Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation

Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation, NCERT/SCERT Class 9 English Grammar Notes to each Syllabus wise provided in the list of SEBA Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation can be of great value to excel in the examination.

Join Telegram channel

Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation

Class 9 English Grammar Question Word Formation cover all the exercise questions in Assam Board SEBA Textbooks. The SEBA Class 9 English Grammar provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams.

WORD FORMATION

GRAMMAR

WORD FORMATION

Primary words are the words which are not derived or compounded or developed from other words and belong to the original stock of words in the language. 

New words are formed in the following manner :

(i) Compound Words: They are formed by joining two or more simple words. 

e.g. drawing room, armchair

(ii) Primary Derivatives: They are formed by making some change in the body of the simple word.

e.g. Bear from bier 

Advise from advice

(iii) Secondary Derivatives: They are formed by an addition to the beginning of a word called prefix or an addition to the end called suffix.

e.g. baker abroad.

I. COMPOUND WORDS :

[A] Compound Nouns: 

Compound nouns are formed from:

FormExamples
1. Noun + NounManservant, jailbird, shoemaker, post man, railway, screwdriver, teaspoon, moonlight, windmill, chessboard.
2. Adjective + NounBlackboard, Nobleman, sweetheart, halfpenny, stronghold, quicksilver, shorthand.
3. Verb + Noun.Pickpocket, daredevil, scarecrow, hang man, breakfast, makeshift, spendthrift, cutpurse, telltale, cut-throat.
4. Gerund + Noun.Drawing-room, walking-stick, writing desk, looking-glass, blotting-paper, stepping-stone, spelling-book.
5. Adverb (or preposition) + NounInside, outside, outlaw, after thought, forethought, foresight,overcoat,downfall, offshoot, inmate,bypass, afternoon.
6. Verb + AdverbDrawback, die-hard, send-off, lock-up,go-between.
7. Adverb + VerbOutset, upkeep, outery, outcome, income.

[B] Compound Adjectives:

FormExamples
1. Noun + Adjectives (or Participle)heart-broken, sea-girl, skin-deep, blood-red, sky-blue, hand-made, love-lorn, car-piercing, time-saving.
2. Adjective + AdjectiveRed-hot, dull-grey, luke-warm, blue black, white-hot.
3. Adverb + ParticipleEverlasting,thorough-bred,outspoken, down-hearted, never ending, inborn, long-suffering.

[C] Compound Verbs:

FormExamples
1. Noun + Verbbackbite, browbeat, earmark, type writer, waylay.
2. Adjective + VerbSafeguard, whitewash, fulfil.
3. Adverb + VerbOutbid, overhear, undertake, foretell, overthrow, upset, ill-use, overtake, undergo.

Note: In most compound words, it is the first word which modifies the meaning of the second. The accent is placed upon the modifying word when the amalgamation is complete. When the two elements of the compound are only partially blended, a hyphen is put between them, and the accent falls equally on both parts of the compound.

II. PRIMARY DERIVATIVES:

[A] Nouns from verbs and adjectives:

(i) Verbs:

VerbsNouns
AdviseAdvice
BearBier
BindBond
BlessBliss
BurnBrand
ChooseChoice
ChopChip
GirdGirth
GrieveGrief
LiveLife
LoseLoss
ProveProof
SingSong
SitSeat
DealDole
DeemDoom
DitchDyke
DigDike
FloatFleet
SpeakSpeech
StrikeStroke
WakeWatch

(ii) Adjectives :

AdjectivesNouns
Dull Dolt
HotHeat
ProudPride

[B] Adjectives from verbs and nouns:

(i) Verbs

VerbsAdjectives
FloatFleet
LieLow

(ii) Nouns 

NounsAdjectives
MilkMilch
WitWise

[C] Verbs from nouns and adjectives:

(i) Nouns:

NounsVerbs
BathBathe
GrassGraze
BeliefBelieve
HalfHalve
BloodBleed
PricePrize
BreathBreathe
SaleSell
ClothClothe
TaleTell
ThiefThieve
DropDrip
FoodFeed
GoldGild

(i) Adjectives :

AdjectivesVerbs
CoolChill
HaleHeal

III. SECONDARY DERIVATIVES :

[A] English Prefixes:

A (on, in) – abed, abroad, ashore, ajar asleep. 

For (thoroughly) – forbear forgive.

In (in) -income, inland, inlay

Mis  (wrong wrongly) -mislead,mislead, misjudge. 

Un (not) – untrue, unkind, unholy.

Un (to reverse an action) -untie, undo, unfold. 

With (against, back) – withdraw,withhold, withstand. 

Note: There are only twor prefixes of English origin that are still applied freely to new words, ‘mis’ and ‘un’, the former with the force of the adjective bad and the latter with the force of a negative.

LATIN PREFIXES

Ab, (a, abs), (from, away)- abuse, avert, abstract.

Con (col, com, cor),(with,together)- contend, collect, combine, correct

Dis, (dif, di), (apart)- disjoin, differ, divide.

Ex (ef, e), (out of)- extract, effect.

Semi, (half)– semicircle, semicolon. 

Vice, (in the place of)-viceroy,Vice- president.

GREEK PREFIXES

A (an), (without, not)- atheist, apathy, anarchy. 

Auto, (self)– autocrat, autobiography, autograph.

Pro, (before)-prophesy, programme.

ENGLISH SUFFIXES OF NOUNS

(1) Denoting agent or doer 

-er (-ar, -or, -yer); painter, baker, beggar, sailor, lawyer.

-ter (-ther); daughter, father. 

(2) Denoting state, action, condition, being, etc.

-dom; freedom, martyrdom, wisdom. 

-ness; darkness, boldness, goodness, sweetness.

OF ADJECTIVES

-ed, (having) gifted, talented, wretched, learned.

-en, (made of) wooden, golden, woollen, earthen.

-ful, (full of) hopeful, fruitful, joyful. 

-some, (with the quality of) wholesome, meddlesom gladsome, quarrelsome.

OF VERBS

-en, causative, forming transitive verbs; weaken, sweeten, gladden, deaden, strengthen.

-se, to make; cleanse, rinse. -er, intensive or frequentative; chatter, glitter, glimmer, fritte flutter.

OF ADVERBS

-ly, (like) boldly, wisely.

-er, (denoting the actor or agent) driver.

-ness, (ship, th, indicating abstract nouns) loveliness friendship, truth.

-en, ful, ish, less, ly, some, ward, y, (adjective and adverb endings) golden, hopeful, oldish, helpless, manly, lonesome homeward, mighty.

LATIN SUFFIXES OF NOUNS

(1) Denoting chiefly the agent or doer of a thing. 

-ar, (-er, -eer, -ier, -ary) scholar, preacher, engineer, financial missionary.

-or, (-our, -eur, -er); emperor, saviour, amateur, interpreter. 

(2) Denoting state, action, result of an action. 

-age; bondage, marriage, breakage, leakage. 

-cy; fancy, accuracy, lunacy, bankruptcy. -ion; action, opinion, union.

(3) Forming diminutives. 

(4) Denoting place.

-ary (-ery, -ry); dispensary, library, nunnery, treasury. 

-ter (-tre); cloister, theatre.

OF ADJECTIVES

-al; national, legal, regal, mortal, fatal.

-ar; familiar, regular.

-ate; fortunate, temperate, obstinate.

-ine; feminine, canine, feline, divine.

-ive; active, attentive, shortive. 

-lent; corpulent, indolent, turbulent, virulent.

OF VERBS

-ate; assassinate, captivate, exterminate.

-fy; simplify, purify, fortify, sanctify, terrify.

-ish; publish, nourish, punish, banish.

GREEK SUFFIXES

-ic (-ique); angelic, cynic, phonetic, unique. 

-ist; artist, chemist.

-ize; civilise, sympathise, criticise.

-sis (-sy); crisis, analysis, heresy, poesy.

PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS’ QUESTIONS (SOLVED) 

(i) The work on the new road is nearing (complete). 

Ans: The work on the new road is nearing completion.

(ii) (Switzerland) watches are known for their durability. 

Ans: Swiss watches are known for their durability.

(iii) The lost boy was helped by a (friend) policeman.

Ans: The lost boy was helped by a friendly policeman.

(iv) I do not remember everything of my (child).

Ans: I do not remember everything of my childhood.

(v) We were surprised at the (tame) of the lion. 

Ans: We were surprised at the tameness of the lion.

(vi) He showed great (patient). 

Ans: He showed great patience.

(vii) We should be (sympathy) to a person who is miserable. 

Ans: We should be sympathetic to a person who is miserable.

(viii) The Chief Minister made the (announce) in a public meeting.

Ans: The Chief Minister made the announcement in a public meeting.

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!
Scroll to Top
Scroll to Top
adplus-dvertising