Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation, NCERT/SCERT Class 9 English Grammar Notes to each Syllabus wise provided in the list of SEBA Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation can be of great value to excel in the examination.
Class 9 English Grammar Word Formation
Class 9 English Grammar Question Word Formation cover all the exercise questions in Assam Board SEBA Textbooks. The SEBA Class 9 English Grammar provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams.
Primary words are the words which are not derived or compounded or developed from other words and belong to the original stock of words in the language.
New words are formed in the following manner :
(i) Compound Words: They are formed by joining two or more simple words.
e.g. drawing room, armchair
(ii) Primary Derivatives: They are formed by making some change in the body of the simple word.
e.g. Bear from bier
Advise from advice
(iii) Secondary Derivatives: They are formed by an addition to the beginning of a word called prefix or an addition to the end called suffix.
e.g. baker abroad.
I. COMPOUND WORDS :
[A] Compound Nouns:
Compound nouns are formed from:
|1. Noun + Noun||Manservant, jailbird, shoemaker, post man, railway, screwdriver, teaspoon, moonlight, windmill, chessboard.|
|2. Adjective + Noun||Blackboard, Nobleman, sweetheart, halfpenny, stronghold, quicksilver, shorthand.|
|3. Verb + Noun.||Pickpocket, daredevil, scarecrow, hang man, breakfast, makeshift, spendthrift, cutpurse, telltale, cut-throat.|
|4. Gerund + Noun.||Drawing-room, walking-stick, writing desk, looking-glass, blotting-paper, stepping-stone, spelling-book.|
|5. Adverb (or preposition) + Noun||Inside, outside, outlaw, after thought, forethought, foresight,overcoat,downfall, offshoot, inmate,bypass, afternoon.|
|6. Verb + Adverb||Drawback, die-hard, send-off, lock-up,go-between.|
|7. Adverb + Verb||Outset, upkeep, outery, outcome, income.|
[B] Compound Adjectives:
|1. Noun + Adjectives (or Participle)||heart-broken, sea-girl, skin-deep, blood-red, sky-blue, hand-made, love-lorn, car-piercing, time-saving.|
|2. Adjective + Adjective||Red-hot, dull-grey, luke-warm, blue black, white-hot.|
|3. Adverb + Participle||Everlasting,thorough-bred,outspoken, down-hearted, never ending, inborn, long-suffering.|
[C] Compound Verbs:
|1. Noun + Verb||backbite, browbeat, earmark, type writer, waylay.|
|2. Adjective + Verb||Safeguard, whitewash, fulfil.|
|3. Adverb + Verb||Outbid, overhear, undertake, foretell, overthrow, upset, ill-use, overtake, undergo.|
Note: In most compound words, it is the first word which modifies the meaning of the second. The accent is placed upon the modifying word when the amalgamation is complete. When the two elements of the compound are only partially blended, a hyphen is put between them, and the accent falls equally on both parts of the compound.
II. PRIMARY DERIVATIVES:
[A] Nouns from verbs and adjectives:
(ii) Adjectives :
[B] Adjectives from verbs and nouns:
[C] Verbs from nouns and adjectives:
(i) Adjectives :
III. SECONDARY DERIVATIVES :
[A] English Prefixes:
A (on, in) – abed, abroad, ashore, ajar asleep.
For (thoroughly) – forbear forgive.
In (in) -income, inland, inlay
Mis (wrong wrongly) -mislead,mislead, misjudge.
Un (not) – untrue, unkind, unholy.
Un (to reverse an action) -untie, undo, unfold.
With (against, back) – withdraw,withhold, withstand.
Note: There are only twor prefixes of English origin that are still applied freely to new words, ‘mis’ and ‘un’, the former with the force of the adjective bad and the latter with the force of a negative.
Ab, (a, abs), (from, away)- abuse, avert, abstract.
Con (col, com, cor),(with,together)- contend, collect, combine, correct
Dis, (dif, di), (apart)- disjoin, differ, divide.
Ex (ef, e), (out of)- extract, effect.
Semi, (half)– semicircle, semicolon.
Vice, (in the place of)-viceroy,Vice- president.
A (an), (without, not)- atheist, apathy, anarchy.
Auto, (self)– autocrat, autobiography, autograph.
Pro, (before)-prophesy, programme.
ENGLISH SUFFIXES OF NOUNS
(1) Denoting agent or doer
-er (-ar, -or, -yer); painter, baker, beggar, sailor, lawyer.
-ter (-ther); daughter, father.
(2) Denoting state, action, condition, being, etc.
-dom; freedom, martyrdom, wisdom.
-ness; darkness, boldness, goodness, sweetness.
-ed, (having) gifted, talented, wretched, learned.
-en, (made of) wooden, golden, woollen, earthen.
-ful, (full of) hopeful, fruitful, joyful.
-some, (with the quality of) wholesome, meddlesom gladsome, quarrelsome.
-en, causative, forming transitive verbs; weaken, sweeten, gladden, deaden, strengthen.
-se, to make; cleanse, rinse. -er, intensive or frequentative; chatter, glitter, glimmer, fritte flutter.
-ly, (like) boldly, wisely.
-er, (denoting the actor or agent) driver.
-ness, (ship, th, indicating abstract nouns) loveliness friendship, truth.
-en, ful, ish, less, ly, some, ward, y, (adjective and adverb endings) golden, hopeful, oldish, helpless, manly, lonesome homeward, mighty.
LATIN SUFFIXES OF NOUNS
(1) Denoting chiefly the agent or doer of a thing.
-ar, (-er, -eer, -ier, -ary) scholar, preacher, engineer, financial missionary.
-or, (-our, -eur, -er); emperor, saviour, amateur, interpreter.
(2) Denoting state, action, result of an action.
-age; bondage, marriage, breakage, leakage.
-cy; fancy, accuracy, lunacy, bankruptcy. -ion; action, opinion, union.
(3) Forming diminutives.
(4) Denoting place.
-ary (-ery, -ry); dispensary, library, nunnery, treasury.
-ter (-tre); cloister, theatre.
-al; national, legal, regal, mortal, fatal.
-ar; familiar, regular.
-ate; fortunate, temperate, obstinate.
-ine; feminine, canine, feline, divine.
-ive; active, attentive, shortive.
-lent; corpulent, indolent, turbulent, virulent.
-ate; assassinate, captivate, exterminate.
-fy; simplify, purify, fortify, sanctify, terrify.
-ish; publish, nourish, punish, banish.
-ic (-ique); angelic, cynic, phonetic, unique.
-ist; artist, chemist.
-ize; civilise, sympathise, criticise.
-sis (-sy); crisis, analysis, heresy, poesy.
PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS’ QUESTIONS (SOLVED)
(i) The work on the new road is nearing (complete).
Ans: The work on the new road is nearing completion.
(ii) (Switzerland) watches are known for their durability.
Ans: Swiss watches are known for their durability.
(iii) The lost boy was helped by a (friend) policeman.
Ans: The lost boy was helped by a friendly policeman.
(iv) I do not remember everything of my (child).
Ans: I do not remember everything of my childhood.
(v) We were surprised at the (tame) of the lion.
Ans: We were surprised at the tameness of the lion.
(vi) He showed great (patient).
Ans: He showed great patience.
(vii) We should be (sympathy) to a person who is miserable.
Ans: We should be sympathetic to a person who is miserable.
(viii) The Chief Minister made the (announce) in a public meeting.
Ans: The Chief Minister made the announcement in a public meeting.
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