Class 9 English Grammar Punctuation

Class 9 English Grammar Punctuation, NCERT/SCERT Class 9 English Grammar Notes to each Syllabus wise provided in the list of SEBA Class 9 English Grammar Punctuation can be of great value to excel in the examination.

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Class 9 English Grammar Punctuation

Class 9 English Grammar Punctuation Notes cover all the exercise questions in Assam Board SEBA Textbooks. The SEBA Class 9 English Grammar provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams.

PUNCTUATION

GRAMMAR

PUNCTUATION: Punctuation is the art of dividing sentences by symbols so as to make the meaning clear.

The principal punctuation marks are:

1. The full stop.2. Comma,
3.Semicolon;4.Colon:
5. Note of interrogation?6. Note of exclamation!
7. Quotation marks ‘’ ”8.The dash
9. The Hyphen10. Apostrophe
11. Parenthesis()/

Full Stop: 

Place a full stop at the end of every sentence that is neither exclamatory nor interrogative.

The full stop may also be placed after the incomplete sentence in case the writer intentionally leaves out some parts of the.sentence for the reader to supply.

A full stop is placed

(i) after most abbreviations, and 

(ii) after initial letters. e.g. 5 a.m.; etc.; A.D. 1979; M.B.B.S., K. Jain.

Comma:

Use comma when you wish to separate words that stand together, and at the same time to stop as little as possible the flow of the sentence. 

Do not separate the subject from the predicate by using comma if there is no danger of obscurity. e.g. A notice at the end of the street warns people not to go any further.

A comma may be placed after the subject, when it is long. e.g. A lay-by is a space at the side of a main road, where drivers can stop if they want a rest.

You may use a comma to separate dependent clauses from the rest of the sentence in which they occur.

e.g. When Mohan had been at school he had learnt nothing. so he was now illiterate.

If you repeat a word in order to give it intensive force, then place a comma after the word each time. 

e.g. It really was fun, fun, fun, the whole day. 

However, if you repeat an adjective before a noun, then not place a comma after the last expression of it. 

e.g. He has already travelled a long, long distance.

Place a comma after a noun or a pronoun in the vocative case, if a mark of exclamation is not used, or is reserved till the first distinct pause in the sentence. 

e.g. Oh no, he has broken it! Good lord, what have you done to your face! I am, Madam, yours truly, Sudheer Jain.

Commas are used before and after words in apposition.

e.g. Pandit Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, died in 1964.

But where the words in apposition are used in a limiting or distinguishing sense, no comma is used.  e.g. It is of Sachin the actor, not of Sachin the cricketer that we are now speaking.

Use commas to mark off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence. e.g. Ram said, “Wait and watch.”

Semicolon :

Use semicolon to separate parts of a sentence between which there is a very distinct break, but which are too intimately connected to be made separate sentences.

e.g. Subham’s eyes began to close; Riti, too, was feeling tired.

Use semicolons to separate independent clauses in a sentence if they are not joined by conjunctions.

e.g. He is my brother; he is also my best friend.

Colon :

The colon is used to indicate longer pause than those indicated by the semicolon. It is used to introduce an independent part. of a sentence which explains the main part or follows from it. e.g. I’m sorry I didn’t turn up: I broke my leg. [N.B. You do not need to use a capital letter after a colon.]

You may use a colon to indicate the pause which is normally indicated by semicolon, in case the semicolon is used in the sentence for pauses of a different nature. 

Use the colon before enumerations, especially where “namely,” or “viz.,” is implied but is not expressed.

e.g. In the car were: Sandeep, my friend; Adhir, my brother, Rajni, my cousin; and finally I. 

He has three sisters: Shalini, Monali and Gunjan.

When a list of things is given in a formal way, the dash is generally added to make it stronger than the colon and not so strong as the full stop.

The Point of Interrogation : 

Place the point of interrogation after a direct question.

e.g. When will he be at home?

The point of interrogation should not be placed after indirect questions as they are not strictly questions at all. 

e.g. She asked me whether I had seen her father. 

not put a point of interrogation after exclamations which are in an interrogative form. e.g. How could she have been so rude! 

The Mark of Exclamation :

The mark of exclamation is placed after expressions of an exclamatory nature which may be one of surprise or of fear, or the utterance of a wish, a command, or a prayer. 

Place the mark of exclamation after sentences which, though interrogatory in form, are really exclamatory.

e.g. How many more! What a disordered state you are in !

Inverted Commas:

When we quote the exact words of another person, they are enclosed within inverted commas.

e.g. “Go on, Rajeev,” said Sanjay. 

“How do you feel, old man?” she enquired. 

“Never mind, Sunita,” Sudheer teased. “Your turn will come.”

[Please note how the punctuation marks other than the inverted commas have been used in the above sentences.] 

Use single inverted commas for the quotation which occurs in another quotation.

Enclose the titles of books, of essays, and of other compositions within inverted commas. 

e.g. Rowling’s ‘Harry potter and the Deathly Hallows’

The Apostrophe :

The apostrophe is used to indicate an omitted letter or letters in contracted forms of words, as in “can’t” and “don’t”.

use to indicate an omission of letter or letters in contracted forms of wors, as in “can’t, ‘I, he’, ‘don’t’. 

to form plural of letters and figures eg. cross your t’s. delete all I’s.

In the possessive case.

eg: Rowling’s book mother’s love.

CAPITAL LETTERS

Capital letters are used:

(i) To begin sentences.

(ii) To begin each line of poetry (usually).

(iii) To begin all proper names and adjectives derived from. 

(iv) To begin all nouns and pronouns which refer to God. them.

(v) To write the pronoun ‘I’ and the interjection.

(vi) For personified things or concepts. 

(vii) To begin the first word of a quotation. ‘O’.

(viii) For names of months, days, public institutions, papers and journals, important words in a headline, etc.

(ix) For single letter standing for words as titles, initials and certair abbreviations.

Exercise

Punctuate the following sentences : 

(i) oh all right I said come along for a ride.

Ans: 

(ii) That is no business of mine the police chief answered good-bye I am busy.

(iii) do you pray to the almighty he asked me.

(iv) What did they say to you my boy ?

(v) Why are you crying ram said to me.

(vi) no i cant tell anyone about it or i must die said her husband.

(vii) Dr. Livingstone i presume yes said he with a kind smile lifting his cap slightly

(viii) the king is dead he announced.

(ix) may I come in sir he said. 

(x) can you feed me I asked.

(xi) can you come tomorrow I said to her.

(xii) do you know me robin asked her.

(xiii) you must work hard i said.

(xiv) shall we meet on monday she said.

(xv) will you return on monday he asked.

(xvi) can you return the novel by tomorrow i asked.

(xvii) is this the same boy who was present in the meeting yesterday.

(xviii) don’t be stubborn he said to. 

(xix) who do you think he is.

(xx) i will leave for bombay the day after tomorrow.

(xxi) the teacher congratulated us on our success. 

(xxii) she advised me not to go these but did not listen.

(xxiii) don’t you dare to mes with me he threatened

(xxiv) ram raju and rajiv are good friends.

(xxv) to err is human to forgive divine.

Ans: (i) “Oh! All right”, I said, “come along for a ride”.

(ii) “That is no business of mine,” the police chief answered, “Good bye! I am busy”. 

(iii) “Do you pray to The Almighty ?” he asked me.

(iv) What did they say to you, my boy ?  

(v) “Why are you crying?” Ram said to me.

(vi) “No, I can’t tell anyone about it, or

I must die,” said her husband.

(vii) “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.” “Yes”, said he,  with a kind smile lifting his cap slightly.

(viii) “The king is dead,” he announced.

(ix) “May I come in, Sir ?” he said.

(x) “Can you feed me ?” I asked. 

(xi) “Can you come tomorrow ?” I said to her.

(xii) “Do you know me ?” Robin asked her.

(xiii) “You must work hard,” I said.

(xiv) “Shall we meet on Monday ?” she said. 

(xv) “Will you return on Monday ?” he asked.

(xvi) “Can you return the novel by tomorrow ?” I asked.

(xvii) Is this the same boy, who was present in the meeting yesterday ?

(xviii) “Don’t be stubborn ?” he said to me.

(xix) Who, do you think, he is ?

(xx) I will leave for Bombay, the day after tomorrow.

(xxi) The teacher congratulated us on our success. 

(xxii) She advised me not to go there, but I did not listen. 

(xxiii) “Don’t you dare to mess with me,” he threatened.

(xxiv) Ram, Raju and Rajiv are good friends. 

(xxv) To err is human; to forgive divine.

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