Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Essay type Questions :

Q 1. Meantion the factors responsible for the growth of colonialism.

Ans : One of the main features of early modern period was colonialism. Colonialism the socio- political system by which the weak countries were conquered by the powerful countries leading to the former’s total exploitation. Several factors were responsible for the rise and growth of colonialism during the 15th to 17th centuries: 

(i) Fall of  Constantinople : With the fall of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 , the European Countries made considerable upliftment in the commercial relations with the countries of the Middle East and the Far East via the sea routes of the Black sea and the and the Mediterranean sea.

The fall of Constantinople had far reaching consequences in the subsequent emergence of colonialism.

(ii) people’s inquisitiveness and curiosity : The people’s inquisitiveness and curiosity was also a factor for the growth of colonialism . The life and society of the European people were greatly affected by the fall of Constantinople. People started to see things with a new perspective and started questioning the existing social practices and notions about the universe. People wanted to discover new avenues of opportunity along with unknown lands and people.

(iii) Arrival of learned men : The fall of Constantinople was in a way , a blessing in disguise. As a result of the fall of Constantinople in 1453 , many scholars from the Byzantine Empire fled to the Italian cities where they were they were warmly welcomed and entailed by the local rulers. As a result of their arrival , a new spirit of learning emerged all over Italy and later in Europe.  This cane to be known as the ‘ Renaissance’.

(iv) Invention of telescope and mariner’s compass :  The invention of telescope and mariner’s compass is another factor which  led to the growth of colonialism. The invention made sea voyages much more easier than the past , thus facilitating the establishment of colonies at different places.

(v) Desire to spread christianity : Many of  the European countries such as Portugal, Spain, France , Italy, Holland and Britain undertook geographical explorations with the idea of bringing the colonies to the Cristian fold . Europe, during the 13th and the   14th centuries, was full of religious fervour and many countries  sought new colonies with a view to spread the Christian faith.

(vi) Motive to earn  profit : The motive to earn profits  was  one of the main reasons for the growth of colonialism . The expansion of foreign trade and the motive to earn more and more profits helped the European countries in the direction of establishing colonies.

(vii) Better weapons : The discovery of better weapons such as fire – arms and cannons undoubtedly enabled these areas in pitched battles. Better weapons enabled them to defeat local armies and establish new colonies.

(viii) Discovery of medicines : The discovery of life – saving medicines brought a new dimension to the history of medicines by lengthening human life and swapping away deadly diseases . It helped  the colonial countries to explore the interior and inaccessible parts of the colonized countries.

(ix) Industrial Revolution : The process of establishment of colonies with rapid strides was further strengthened due to the Industrial Revolution that occurred in 1760.

Q 2. Mention the factors responsible for the growth of imperialism.

Ans: Imperialism can be considered as an offshoot of colonialism. Imperialism implies the process of conquest of a country by another country with the help of the latter’s military power and thereafter exploiting the former’ s wealth, riches and resources for the enrichment of the dominàting country . Imperialism emerged much of later than colonialism . 

Following factors were responsible for  the emergence of imperialism: Do your Self Refer to Answer of Question No. 1 (Essay type) 

[ Please Note : In the textbook , the factors of  both colonialism and imperialism are given same . So, for this question , students are suggested to take the help of teacher(s) . ]

Q 3. Given a brief history of the geographical discoveries made by Portugal. 

Ans: The Portuguese were the pioneers in the field of geographical discoveries under Prince Henry. The main ami of Prince Henry in the expansion of the territory was to propagate Christianity.

The Portuguese also aimed to search for  gold , ivory, slaves and spices from the occupied countries. The Portuguese first ex panded their territory in the South West Africa by conquering Ceuta in 1415. The  conquest of Ceuta could be considered as the event that inaugurated the era of geographical expirations and discoveries. 

The Portuguese extended their territory by occupying the islands of Madeira, Azores, the Cape Verde and the Guinea coast. Vasco da Gama gave a new dimension in the Expansion of the Portuguese territory by discovering a new sea route to India the cape od Good Hope in 1498. The Portuguese established their rule in India by setting up their commercial center in Cochin in 1500. 

With due permission of Zamorin , the Portuguese established a military post in Cochin in 1503 for  the protection of the Portuguese commercial center. The Portuguese expanded their territory to Malabar coast, Goa, Malacca, and Malay in the Far East in the Indian Ocean . Establishing the Portuguese supremacy firmly over Macau on lease from China. This played a vital role in the trade relations of China with the Western Countries. However, the colonization process of Portugal practically ended with the occupation of Portugal by Emperor Philip II of Spain in 1580.

Sl. No.Contents
Chapter 1Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism
Chapter 2The First World War
Chapter 3The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939
Chapter 4The Second World War
Chapter 5The United Nations Organization
Chapter 6Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period
Chapter 7The Non-Aligned Movement
Chapter 8Foreign policy of India

Q 4. Give a brief history of Spanish colonial empire in Latin America.

Ans : Spain was one of the European countries that took a lot of initiatives in the fields of geographical explorations and discoveries. The Spanish establishment of colonies throughout the world identified them as the first colonial power of the modern world. Several them as the frist colonial power of the sea to discover new lands and places. Amerigo Vespucci of the  Italy was one of them . He discovered Patagonia (Argentina), Brazil, Mexico and many other places in the far south of south America. He renamed this land the ‘new world’. Later, it came to be known as’America,’ after his name.

The supremacy of the Spanish colonial Empire in America lasted for about 400 years. Spain gained huge profits in the from of money and Natural resources by the occupation of Texas, California and Florida. Spain extended her colonial Empire to Chile on the coast line of the south pacific Ocean , Colombia and venezuela on the northern side of South America and to the Spanish colonies established themselves permanently. The township and cities established by Spain were vara Cruz, New Spain , Panama, Lima , Peru, Uruguay and many more.

Q 5. Give a brief history of the rise and growth of the British colonial Empire in empire iñ India.

Ans : The British attempt to establish a colonial empire in India began with the formation of  a trading company named the English East india company on 31 December 1600. The company received a charter from Queen Elizabeth in 1600 allowing them to trade freely in the east. In this attempt , they had to face a lot of opposition from the Dutch and the Portuguese. Thereafter , the English occupied Musalipattanam and Madras (Chennai) in 1611 and 1639 respectively. The East India company got Bombay (Mumbai) in 1661 from king Charles II who received it as a dowry from the Portuguese. 

In 1757, the English East India Company under Robert clive occupied Bengal during the period of the seven years’ war ( 1756- 63). After Three years (1960) of the occupation of Bengal , sir Eyre Coote defeated the  France under Lally in the Daccan in the Battle of Wandiwash. Thus, the British colonial Empire began in India with the victories in these events.

From the very beginning, till 1660 , the English East India company mainly traded in various kind of spices in India which yield them huge profits. But, gradually they concentrated on India – made cheaper cotton clothes which had great demand  among the general masses in England. Within a short period, the demand for India- made calico clothes Increased among the rich and wealthy classes of England. As a result, the  English East India Company also expanded  their business in calico clothes. With the expansion of the trading Activities of the  company in india, the British territorial possessions along with military power, political administrative control and domination also went on Increasing. Within a century, the British brought the whole of India under their absolute control. After  the  great rebellion of 1857-58, the vast Indian Empire [ then comprising present day India , Bangladesh m, pakistan and Burma ( Myanmar) ] came under the possession of the the British Crown. Eventually, the East India Company became the real master of Bengal.

Q 6. Give a brief history of the rise and growth of the British colonial empire in America.

Ans : The British started late in established colonial empire. But , soon they took up the pace and were one of the most powerful  colonial powers of the world . The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 by the British gave them an opportunity in eastablishing their supermacy in America. The occupied several islands like St Kitts, Nevis, Barbados, Bermudas extending from the North Atlantic Ocean to the North of South  America. 

In North America , the British extended their territory to Virginia, plymouth, massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Haven, Connecticut,Rhode Island, eyc. from New England  and established their control and hegemony.

The British gradually occupied maryland, Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Delaware , Georgia, New York and New Jersey. They also extended their colonial possession in Georgie for better political rights and privileges. These English colonial ruled out the supermacy of the French, the Germans, the Irish, the Scottish and the Dutch, thereby uplifting and the English supermacy. The British colonialism in America gave the English huge profits through the Agricultural production like tobacco, rice , indigo and many other agricultural products. This This colonization helped England in the Industrial Revolution. England was able to produce huge quantities of Industrial product and sale them in the market abroad. The colonials,  thus played a  major role in the Industrialization of England. 

Q7.  Why did French fali to establish an empire in India ? Give reason for your answer.

Ans : The European powers had come to India mainly for trading purpose. But, soon they began to dream of political domination of India to boost their trade and commerce. This resulted in an acute power struggle for political supermacy and territorial expansion between the two dominant power of that time, the English and the French. French failed to establish an empire in India due to the following reasons :

(i) friends continental pre -occupation : The continental ambition of France during the 18th century considerably strained  her resources. France cared more for a few hundred  square miles  of territory in Europe than large chunk of India territories. On the other hand, England was adamant about her colonial interests .

(ii) internal religious conflicts and wars : As France was facing internal religious conflicts and involved in Constitutional wars, it  made impossible for France to spread colonial power in different countries including India.

(iii) Difference in the organizations of companies: The French company was managed solely as a Department of the state and so it fortune wear much  affected by the political chaos which then  existed in the country . The  France merchants could not do anything without the permission of their government. 

(iv)  Role of the navy : The naval England placed  France at a disadvantageous position. The superior Naval Force enabled the English East India company  to  keep her communication with you Robin supply the necessary reinforcement and block  French riforcement from Europe or from her   colonies.

(v) Impact of English success in Bengal : The English  conquest of Bangal in 1757 Was undoubtedly of great significance  . Besides enhancing the political prestige of the English company, it place at its disposal vast resources . According to Marriott , “Dupleix made a great blunder in looking for the key of India in Madras, Clive sought and found it in Bangal. “

(vi) Superior leadership :  The Superiorpolitical leadership and military dealership dealership of  the English stood in striking contrast to the French. Perhaps, French generals  Dupleixand Bussy were in no way inferior to Robert, Clive Lawrence and Sunders. However, Dupleix and Bussy could not do everything. They had to depend on their subordinate, who were incapable and inefficient.

(vii) Responsibility of Dupleix : Dupleix, not withstanding  his political brilliance , cannot escape the responsibility of damagin the position of the France in India. Dupleix on the whole was more interested in obtaining some political mileage than trade benefits. He showed comparative indifferent towards the trading and financial activities of the French Company, even otherwise not sound , soon began to decline.

(viii) Better trade centres: The English were  very fortunate to have better trade centers in India. They   had some of  the  best commercial Center and ports of india under their control. Bombay, Madras and Calcutta were no match for Pondicherry, Mahe and Chandranagar . Consequently, their trade was much better than French from the Indian soil.

(ix) Better financial position of the East India Company : The English East India Company was much better off fincially than its counterpart. This alone prove to be one of the chief causes for their victory against the France during the Aglno -France rivalry in the carnatic.

(x) Pitt’s policy : Last but not the least, the policy of pitt the War minster proved  to be a great boon to the English East Indian company. He fully supported  their ventures in India and encouraged the company in the pursuit of Economic and political gains.

Q 8. How did the United States of America emerge as a colonial power in central and Latin American ? 

Ans : after the Independence from the British colonialism  in 1783, the United States of America gradually emerged as one of the biggest political and military power in the world. It started establishing its colonies by taking territorial possessions in North America .It purchased Lauisiana, Florida and Alaska from French, Spain and Russia respectively . 

It also claimed oregon from the British dominion. It also  took  over Taxes and Mexico into the American  dominon.The Declaration of the then president  of the United States of America, James Monroe(1817- 1825), prohibited the intervention of any European countries  in the internal affairs of the country. This declaration helped the United States to extend the  sphere of her influence over the countries of Latin America.

The United States of America had invested huge amount of  capital in various projects American financial insterests , she crushed a popular rebellion there in 1910- 1911, started by the people of Mexico under Francisco Madero and continued her domination for several years. Mexico was turned into a  a virtual protectorate of the United States of America. The poor economic condition and the backwardness of the countries of the central and South America made it easy the United states of America to establish its supermacy in these places. 

All this developments, Made the United States of  America one of the most powerful Nation of the world. The United States of America became the powerhouse of the world through its money power . Through millions of dollars of investment in the countries abroad, the United States of America established her political hegemony over the countries of Center and South America as well as other countries of the world.

Q 9. Discuss briefly the history of the rise of USA as a big colonial power in the Far East ? 

Ans : After the Independence from the British Colonialism in 1783,  the United States of America gradually emerged as one of the biggest political and military power in the world. It started establishing its colonies by  taking territorial possessions in North America. The United States of America, after establishing its colonies by taking territorial possessions in North America. The United States of America after establishing its supermacy  fully in both South America and North America,  focused  its attention in the FAR East. They focused on China because it was the focal point of  the East.

Eyeing the scope of a Japanese invasions in China, the United States of America advocate an Open Door Policy’ regarding trade and commerce with China had no option but to accept the proposal of the United States of America because  China was in dire strait owing to the threat of external invasions from Japan as well as other countries. In fact, this Open Door policy saved China from being occupied by other foreign powers. This policy helped China to save its National integrity and geographical possession intact. The mutual jealousy among the great colonial powers of the time , like  England , French, Italy, japan and Germany also helped China to maintain its territorial integrity and national security.

The trade relation of America with China played a crucial role in establishing the the supermacy of the United States of America boost her trading with the countries of the Far East.

Q 10. Narrate briefly the effects of imperialism in the World.

Ans : Imperialism implies the process of conquest of a country by another country with the help of the letter’s military power and thereafter exploiting the former’s wealth, of riches and resources for the enrichment of the dominàting country. In other resources for the enrichment of the dominàting country. In other words,  imperialism Refers to state of economic slavery of the colonies to the maximum advantage of the imperialist countries of the world. Imperialism had far reaching consequences. Some of the major effects of imperialism were : 

(i) Colonies lost their real independence :  The imperialist countries such as England, French, America, Germany, japan, etc. Tried to control the political and economic affairs of the colonial to suit their  imperialistic designs. Although many of the colonies had their own  government, yet these government functioned under the command of the imperialist countries. Thus, the colonies lost their freedom and had to follow the dictates of the imperialist powers.

(ii) Economically declined : The taking away of the natural impoverished and poor . The drain of wealth was the notable feature of modern imperialism. Most of the imperialist countries were more interested in looting the wealth of these countries than bringing civilization and development to the Colonies. As as result local Industries began to decline leading to unemployment and poverty in the Colonies. 

(iii) Colonies became mere markets : Most of the imperialist countries turned the Colonies into ideal markets for the the finished goods of their Industries. They did not encourage Industrialization or modernisation of the industries of these countries. The cheep factory made goods were imported to these countries causing a decline of the Industries.

(iv) created marke economy : Imperialism resulted in establishing market economy. The imperial countries causing a dicline of the local Industries.

(v) Created international rivalry : One of the inevitable consequences of imperialism was the rise of international rivalry among the major imperialist powers. The rise of the United States of America as a major power center of the world tilted international balance. The importance of European diclined and world powers shifted to the new world of America. The rising power of America was not favourably looked upon by Russia and japan. The seeds of the First World War were, in fact, laid by Imperialism.

(vi) Created a division of the world : Another significant effect of Imperialism was the creation of two categories of countries namely , the haves and the have- nots ( the rich and the poor ). countries  to control the affairs of the week and poor countries  for their Economic exploitation.  It careated mutual distrust, jealousy, disharmony , revenge , etc. in the world upsetting the existing international balance.

(viii) Encourage freedom movement: A major consequences of Imperialism was that it encourages the rise of freedom movement in the Colonies. The looting of wealth, Economic slavery and political subjugation awakened the people and they began to demand freedom and independence from foreign control. The freedom movement that began in many of the Asian and African countries during the early decades of the 19th century must be seen in this context.

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