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Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society
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Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q. no 1. What type of relationship prevails between individual and society?
Ans : Dialectical relationship
Q. no 2. Whether Social Structure is static ?
Ans : No. Social Structure is not static
Q. no 3. What are the two different ways to understand social process?
Ans : There are two different perspective of social process. These are :-
(i) Functionalist perspective and
(ii) Conflict perspective.
Q. no 4. Who is the prominent supporter of functionalist perspective.
Ans : Emile Durkheim .
Q. no 5. Who is the prominent philosopher of Conflict perspective ?
Ans : Karl Marx
Q. no 6. What is altruism?
Ans : A ltruism is the principle of acting to benefit others without any selfishness or self interest.
Q. no 7. According to Durkheim which is the moral fore of society ?
Ans : According to durkheim , solidarity is the moral force of society.
Q. no 8. What is conflict ?
Ans : The term conflict implies clash of interest. It is a dissociation social process.
Q. no 9. What are the Causes of Conflict?
Ans : According to the conflict theorists scarcity of resources in society produces conflict .
Q. no 10. Do you believe that conflicts in society are new ?
Ans : No. conflicts in society are not new. Conflicts have always been part of any society.
(b) Short and Long Answers :
Q. no 1. Can you write a central perspective of sociological study?
Ans : To understand the dialectical relationship between individual and society has been a central control concern of sociological study.
Q. no 2. What is Sociological imagination?
Ans : Sociological imagination is a concept used by C. Wright Mills -which seeks to us fold the interplay between individual’s biography and society ‘s history.
Q. no 3. What is ‘Social Structure ‘ ?
Ans : The term social structure simply refers to the fact that society is structured – i. e. social environment in which we live don’t just are some underlying regularities in hour people behave and in the relationships they have with are another. Social structure refers to these regularities.
Q. no 4. How does social structure inference the activities of an individual ?
Ans : Social structure exerts constrains over the actions of the members of society. As the doors of a room defines the routes of entry and exit, various social structure, like family group, carte etc. Put constraints over the activities of the individual. According to Durkheim, social structure constraints the activities of the individuals in society by setting limits to what one can do as an individual. Karl Marx though emphasized art the constraints of social structure, at the same time stressed on human creativity to reproduce and change social structure.
Q. no 5 . What is social stratification ?
Ans : Social Stratification refers to the division of society into unequal strata or layer. It implies existence of structured in equalities between groups in society – which tends to persist across generations.
Q. no 6. What are the bases of social stratification?
Ans : In modern society class is the most important basis of social stratification. Caste, race gender are also some bores of stratification.
Q. no 7. What are the advantages enjoyed by the Privilege groups ?
Ans : There are there basic forms of advantages which privilege groups enjoy. There are
(a) Life Chances :- Life chances includes all. Those material advantage which improve the quality of life of the recipient – which may include wealth , health, job security and recreation .
(b) Social Status :- prestige or high standing in the eyes of other members of the society.
(c) Political influence :- The ability of one group to dominate others, to influence the decision making process etc.
Q. no 8. What is social process?
Ans : A social process is an interaction that takes place within a social environment. It is repetitive interaction patterns of behaviour which are commonly found in social life.
Q. no 9. What is the functionalist perspective of social process ?
Ans : Functionalists pressure that human beings have to co – operation to meet their basic needs. The functionalist perspective is mainly concerned with the system requirements of society i. e. contain functional imperatives functionalist perspective rests upon the assumption that different organs of society have a function or role to play for the broader functioning of the whole society.
Q. no 10. What are the main forms of social process?
Ans : We see social process mainly through the following 3 forms –
(ii) Co – Operation . and
Q. no 11. What is the conflict perspective of Social process?
Ans : The conflict perspective emphasis that groups and individuals and placed differently and unequally within the system. In societies divided by caste, class or patriarchy, some groups are disadvantaged and discriminated against. The Conflict perspective believes that the dominant group sustain this unequal order by series of cultural norms, coercion or even violence.
Q. no 12. What are the functions performed by a system in order to keep it alive and prevent destruction.
Ans : System in order to keep it alive and prevent destruction normally performed 3 types of functions. There are –
(i) socialization of new members.
(ii) A shared system of communication, and
(iii) Methods of arraigning individuals to roles.
Q. no 13. What is Co -operation?
Ans : It is a social process by which individuals interact among themselves and work together. It is an associative social process.
Q. no 14. What is Competition?
Ans : It is the struggle that takes place when people try to maximise their own rewards at the expense of others. Competition is striving of two or more persons for the same goal.
Q. no 15. What is voluntary Co -operation and what is enforced Co -operation ?
Ans : Sometimes Co -operation is ensured through use of force. When force is used to ensure Co -Operation? it is known as enforced Co – operation. But when people comes forward voluntarily to Co – operate with one another it becomes voluntary Co -operation.
Q. no 16. What is accommodation?
Ans : The relationship between Co -operations and conflict is very complex. In some cases conflicts are not expressed openly and the impression remains that there is no conflict but Co -operation only. The functionalists use the term accommodation to explain such a situation. Thus accommodation is a process of compromise and Co -exists despite conflict.
Q. no 17. Explain a situation where Co -operative behaviour is found as a result of deep conflicts in society?
Ans : Such situations can be observed in the issue of women ‘s right to property is their natal family. Various sociological studies have shown that the women actually don’t claims share of natal property, because of the feeling that this would sour relations with their brothers and as a result they would no longer be welcome in their natal homes. By not claiming property rights in their natal homes, women prefer to compromise and coexist with their natal family, which can be seen as a product of deep conflicts in society.
Q. no 18. What is division of labour?
Ans : Division of labour simply means specialisation of work tasks, by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system.
Q. no 19. What is mechanical Solidarity ?
Ans : Mechanical solidarity is the form of cohesion that is based fundamentally an sameness. Most of the members of such societies live very similar lives, with little specialisation or division of labour which is associated with age and sex. Members feel bonded together essentially by their shared beliefs and sentiments. Mechanical solidarity is characterized by traditional pre – industrial society.
Q. no 20. What is Organic Solidarity ?
Ans : Organic solidarity is that form of social cohesion which is based on division of labour and the resulting interdependence of member of society. As people become more specialized , they also become more dependent upon each other. Organic solidarity is found in modern industrialized society.
|Chapter 1||Sociology And Society|
|Chapter 2||Terms, Concepts And Their Use In Sociology|
|Chapter 3||Understanding Social Institutions|
|Chapter 4||Culture And Socialisation|
|Chapter 5||Doing Sociology: Methods And Techniques|
|Chapter 6||Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society|
|Chapter 7||Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society|
|Chapter 8||Environment And Society|
|Chapter 9||Introducing Western Social Thinkers|
|Chapter 10||Indian Sociologists|
Q. no 21. How division of labour enhances Co – operation?
Ans : Division of labour mainly takes Place on the basis of specialisation of work tasks by virtue of technical knowledge, efficiency competence etc. As people become more specialized they also become more dependent upon each other. A family engaged in subsistence farming may survive with little of no help from similar others. But specialized workers of a can manufacturing company cannot survive without a host of other specialized labour enhancing Co -operation.
Q. no 22. What type of Co -operation we found in a class society ?
Ans : According to Marx in a class society Co – operation is not voluntary. We found enforced Co – operation is a class society .
Q. no 23. What is alienation ?
Ans : Marx used the term alienation to refer to the loss of control as the part of workers over the nature of the labour task as well as over the products of their labour. (See the main book, page 19)
Q. no 24. What is the relation between competition and Capitalism ?
Ans : Sociologists like Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx behaved that with the growth of individualism competition also grew. Both these concepts are attributed to the growth of capitalism . Actually the ideology of competition is the dominant ideology in capitalism. Competition ensures that only efficient firms survive , Students with higher marks get the best job. The exceptionally rapid development of the American Economy may be attributed to the greater scope of competition in the U. S. Thus, there exists a very close relation between competition and capitalism.
Q. no 25 . Mention two advantages and disadvantages of Competition ?
Ans : Advantage :-
(i) Competition increases efficiency.
(ii) In the economic field? Competition ensures maximum output at minimum cost.
(iii) Competition is the key to development. Exceptionally rapid economic development of U. S. A. And Japan is mainly due to the competitive educational and social system of both their countries.
(i) The ideology of competition assumes that the individual competes on equal basis. But is a stratified society where individuals are placed differently the necessary environment for competition does not arise.
(ii) Competition increases inequality.
Q. no 26. What are the underlying assumptions of Capitation?
Ans : The underlying assumptions of capitation are –
(i) Expansion of trade.
(ii) Division of labour.
(iii) Specialization and .
(iv) Rising productivity.
Q. no 27. Can you find illustrative examples of Conflict drawn from Indian society? Discuss the causes that Id to conflict in each instance.
Ans : In Indian society, traditionally the family were seen as harmonious units – where Co -operation was the dominant process and altruism was the diving principle of human behaviour. But the last three decided have seen a great deal of questioning of this assumption by feminists . Sociologist have seen that is Indian family. (Particularly in North India) mothers are biased towards sons, and they little bit neglect their girl child. This can be seen as an women ‘s response to patriarchal risk.
In this case gender has been a cause of Conflict. In India. Conflicts on the basic of land and caste are not new.
Q. no 28. How Conflicts get resolved?
Ans : Conflicts be resolved through reformation process. In the feudal system tillers were exploited by the feudal lords. But after the Bhoodan – gramdan movement is India, unequal distribution of land was reduced.
Social norms, values, custom and traditions can minimize conflict. In the present day teacher – student conflict, parents – children conflicts occur mainly due to erosion of social norms and values, custom and tradition etc .
Q. no 29. What is maternal altruism ?
Ans : The sociological have found that the mothers of the North Indian plain, in their material interests generally show son preference. order to win their some as allies and as insurance against uncertain 4 future, the women of the Northern Indian plain show business towards Sons – which can be seen as women ‘s response to patriarchal risks. This behaviour is knows as internal altruism.
Q. no 30. What do you mean by conflict? What are its type?
Ans : Conflict is the opposite of co -operation. It is a dissociative social process. Conflict is one of the forms of struggle between individuals or groups. According to A. W. Green conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another or others.
There are two forms or types of conflict –
(i) Latent and overt conflict.
(ii) Corporate and personal conflict.
Q. no 31. Mention the positive and Negative aspect of conflict.
Ans : Conflict has both positive and negative side
The positive side of conflict are –
(i) Conflict leads to progress and development.
(ii) Conflict leads to new consensus.
(iii) Conflict leads to change.
(iv) Conflict leads to solidarity of the in -group.
(v) Conflict redefines value systems.
The negative side of competition are –
(i) Conflict leads to the disruption of social unity.
(ii) Conflict creates social disorder, chaos and confusion.
(iii) Conflict destroys lives of people and property.
(iv) Conflict leads to violence and spoils peace.
(v) Conflict damages the morality and value system.
Q. no 32. Mention five difference between competition and conflict.
Ans : The differences between competition and conflict are –
(i) Conflict is dissociative social process, competition is associative social process.
(ii) Conflict disregards social norms and values, but competition respects social norms and values.
(iii) Conflict is basically personal but competition is mostly Impersonal.
(iv) Conflict is always conscious activity but competition may be conscious or unconscious.
(v) Conflict is not continuous process but competition is continuous process.
Q. no 33. Mention the difference between co -operation and conflict.
Ans : (i) Co -operation is associative social process whereas conflict is dissociative social process.
(ii) Co – operation is continuous process but conflict is not continuous process.
(iii) Co -operation seeks to share rewards but conflict seeks to monopolise reward.
Q. no 34. Write the meaning of social class and ‘Caste ‘. Describe the difference between caste and class.
Ans : Social Class :- Social class refers to a status group. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff “A social class is the aggregate of persons having essentially the same social status in a given society”. Thus, social class refers to a group of people who possess particular social status or position which is based mainly on economic conditions.
Caste :- It is a social grouping based on birth. It may be defined as a particular group or community purely based on heredity. Both caste and class are two forms of social stratification. But there are differences between caste and class. They are described below :
(i) The class system is universal. It exists in all the modern societies.
(ii) Class refers to achieved status. Class status has to be achieved by personal effort.
(iii) Class is an open system. Social mobility is permitted in between and among classes .
(iv) Class system is secular. It is not backed by religion.
(v) There is no system of untouchability within the class system.
(i) Caste is particular. It is a peculiar characteristic of only Indian society.
(ii) Caste is ascribed status. Caste of an individual is ascribed by birth.
(iii) Caste is an close system. Social mobility is not permitted within the caste system.
(iv) Caste system is based on divine origin. It is closely linked with Hindu society.
(v) There is untouchability within the caste system.
Q. no 35. Give definitions of social stratification. Discuss various types of social stratification with suitable example.
Ans : Social stratification refers to the division of society into unequal strata or layer. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff , social stratification is a process by which individuals and groups are ranked in a more or less enduring hierarchy of status. Thus social stratification means hierarchical divisions of society into various groups and classes.
Social stratification system can be divided into two types –
(i) Open system.
(ii) Closed system.
(i) Open system :- In the open system of social stratification, the boundaries between the strata or layer are relatively more flexible. Status can be changed. An individual can achieve a higher status on the basis of ability, effort and merit. In open system of stratification upward or downward movement of status takes place. Class system is an example of open social stratification. An individual can move up to upper class from middle class.
(ii) Close system :- In the close system of social stratification, the boundaries between the strata are rigid. The position of an individual in the society is determined by birth. An individual cannot change his social status .
For example caste system in India. An individual cannot changed his caste.
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