Class 9 History Chapter 3 Industrial Revolution, Elective History class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 3 Industrial Revolution and select need one.
Class 9 History Chapter 3 Industrial Revolution
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Lesson – 3
ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS
(a) What do you mean by Industrial Revolution ? What are the causes of this revolution ?
Ans : Meaning and definition :- The term ‘ Industrial Revolution’ means ‘a series of changes that brought about a transition from production by hand to production by machines, from small-scale production to large-scale production and from hand-made goods to machine-made goods’. Industrial Revolution was a series of fundamental changes in the methods and organisation of industrial production as a result of the application of science”. Thus, we may define Industrial Revolution as, ‘the name given to an economic revolution which began brought about fundamental changes in industrial production as well as in living, working, traveling, etc.as a result of the application of science’. Its main features were the following:
(i) Use of machines in production.
(ii) Production became scientific, organised and faster.
(iii) It was peaceful, gradual and evolutionary.
(iv) Development of factory system.
(v) Mass-scale production and division of labour.
The chief causes for the origin of industrial revolution are the following:
(i) Vast colonial empire:- By the latter half of the 18th cent. most of the European nations, particularly England had a chain of colonies all over the globe. These colonies provided three basics inputs for the industrial development of Europe, namely
(a) an abundant supply of raw-materials
(b) vast overseas market and
(c) excellent source of wealth
(ii) Application of science to industry:- During the 17th and 18th century, there has been a tremendous increase in the scientific knowledge. Men of intelligence and foresight soon began to apply newly acquired scientific knowledge to the industry with a view to produce more and earn more profit. Consequently the period witnessed a series of inventions in the realm of production of machine, power and transport and communication and these inventions totally revolutionised these fields.
(iii) Political stability:- The coming of Industrial Revolution was greatly facilitated by the establishment of considerable degree of political freedom, the break-up of feudal system of land tenure and medieval guild system. During this period, Europe was fortunate to have stable government with efficient and far-sighted rulers who encouraged industrial development.
(iv) Availability of capital:- By the middle of 18th century, most countries of Europe particularly Great Britain had surplus wealth which needed adequate avenues for investment. Industrial expansion was the inevitable consequences of this accumulation of capital.
(v) Ample supply of Labour:- By the middle of the 18th century, most European countries had a huge stock of unemployed persons. This was the consequence of the break-up of the feudal agricultural set-up which freed hundreds from serfdoms, the mechanisation and improvements in agriculture which required less number of farmhands and the increased growth of population.
(vi) Need for better weapons:- The 17th and 18th century were full of European and colonial wars and rivalries. Cannons and muskets were no longer sufficient in the battlefields. England which had to withstand the attacks of Napoleon converted a great deal of her capital in bringing out huge stocks of weapons. Production of better weapons required better iron, power- engine and more machines. This was an added impetus for the birth of industrial revolution.
(vii) Availability of raw-materials:- Most of the European countries had an abundant supply of industrial development. England was more fortunate than her counterparts in Europe in possessing these two natural resources in abundant supply. Besides, the deficiencies in the supply of these resources could be met by importing the same from their overseas colonies.
(b) Why did Industrial Revolution first start in Britain, but not in other countries ?
Ans : Industrial Revolution originated first in England and later spread to other European countries. There’s were certain favorable social political and economic condition which encourage new discoveries and inventions which in turn, led to Industrial Revolution in England, The main causes for the Industrial Revolution to originate in England first are discussed as follows:
(i) Expertise in navigation: England was a small Island,so it was impossible for the people to get their necessities fulfilled except commercial transactions. Despite the flew, the people of England had an expertise knowledge in navigation. So the commercially expert English people laid more emphasis an the external world than the European which caused Industrial Revolution in England first.
(ii) Availability of mineral resources :- Great Britain was blessed with an abundant supply of coal and iron. There was no scarcity of this minerals in England. Besides, any shortfall in these resources could be met by importing the same from her colonies in America and India.
(iii) Investment of profits :- England possessed a highly successful network of banking, stock exchange and investment companies. It had abundant capital obtained from different sources, such as piracy , plunder, slave trading, commerce, etc. This vast capital yielded good amount of profits. The profits earned were thus invested to other sectors.
(iv) Development of production :- Due to the application of modern method in agriculture, the small farmers had to join as industrial labour unwillingly. This led to the formation of a labour class in the society and the necessity of installation of large-scale industries was realised. On the other hand, the problem of unemployment of the workforce arised. The combination of both work-force and large-scale industries resulted in a developed system of production.
(v) Improved transportation :- There was a poor transportation system in England. Despite of this, it marched ahead, since the English were expert in navigation. Thus, the English with the combination of innovative ideas and capital, manpower, raw materials and suitable market took a leading role in the Industrial Revolution.
(vi) Vast colonial empire :- England succeeded in establishing commercial link and vast colonies with many nations. Thus, the availability of raw materials in those nations and the existence of suitable market to sell those products of England helped in flourishing its industries.
(c) How was the agricultural sector affected by Industrial Revolution ?
Ans : Agriculture and industry are closely allied fields of human activity. Development in one affects the other. Therefore the spread of industrial revolution brought certain changes in the agricultural sector too. The industrial sector affected agricultural in the following manner:
(i) Increased cotton production :- The cotton textile industry was the first industry to be affected by Industrial Revolution. The quick development in spinning and weaving as a result of the various discoveries such as, the ‘Flying shuttle’ of John Kay, ‘Spinning Jenny’ of James Hargreaves, ‘Water Frame’ of Richard Arkwright, ‘Spinning Mule’ of Samuel Crompton, and the ‘Powerloom’ of Edmand Cartwright and the ‘Cotton Gin’ of Eli Whitney totally revolutionised this industry and made cotton textile production faster, cheaper and large-scale.
All these inventions led to high demand for cotton leading increased agricultural production of cotton. This definitely brought a lot of development in this sector and gave jobs to thousands of people which in turn increased people’s standard of living.
(ii) Migration of agricultural labourers :- As industrial revolution spread, many factories emerged in different parts of the country. This led to emergence of new industrial towns in every nook and corner of England. The emergence of new industrial towns led to the migration of village labourers to these cities. As a result, there was less farm-hand to work in the agricultural fields. This caused about low production and more and more lands were turned into pasture lands as it required less number of people to look after the animals such as sheep, cows, buffaloes, etc.
(iii) Brought certain technological changes :– Not only certain iron implements and better ploughing machines were produced as a result of the industrial revolution but also many other technological improvements took place in the agricultural sector. In 1840, a German scientists named Gusts Von Liebig discovered that the appropriate use of the chemical fertilizers such as potash, nitrogen, phosphorus etc.
could bring about better yield and improved production . Eli Whitney’s invention named ‘Cotton Gin’ could separate seeds from cotton in a faster manner. Cyrus Mecornick invented the ‘Mechanical Reaper’. Within a short time, machines for threshing and planting seedlings were invented. The use of water pumps run by steam power, petrol and electricity boosted agricultural production considerably. The proper use of these pumps made irrigation possible and vast tracts of dry land could be turned into agricultural lands.
(d) How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to the transportation sector ?
Ans : The Industrial revolution witnessed a number off great invention which revolutionized the various means of transport such as rail transport, water transport, road transport and air transport. These developments took place in the transportation sector because of the availability of hard iron, steel power, technical know-how,etc. which got developed during the Industrial Revolution.
Before the 18th century, the condition of roads in England was very bad. Metcalf, Telford and John Macadam introduced new methods of constructing roads. John Macadam, a Scottish engineer invented an entirely a new process of road making known as ‘Macadamising process’ and as a result of this invention a great deal of roads in England and in other parts of the world became motorable. The improvements of roads made it possible for faster stage coach service between towns and cities. During this period, several new canals were also constructed. The most notable was the Bridgewater canal built by Brindley.
However, the greatest invention in the field of transport was the invention of railway engine by George Stephenson.His first train named ‘Rocket’ covered a distance of 48km at the speed of 23 km per hour in engine were solved and it became eventually the most commonly used means of travel in England and in her colonies. The British introduced railways in her colonies. The British introduced railways in her colonies with a view to facilitate the transportation of raw-materials as well as the factory-made products of England. The idea of rail transport soon caught the attention of the new world where rich industrialists began to invest in the construction of railway line. As a result, between 1830 and 1870 rail roads were constructed from East to west of United States of America connecting many towns and cities in the heartland of America. Similarly, Moscow and Vladivostok were connected with the construction of 6400 km Trans-Siberian railway in Russia. In Africa, the south African capital city of Johannesburg was connected with Cairo, the of Egypt in the north.
Eventually the railways became one of the easiest and cheapest means of travel.A revolution also took place in the field of water navigation. The first commercially successful type of steam boat was produced by an American named Robert Foulton. His steam boat ‘Clermont’ successfully sailed in the Hudson river over 240 km distance at a speed of 10 km per hour.
The first inter-ocean ship to be built was ‘Serious’ which crossed the Atlantic in 18 days. Soon after this, the construction of ships and steam boats continued on a high scale and water transport became a popular means of travel among the common people of America and Europe.
In the first half of the 20th century, a lot of development also took place in the motor-car manufacturing industry of America. The lead was given by an entrepreneur named Henry Ford who manufactured low-cost car which became very popular in America and Europe. Along with the development of car there also came about the development of car there also came about the development of better tubes and types for the vehicles. Charles Good year invented the vulcanization of rubber by mixing it with sulphur . This enabled the cars to have better speed. The development of air transport took some time develop. The credit for introducing it to the world goes to the Wilbar and Orville Wright of America. Ever since their first successful flight in 1903, the air travel by way of airplanes also became a popular means of transport.
(e) Describe in detail about the evolution of textile cloth industry.
Ans : The first industry to be affected by the Industrial Revolution was the cotton textile industry. This was primarily due to the various inventions in this sector which completely revolutionized the cotton textile production. In 1733 John Kay invented the ‘Flying Shuttle’ which doubled the speed of weaving. In 1764, James Hargraves invented another mechanical device called the ‘Spinning Jenny’ which enabled a spinner to work even hundred spindles at a time.
The whole process was further improved by Richard Arkwright who developed the ‘Water Frame’ operated by water-power. In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented a machine named ‘Spinning Mule’ which combined the features of both the Spinning Jenny and Water Frame. A few years later, Rev. Edmand Cartwright invented the ‘Powerloom’ or the automatic loom a weaving machine worked by water power instead of hand. This invention totally revolutionized the textile production. The ‘Cotton Gin’ of Eli Whitney further improved the cotton textile production. The overall result of these various inventions was that the production of cotton textiles became cheap and affordable which in turn led to higher demand for cotton items within the country and outside. When the demand becomes high the production level goes up considerably which further boosts trade and commerce in the country. Thus the industrial Revolution profoundly affected the scale of production as well as the quality of the cotton textile produced.
Several factors were responsible for the beginning of Industrial revolution in the cotton textile industry in England. During the letter half of the 18th cent. The production of cotton had become one of the foremost industries in England. The climate of England, was ideal for the cultivation of cotton and so the production of cotton in the country. Secondly, the British overseas colonies like India and America had an abundant supply of cheap raw-cotton. In fact, the cultivation of cotton had became a major agricultural activity in South America as it yielded better production.
But these countries, however, did not have factories to make use of the raw-cotton. Therefore , the bulk of the raw-cotton produced in these countries was imported to England. Thus this industry received greater attention than others and therefore a lot of new inventions occurred in this sector leading to improved production of cotton fabrics. During the early part of the 19th cent. a lot of developments also took place in the field of dyeing and printing of cloth, bringing about in the process, high demand for cotton textiles. All these changes and developments happened as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying agricultural revolution.
(f) Describe the development of mine industry.
Ans : Industrial Revolution first started in the field of cotton textile industry. Parallel to the development in the textile sector , several other inventions brought far reaching changes in the field of mining particularly in the production of Iron and coal. Without the development of this sector, the revolutionary changes that occurred in other sectors off the industry during the 18th and 19th centuries would not have been possible. That is why the development in this sector profoundly affected other industries.
England was fortunate to have large deposits of iron. But unfortunately, the process of extracting pure iron ore was primitive. Initially, wood was used for the smelting process. Later, coil replaced it. Still later coke replaced coal.
The replacement of coal by coke was an important is step in the production of iron as coke could effectively and easily smelt iron. Darby invented the ‘Blast Furnace’ which used leather bellows. Henry Cort introduced a new technique called the ‘Pudding Process’ for the purification of pig iron. It enabled the production of tougher grade known as the wrought iron in large quantities. In 1856, Henry Bessemer invented the ‘Bessmer’ process of making steel direct from cast iron. ‘The invention of ‘Safety Lamp’ by Humphrey Debt made the working in coal mines safer. All these inventions and techniques led to the establishment of huge iron and steel factories in England manufacturing a variety of iron and steel products. The development of other sectors such as transport, communication, ship-building automobile industry, etc.
(g) Discuss the results of the industrial Revolution.
Ans : Industrial Revolution is considered to be one of the most significant events ofWorld history as it profoundly affected and influenced man’s life, occupation, politics, commerce, trade, warfare, social living, etc. The industrial Revolution that began in England towards the beginning of the 18th century totally Android the face of the world and world never remained the same ever since it origin. Its main results are the following:
(i) Expansion of industries:- The immediate result of the industrial revolution was the expansion of the industries. The use of machines and the power-driven machines, the employment of large number of people necessitated the establishment of huge factories and workshops. The industries of cotton textile production, iron and steel, machine making, locomotives, ship-building, defence, communication,etc. made great progress.
(ii) Expansion of trade and commerce:- Large-scale production resulted in the improvements in trade and commerce as bulk of the manufactured goods could not be absorbed by the home-markets and had to be exported to the vast colonial markets. This boosted international trade and commerce.
(iii) Increase of national wealth:- The inevitable result of the rapid expansion of trade and commerce was the accumulation of profits and wealth . Colonial trade brought rich profits. The National wealth of England and other European countries increased more than hundred fold.
(iv) Development of co-operative system:- One of the the positive results of Industrial revolution was the development of cooperative system by which many workers formed themselves into cooperative societies helping each other and running business and enterprise on a combined effort. The success of cooperative movement started by Robert Owen continued to be an inspiration for them.
(v) Development of transportation sector:- The fast moving train, motor car, ships , etc.replaced the slow moving vehicles. This helped in reduction of wastage of time and the cost of transportation.
(vi) Growth of cities :- Industrial Revolution caused the rise of several new industrial towns and cities.The uncontrolled growth of cities led to the depopulation of the villages and decline of agriculture.
(vii) Ruthless exploitation and misery:- Industrial Revolution improved the condition of the general populace. But the condition of the workers worsened . They had to live in small tenements where there no facilities for lighting, heating, sanitation and hygiene. They had to slog for hours in the factory. The pay was poor and the working conditions were miserable.
(viii) Rise of the working class as a political power:- The new proletariat created by the Industrial revolution generally realised their might and soon began to organise themselves into trade unions which demanded more political power. The ‘Chartist’ movement was the inevitable result of this movement. As result of this movement the workers got the voting right in 1867.
(ix) Reform of parliament:- The most important political result of the industrial revolution was the reform of British parliament. The growth of new towns, increase of population, the rise of capitalists and working class people necessitated the change in the old system of parliamentary representation. Hence three reform acts were passed by the British Parliament in this connection.
(x) Advancement of medical sciences:- Industrial Revolution brought a lot of advancement in the medical field. The discovery of X-ray, Radium, vaccines for different diseases, anesthesia, better surgical implements, etc.brought longer life and better health.
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