah alienated not only the masses but also the Ahom nobles who waited for an opportunity to hit back.
Although the first phase of the rebellion ended in the 1770,yet the Moamariyas rose up a second time in 1782 and a third time some time in 1786. During the third phase of the rebellion rebels captured Rangpur, the Ahom capital forcing Gaurinath Singha to flee to Guwahati.Soon after this, the Moamariyas put up Bharath Singha as the new king of Assam. Even in Guwahati, Gaurinath Singha had no peace and was surrounded by rebellions that he faced. The British who were looking for an opportunity to come to Assam took the chance and sent a military expedition under
Capt.Welsh reached Assam in November,1792 and immediately tried to bring peace and order in the Ahom kingdom. Firstly, he directed his attention to the revolt of Bairagi of Guwahati and got him killed in the battle. Therefore, Capt. Welsh tried to bring peace between Gaurinath Singha and Krishnanarayan, the ruler of Darrang. Capt. Thomas Welsh managed to bring some sort of peace and order was brought in Lower Assam.
Therefore, he turned his attention to the main problem that confronted the state. The Moamariyas had established a government of their own. They set up Bharath Singha as new Ahom ruler.Therefore, Capt. Thomas Weslh moved with a huge force,towards rangpur the centre of Moamoria rebellion.Captain Welsh started his operation against the Moamariyas in January, 1794. The captain had brought with him 360 soldiers who knew the use of firearms.That he was with their bows and arrows were no match for the European weapons.As a result of their superior weapons and better strategy, the rebels had to suffer a lot of defeats at the hands of company’s forces.
In the fight that followed, Bharat Singh was wounded. Hundreds of Moamariyas died in the battlefield. Finally Moamariya left rangpur and captain Welsh was able to occupy that city.Ahom king Gaurinath Singha was reinstalled as the king of Assam, on March 21 1794 in the presence of the Captain Welsh and other dignitaries of the state. The Momariyas continue to fight against the royal forces in different parts of Upper Assam. Captain Welsh tried to bring the Memories into peaceful negotiations but he failed in the attempt. Therefore the British forces under the guidance of captain Welsh commenced their attack of the Moamariyas.The British continued and take them at Baghmara, another centre in the month of April, 1794 and much of their resource.By this time,Sir John shore or had become the British Governor- General in India and he was noted for his policy of non-intervention.In line with this policy he ordered captain West to stop all military operation and return to Calcutta.
Accordingly all military operations against the Moamariyas were stopped. The British contingent return to Goalpara in July, 1794 and soon thereafter they left for Calcutta.
9. Describe the nature of Moamariyas uprisings.
Ans: The Moamoria rebellion which lasted over 36 years from 1769 to is one of the most Momentous periods in the history of Assam. The event brought far-reaching consequences in the social,economic and religious and political life of the people of Assam. It is viewed as one of the turning points in the history of the state.
Different views:- Historians of Assam have expressed the following main views regarding the nature of the rebellion:
(i) It was religious war.
(ii) It was present uprising.
(iii) It was the first public uprising against the Ahom feudal administration.
(i) It was a religious war :- Many historians view the Moamoria rebellion as a religious war.The main arguments given to support this view are the following:
(a) The main cause for the beginning of the rebellion was the persecution of Vaishnava sect with the help of Brahmanical rulers.
(b) Most of the fighting were organised by Moamariya Mahanta of the Moamariya Satra, the pillar of neo-Vaishnavism in Assam.
(c) During the rebellion there was a serious attempt on the part of the Brahmanism to destroy Vaishnavism.
(ii) It was a peasant uprising: Some historians view the Moamoria rebellion as peasant uprising.The following arguments have been put in support of this view:
(a)In many places the peasants took active part in the rebellions. The Daffals, the people of Nagaon, the Demoriya tribe, etc. took part in the uprising as a result of certain defective economic policies of the Ahom rulers.
(b) One of the important causes for the uprising was the high taxes imposed on the peasants.
(c) Many families of the peasants had to face starvation as they had to work three or four months for the king.
(iii) It was the first public apprising against feudal administration :- There are also some historians who consider the Moamoria rebellion as a public uprising against the feudal system.They have put up the following arguments in support of this view:
(a) The ordinary masses had to suffer a great deal due to overburdening of the Paik duty.The governments granted to many exceptions and the bureaucratic class were exempted from such service.Many rich people could buy of exemption from Paik service.
(b) The Ahom officials lived a luxurious life and while the ordinary people lived a life of starvation and extreme poverty. The economic condition of Assam deteriorated from bad to worse during the 18th century due to defective economics policies and misuse of Paik system.
(c) As a result of the constant was the peasants were heavily taxed causing immense hardship to the general public.
(d)Destruction of paddy fields and cultivation during wars brought untold misery to the people. The result of all this was the address of public anger through a rebellion.A study of the rebellion shows that the rebellion had a touch of all the above mentioned opinions. Therefore,we can say that the Moamariya rebellion was partly a religious war, a peasants uprising and also a public uprising. This seems to be the correct view.
10. Discuss the description of Captain Welsh on Assam.
Ans: The British government sent military expedition under captain Thomas Welsh to Assam in 1792 with a view to help the Ahom king, Gaurinath Singh during his stay in Assam some 1792 to 1794 came into contact with a lot of people. During this period he practically controlled every aspect of the Ahom administration. Towards the latter part of his stay in Assam, captain welsh sent a detailed report which touched among other things the following expects:
(i) Political condition of Assam.
(ii) Administrative set-up.
(iii) Agricultural products.
(iv) Mineral and natural resources.
(v) State of internal and external trade.
(vi) Achievement of military expedition made so far, etc.
Although they were many factual errors in his report, the report was exhaustive and touch every aspect of Assam’s life and Customs.It was an eye-opener for the British authorities in many ways and people at the ground for future occupation of Assam.
(i) Government :- According to captain Welsh, the Ahom government was monarchial, aristocratic and followed a fraternal system of succession (brothers succeeding). The aristocracy consistency of Patra-mantri- Buragohain,Bargohain,Barpatra Gohain etc. They were permanent and hereditary the officials.Each of them had certain administrative jurisdiction.The government had four division civil,military,judicial and religious departments.
Nearly 12 Phukans and 20 Pharaohs functioned in the civil department.The main vassal kings were of Darrang, Na-duar, Dimoria, Beltolta, Rani, etc.Several tribes in the hilly regions of the state paid their annual tributes to the Ahom king. He also spoke of the paik system extensively. Capt. Welsh mentions about the autocracy of Kriti Chandra Barbaruah, rejection of the throne by Mohanmala Gohain, murder of Moamariya Mahanta, resentment of common people, the cruelty and idleness of Gaurinath Singha, etc.
(ii) Trade :- Capt. Welsh mentioned that Assam had abundance of natural resources. He gives a detailed account of things produced in Assam and by the hill tribes such as Miri, Dafflas, Bhutiya, Khamti, Naga,etc. He also gives an account of the existing salt trade that existed between Bengal and Assam. Import trade consisted consisted of copper and long pepper, ginger,wheat,blankets,cow-tails, rocksalt,various types of clothes, Naga spears, etc. The main items of export consisted of cotton,ginger,gold, musk, pony etc.The main agricultural products of Assam according to Capt. Welsh were sugar-cane, black pepper, opium, indigo, mustard, tobacco, betel-nut, dried betel-nut,ginger rice, etc.The main mineral products were gold, iron and saltpetre. Other items produced in Assam were lac, muga thread, muga cloths, ivory, rhinoceros horn, buffaloe-skin, deer-skin, etc.
Assam had excellent commercial relationship with neighbouring countries such as Cachar, Sylhet, Manipur,Jayantia etc. The medium of trade was gold and salt. The price of the commodities was very cheap.
(iii) Description of Guwahati and Rangpur :- The report mentions details of the two majors towns of Assam, namely, Guwahati and Rangpur. According to the report, Guwahati was a populous town. The Brahmaputra river touched the town. He also speaks about the cargo house which was situated close to the river. According to the report Rangpur was a big popular town.
The whole town was surrounded by paddy fields. Most of the lands were owned by the king and the nobles. He concluded his report saying that anarchy would prevail if the British were to go back. This information proved detrimental to the interest of Assam and on the pretext of expelling the Burmese from Assam they occupied Assam.
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