Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals

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Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals and select need one.

Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…

Additional Questions and Answers

Q.1. What are metals ? 

Ans :- Metals are the elements which can easily form positive ions by losing electrons. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. reflect light and have lustre. 

Q.2. What are non-metals ? 

Ans :- Materials which are soft and dull in appearance, break down into powdery mass on tapping with hammer, are not sonorous and are poor conductors of heat and electricity are called non-metals. e.g. sulphur, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus etc. 

Q.3. Write two soft metals. 

Ans :- Sodium and Potassium. 

Q.4. Write the name of liquid metal. 

Ans :- Mercury. 

Q.5. What is metallic lustre ?

Ans :- Metals, in their pure state, have a shining surface. This property is called metallic lustre. 

Q.6. What is malleability ? Give two names of malleable metals ? 

Ans :- Some metals can be beaten into thin sheets. This property is called malleability. Gold and silver are two malleable metals. 

Q.7. What is ductility ? Give example. 

Ans :- The ability of metals to be drawn into thin wires is called ductility. Gold is the most ductile metal. 

Q.8. Write the name of two metals which are best conductor of heat ? 

Ans :- Silver and copper. 

Q.9. What is full name of PVC ? 

Ans :- Poly vinyl chloride. 

Q.10. What do you mean by Sonorous ? 

Ans :- The metals that produce a sound on striking a hard surface are said to be sonorous. 

Q.11. What is the name of liquid non-metals ? 

Ans :- Bromine. 

Q.12. Which metals have very low melting point ? 

Ans :- Gallium and calcium. 

Q.13. Which non-metal is lustrous ? 

Ans :- Lodine. 

Q.14. Write the name of two allotrope of carbon : 

Ans :- Diamond and Graphite.

Q.15. Write the name of three alkali metals. 

Ans :- Lithium, Sodium and Potassium. 

Q.16. Non-metals do not conduct heat and electricity except one. Name the non metal. 

Ans :- Carbon as graphite conduct heat and electricity. 

Q.17. What happens when you hammer a metal and a non metal ? 

Ans :- When you hammer a metal, it is converted into sheets. When you hammer a non-metal, it breaks away easily. 

Q.18. Name some metalloids. 

Ans :- Arsenic, antimony, silicon and germanium. 

Q.19. Arrange the following metals in the order of their l decreasing chemical activity. Magnesium, Potassium, iron, gold. 

Ans :- Potassium > magnesium > iron > gold. 

Q.20. Why do some metals replace the other metals from their solution ? 

Ans :- Because of the difference in the reactivity, some metals replace the less reactive metals. More reactive metal replaces the less reactive metal from its solution. 

Q.21. Write the name of three metals which do not react either gushu with cold or hot water but react with steam. 

Ans :- Aluminium, iron and zinc. 

Q.22. Give the name of four metals which do not react with water at all stages. 

Ans :- Lead, copper, silver and gold. 

Q.23. Fill in the blanks : 

(i) Metals react with acids to give a ———- and———.

(ii) Almost all metals Combine with ———- to from metal oxides. 

(iii) ——— is a liquid non-metal. 

(iv) Calcium is ———– reactive metal than sodium. 

(v) Most of the meals have ———– melting points. 

(vi) Metal oxides are ———-  in nature. 

(vii) Metals usually occur in ————— state. 

(viii) Iodine is a non-metal but it is ————

(ix) Non-metal oxides are ———– in nature. 

(x) Rust is a mixture of ———– and ———– 

Ans :- (i) Salt, hydrogen gas. 

          (ii) Oxygen. 

          (iii) Bromine. 

          (iv) less. 

          (v) high. 

          (vi) basic .

          (vii) combined. 

          (viii) lustrous.

          (ix) acidic.

          (x) ferric hydroxide, ferric oxide. 

Q.24. Differentiate between roasting and calcination. 

Ans :-   

1. The ore is heated in absence of air.1. The ore is heated in the presence of air.
2. It is used for carbonate ores.2. It is sued for sulphide ores. 

Q.25. Explain the term gangue. 

Ans :- Ores are associated with earthy or rocky materials as impurities. These impurities are called gangue. 

Q.26. Explain the terms : 

(a) Anodising.

(b) Aqua regia.

Ans :- (a) Anodising is a process of forming a thick oxide layer of aluminium. During anodising, a clean aluminium article is made the anode and is electrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid. The oxygen liberate at the anode reacts with aluminium to produce a thick protective oxide layer on its surface. Also the oxide layer can be dyed easily to give an attractive finish to the aluminium articles. 

(b) Aqua regia is a freshly prepared mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated nitric acid in the ratio 3:1. It is also called royal water. It is highly corrosive and faming liquid. It can dissolve noble metals like gold and platinum. 

Q.27. Write the electronic configuration of the following : 

Helium, Sodium, Calcium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur, Neon, Argan Chlorine, Aluminium. 

Ans :-

ElementAtomic numberNumber of electrons in shells  
K       L       M       N
Helium (He)2  2       —      —      —
Sodium (Na)11  2        8        1      —
Calcium (Ca)20  2        8        8      2
Nitrogen (N)7  2        5       —     —
Oxygen (O)8  2        6       —     —
Sulphur (s)16  2        8        6      —
Neon (Ne)10  2        8       —     —
Argon (Ar)18  2        8        8      —
Chlorine (cl)17  2        8        7      —
Aluminium (Al)13  2        8        3      —

Q.28. What are ionic compounds or electrovalent compounds ? 

Ans :- The compounds formed by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are known as ionic compounds or electrovalent Cpunodunds.

Q.29. Give the examples of two ionic compound. 

Ans :- Sodium chloride (Nacl) and Calcium oxide (CaO)

Q.30. Why ionic compounds are solid ? 

Ans :- Ionic compounds are solid and some what hard because of the strong force of attraction between the positive and negative ions. 

Q.31. Why ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points ? 

Ans :- This is because a considerable amount of energy is required to break the strong interionic attraction. 

Q.32. Which one is the one attraction of mercury ? 

Ans :- Cinnabar (HgS) 

Q.33. Define the terms roasting and calcination. 

Ans :- Roasting :- The sulphide ores are converted into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air. This process is known as roasting. 

Calcination :- The carbonate ores are changed into oxides by heating strongly in limited air. This process is known as calcination. 

Q.34. Write the chemical reaction that takes place during roasting and calcination of zinc ores. 

Ans :-      

Q.35. What is cinnabar ? 

Ans :- Cinnabar is an ore of mercury. 

Q.36. What is Galvanisation ? 

Ans :- Galvanisation is a method of protecting steel and iron from rusting by coating them with a thin layer of zinc. 

Q.37. Give some differences with examples between metals and nonmetals with reference to their physical properties. Give one exception in each case. 

Ans :- (i) Metallic Lustre :- Metals have a shining surface called metallic lustre. Non-metals have dull appearance. Metals like silver, gold have shining appearance. Non-metal like sulphur has dull appearance. 

Exception :- Carbon as diamond is a non-metal but has a most a shining look, Iodine is another non-metal which gives shining crystals. 

(2) Malleability :- Metals are malleable. They can be beaten into sheets. But non-metals can not be beaten into sheets. They break into proces when hammered. They are not malleable. Metals like gold, aluminium, copper etc. form sheets when hammered. 

Exception :- Mercury is a metal. It breaks into pieces when hammered. 

(3) Ductility :- Metals are ductile. They can be drawn into wires. Non-metals cannot be drawn into wires. 

Exception :- Mercury is a metal but not ductile. 

(4) Conductivity :- Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity while non-metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity. 

Exception :- Graphite is a non-metal but is a good conductors of heat and electricity. 

Q.38. Write true or false : 

(i) Sodium is more reactive than magnesium. 

Ans :- True.

(ii) Magnesium react with cold water.

Ans :- False.

(iii) All metals exist in solid form at room temperature.

Ans :- False.

(iv) Gallium has a low melting point. 

Ans :- 

(v) Gold is alloyed with copper to make it hand.

Ans :- True.

Q.39. Silver does not combine easily with oxygen but silver jewellery tarnishes after sometime. Why ?

Ans :- Silver does not combine with oxygen easily but jewellery exposed to atmosphere tarnishes black after some time because it reacts with gases like hydrogen sulphide in air to form silver sulphide which is black.

Q.40. Define the terms : 

(i) Thermal conductivity.

(ii) Electrical conductivity.

Ans :- (i) Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct heat from the hot end to the cold end. Silver is the best conductor of heat. So it has the highest thermal conductivity. 

(ii) Electrical conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct electricity. A material which allows electric current to pass through it with minimum loss is called a good conductor of electricity. Siver is the best electric conductor followed by copper, gold and aluminium. 

Q.41. Which of the following can be beaten into thin sheets ? 

(a) Zinc.

(b) Phosphorus.

(c) Sulphur.

(d) oxygen.

Ans :- (a) Zinc.

Q.42. Which of the following statements is correct ? 

(a) All metals are ductile. 

(b) All non-metals are ductile.

(c) Generally metals are ductile.

(d) Some non-metals are ductile.

Ans :- (c) Generally metals are ductile. 

Q.43. What happens when iron nails are placed in copper sulphate solution ? 

Ans :- Brown coating is deposited on the iron nails. This is because of the displacement of copper from copper sulphate solution by iron. Iron + Copper sulphate (solution) → Iron sulphate (solution) + Copper.

Q.44. Why hydrogen gas is not evolved when a metal reacts with nitric acid ? 

Ans :- It is because nitric acid is a strong oxidising agent. It oxidises the H₂ produced to water and itself gets reduced to any of the nitrogen oxides. 

Q.45. Why are ionic compounds generally solids ? 

Ans :- They are solids due to strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions resulting in the formation of ionic lattice.

Q.46. How is an ore different from a mineral ? 

Ans :- The metals found in nature in combined state are called minerals. If some minerals contain a very high percentage of a particular metal and the metals can be profitably and economically extracted, there it is called ore. 

Q.47. Distinguish between alloy and amalgam. 

Ans :- An alloy is a homogeneous solid solution of a metal with other metals or non-metals, with essentially metallic properties. 

An amalgam is an alloy of a metal with the mercury. 

Q.48. Name two important alloys of aluminium. 

Ans :- (i) Magnalium.

          (ii) Duralumin. 

Q.49. Write the name given to the alloy of iron, chromium and nickel. 

Ans :- Stainless steel. 

Q.50. Which of the following is not metallic ? 

(i) Brass. 

(ii) Neon. 

(iii) Lead.

(iv) Calcium.

Ans :- (ii) Neon.

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