Jaishankar Prasad was a famous writer of the 20th century who rose to fame in Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre. Prasad was born on January 30, 1890 in Benares, India. He is considered to be one of the best writers of Hindi literature. He was a poet, playwright, storyteller, novelist and essay writer of Hindi literature. He is one of the four main pillars of the shadowy era of Hindi. The pride of his work in the history of modern Hindi literature remains intact. He was a landmark writer who at the same time wrote a proud work in Hindi literature in the fields of poetry, drama, stories and novels. He was a landmark playwright of a different genre whose plays are still read by readers today, but their economics and theatrical relevance have also increased day by day. Veerendra Narayan, Shanta Gandhi, Satindra Taneja and now Mahesh Anand have made commendable historical contributions in recognizing and establishing their importance from this point of view. In addition, Hindi literature was enriched through stories and novels. He was famous as an important essay writer in line with the Indian perspective and the format of Hindi. He has also artistically inaugurated many glorious aspects of human compassion and Indian psyche through his diverse works.
Biography of Jaishankar Prasad
|Date of Birth||30 January 1889|
|Place of Birth||Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, novelist|
|Death||November 15 , 1937|
Early Life and Education of Jaishankar Prasad
Jaishankar Prasad was born on January 30, 1889 in Benares, Uttar Pradesh. Father Sri Devi Prasad Sugandhi was famous as a tobacco dealer. Jaishankar Prasadji’s father was not a writer, but he respected the artists a lot.
However, the family’s position weakened in the years following the death of Jaishankar Prasad’s father, when Jaishankar was still young. His father Babu Devi Prasad made money by buying and selling tobacco in the business area of Benares in Uttar Pradesh.
After his father’s death, he had read books entirely at home, dominated syntax and writing and moved on to too many languages. It was this language that attracted Jaishankar Prasad, yet he later increased his respect for the Vedas experiment, an attitude reflected in his works which were later written. Jaishankar Prasad has been interested in sonnet’s repetition as well as composing verses from an early age. As a young man and in his later life, he devoted a little of his energy to playing chess and completing the planting work at home.
He completed his schooling in Benares, Uttar Pradesh and then completed his bachelor’s degree at Allahabad University. After teaching for some time he moved to Mumbai and joined the Indian National Theatre. Prasad’s stellar career in literature and theatre lasted for nearly five decades.
Although he had to drop out of school at a very young age due to his family’s economic problems, his love for literature never diminished. Jaishankar Prasad was interested in many languages and their development besides Hindi. However, it was Hindi he had chose when writing his ideas as a poem and novel. He was one of the great writers of his time and the best modern Hindi writer.
He has also written many interesting short stories, with titles ranging from historical to mythological and contemporary and social. One of his short stories titled “Mamta” narrates the story of Mothers love and Mughal Emperor. Another short story is that “the little magician tells the life history of the child who has learnt to make money by performing with small toys on the street.”
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Jaishankar Prasad’s career
He has written his first verse in the Braj language, yet long ago he changed his composition language to Sanskrit. He started writing plays in Sanskrit, but later he started writing in Bengali just like the Persian dialect. Chandragupta, Sakandagupta and Dhruvaswamini are a part of the famous show written by him.
He is a renowned character in Hindi writing and Hindi theatre. He was a man who brought the world to life with his extraordinary and heartwarming actions. He embodied craft and logic in his work. He portrayed the essence of old style Hindi verses through his incredible creations. Himadri Tung Shring Se is the nationalist sonnet composed by him. Kamayani is another story written by him which was also his best work.
Jaishankar Prasad’s style of composition
He was keen on the Vedas. Jaishankar Prasad wrote the first classification of sonnet, name ‘Chitradhar’ in Braj Lingo in Hindi, a local language widely used in Uttar Pradesh.
The entire store of sonnets composed by Jaishankar Prasad can best be portrayed as a relationship and enthusiast. He also paid attention to his Sonnet language, yet took a look at their practical essence. It may be recalled that this pro-Hindi writer was a writer and a rationalist. Subsequently, this view was reflected in their sonnet as well. The essence of The Verse of Jaishankar Prasad was dedicated from the heart. “Himadri Tung Shring Se” is the most famous dedicated sonnet written by Jaishankar Prasad for the length of his profession. It was written before India gained independence from the British, and was effective in spreading the name of Jaishankar Prasad among the general public.
Prasad started writing poetry with the pen name of ‘Kaladhar’. The first collection of poem that Jaishankar Prasad penned, named, Chitradhar, was written in Braj dialect of Hindi but his later works were written in Khadi dialect or Sanskritized Hindi.
Later on Prasad promulgated ‘Chhayavad’, a literary trend in Hindi literature. He is considered one of the four pillars (Char Stambh) of Romanticism in Hindi Literature (Chhayavad), along with Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Verma, and Suryakant Tripathi Nirala’.
His vocabulary avoids the Persian element of Hindi and mainly consists of Sanskrit (Tatsama) words and words derived from Sanskrit (Tadbhava words). The subject of his poetry spans the entire horizon of subjects of his era, from romantic to nationalistic.
Dramas and other writings
His dramas are considered to be most pioneering ones in Hindi. Prasad’s most famous dramas include Sakandagupta, Chandragupta, and Dhruvasawamini. The majority of them revolve around historical stories of Ancient India. Some of them were also based on mythological poets.
In 1960s, Shanta Gandhi Professor of Ancient Indian Drama while at National School of Drama, revived interest in Jaishankar Prasad’s plays for modern Indian theatre, by successfully staging his most important play Skanda Gupta written in 1928, with little changes to the original script.
Major works of Jaishankar Prasad
Some major works of Jaishankar Prasad are as follows:
‘Kanan Kusum (The Forest Flower)’, ‘The Maharana’s greatness’, ‘Jharna (The waterfall)’, ‘Ansu (The tear)’, ‘Lahar (The wave)’, ‘Prem pathik (The Love Wanderer)’, ‘Aatmkathya (Autobiography).’
‘Ek Ghoont (A sip)’, ‘Skandagupta’, ‘Chandragupta’, ‘Dhruvaswami’,’ Rajyashri’, ‘Ajatashatru’, ‘Janmejay ka Naag-Yagy.’
‘Andhi’, ‘Pratidhvani (The Echo)’, ‘Akashdeep’, ‘Indrajal’, ‘Sandesh’, ‘Daasi’, ‘Chitra Mandir.’
The kamayani of Jaishankar Prasad
Kamayani is a great and popular poem written by him. Kamayani is one of his best poetry collections in Hindi. Lusty poetry lovers still love it today. This poem written by him in combination with knowledge, necessity and action is the basic element of human life. The poem narrates the history, cultural evolution and the myth of the great floods that have taken place through characters like Manu, Ida and Shraddha. When Kamayani was published in 1935, it received a lot of popularity and critical acclaim from the public.
Jaishankar Prasad’s Death
Jaishankar Prasad died on January 14, 1937 at the age of 47. After his death, Shanta Gandhi, a 1960s professor of ancient Indian drama at the National School of Drama in New Delhi, took the initiative to stage several plays of Jaishankar Prasad for modern Indian theatre.
Shanta Gandhi observed that not much was changed in the original writings of Jaishankar Prasad so that the modern generation could get a taste of the original Jaishankar Prasad works. Jaishankar Prasad was not just a great writer; He also made his mark as a historian and philosopher.
1. Who was Jaishankar Prasad?
Ans: He was a great Indian poet, novelist and playwright, born in Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2. What is the most famous work of Jaishankar Prasad?
Ans: Kamayani is a great and popular poem written by him. Kamayani is one of his best poetry collections in Hindi.
3. What is the title of Jaishankar Prasad?
Ans: His title is Prasad.
4. When and where was Jaishankar Prasad born?
Ans: Jaishankar Prasad was born on January 30, 1889 in Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India.
5. When did Jaishankar Prasad died?
Ans: Jaishankar Prasad died on January 14, 1937 at the age of 47.
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